US 3722123 A
A system for feeding and firing ammunition of the variety having no casing. Sealing of the firing chamber is accomplished by providing a reciprocating bolt assembly having a bolt projection which is telescopingly received in the barrel bore. The projection picks up and seats the projectile in the firing chamber. The propellant charge may be secured to the projectile, or may be separately loaded in the bolt mechanism. In the latter case, a fluid passage extends from the propellant chamber through the bolt projection to the projectile chamber.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 11 1" Parisi Mar. 27, 1973 CASELESS AMMUNITION FIRING SYSTEM  Inventor: Fred G. Parisi, Northford, Conn.
 Assignee: Olin Corporation, New Haven,
 Filed: Aug. 25, 1971  Appl. N0.: 174,706
2/1972 Junker ..42/17 3,483,793 12/1969 Ramsay ..42/16 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 712,086 10/1941 Germany ..42/l6 Primary Examiner-Benjamin A. Borchelt Assistant ExaminerC. T. Jordan Altomey-Donald R. Motsko et a1.
[ 1 ABSTRACT A system for feeding and firing ammunition of the variety having no'casing. Sealing of the firing chamber is accomplished by providing a reciprocating bolt a ssembly having a bolt projection which is telescopingly received in the barrel bore. The projection picks up and seats the projectile in the firing chamber. The propellant charge may be secured to the projectile, or may be separately loaded in the bolt mechanism. In thelatter case, a fluid passage extends from the propellant chamber through the bolt projection to the projectile chamber.
2 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures PATENTEDHARZY ma sum-:11 0F 2 FRED G PAP/SI INVENTOR ATTOR N EY PATENTEDMARZTIQH SHEET 2 BF 2 Q Y /R Mm PN W m aw w m A R CASELESS AMMUNITION FIRING SYSTEM may include only a projectile and a propellant charge tional firearmsprimarily with respect to the sealing of i combustion gases impinging the bolt face. The primary source of combustion gas sealing with conventional cased ammunition is the cartridge case itself. Thus by eliminating the cartridge case, one encounters the problem of sealing the firing chamber. Many solutions have been proposed to effect obturation of the firing chambers. Such solutions include resilient DeBange type pads which flex outwardly when impinged by combustion gases, Belleville washer-type sealing rings, split, radially flexible rings, and other types of gas traps or seals.
This invention concerns a system for firing caseless ammunition, which system includes a reciprocating bolt assembly mounted in a receiver. A barrel member is mounted onthe receiver and includes a counterbored'passage at the rear thereof and opening into the barrel bore per se. The counter-bore forms a firing chamber for the caseless round of ammunition. The
bolt assembly includes a projection front portion of reduced size which is slidable into and out of the barrel counter-bore. The bolt assembly projection is snugly received by the barrel counter-bore so as to form a gastight seal therewith, and the projection may be provided with gas grooves to improve the seal. The projection also serves to pick up and move a projectile, or compound projectile-propellant member into the firing chamber for seating therein. The projectile is positioned within the barrel counter-bore through a loading port which may open into amagazine, and the loading It is another object of this invention to provide a system of the character described having a reciprocating bolt assembly wherein the bolt projection is operative to seat the projectile in the projectile chamber when the bolt assembly is moved to its battery position.
It is an additional object of this invention to provide a system of the character described having a loading port for insertion of a projectile into alignment with the projectile chamber, which loading port is sealed by the bolt projection when in its battery position.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will become more readily apparent from the following detailed description of several preferred embodiments of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a fragmented vertical sectional view of a preferred embodiment of a system formed in accordance with this invention in the form of a magazinefed rifle, with the bolt assembly being shown in its battery position, and a two-piece round of ammunition being loaded in the rifle and ready for firing;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view'similar to FIG. 1, but showing the rifle immediately after the round of ammunition FIG. 3 is a sectional view similar to FIGS. 1 and 2 but showing the bolt assembly retracted to its retired posi- 'tion and readied for the loading of a subsequent round of ammunition;
FIG. 4 is a fragmented vertical sectional view of another embodiment of this invention having a loading port 'in the barrelthr'ough which projectiles are manually inserted into alignment with the projectile chamber, the bolt assembly of the device being shown in its retired position; and
FIG. 5 is a fragmented vertical sectional view of a third embodiment of this invention adapted for firing a one-piece caseless round of ammunition fed from a magazine, and having a separate magazine flame cutoff member mounted on the bolt assembly.
Referring now to FIG. 1, a preferred embodiment of the invention is shown in the form of a rifle identified generally by the numeral 2. The rifle 2 includes a receiver 4 to which is secured a barrel 6. The barrel 6 includes a bore 8 which is enlarged at 10 to form a chamber for the seating of a projectile 12. The receiver 4 also includes a bore 14 which is coaxial with the projectile chamber 10 of the barrel. A compound bolt asport is also sealed by the bolt projection when the bolt is in its battery position.
In the event that a compound or two piece cartridge is used, the device may include a second port in the receiver through which the propellant pellet is loaded. The bolt is a compound bolt when a two piece cartridge is used, and the propellant pellet is loaded into a chamber rearward of the bolt projection. The bolt projection, in the latter case, is hollow and includes a passage from the propellant chamber to the projectile chamber. The propellant loading port is sealed by the side wall of the bolt. 1
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide a system for firing caseless ammunition in which the projectile chamber-is sealed against combustion gas leakage by a boltprojection telescopingly extending into the projectile chamber.
sembly is reciprocally mounted in the receiver 4. The bolt assembly includes a main body portion 16 having a forwardly extending nose part 18 which is telescopingly received in the receiver bore 14 and projectile chamber 10 when the bolt assembly is in its battery position, as shown in FIG. 1. A pair of gas grooves 20 are positioned on the exterior of the bolt nose 18 to aid in sealing the projectile chamber 10 against rearward propellant gas leakage. It is noted that the forward face of the bolt nose l8 abutts the rear of the projectile 12 to seat the latter in the projectile chamber 10 for firing.
' A bolt insert member 22 is slidably mounted in the bolt body 16. The bolt insert 22 includes a chamber 24 in which is positioned a propellant pellet 26, with or without a primer. A gas passage 28 extends through the bolt insert 22 from the propellant chamber 24 and opens into a gas bleed port 30 extending through the bolt nose l8 and opening into the projectile chamber 10. A firing pin 32 is slidably mounted in the bolt insert 22 and a firing pin actuator 34 is slidably mounted in the bolt insert 22 rearward of the firing pin 32. A spring 36 is operative to bias the firing pin 32 and firing pin actuator 34 rearwardly away from the propellant chamber 24 to clear the latter for insertion of a propellant pellet therein. It is noted that the firing pin 32 and bolt insert 22 are both provided with gas sealing grooves 38 to check rearward flow of propellant gases. An operating handle 40 is secured to the bolt insert 22 and extends outwardly through a slot 42 in the receiver 4, the slot 42 having a downwardly extending portion 44 into which the handle 40 is slid, as shown in FIG. 1, for locking the bolt assembly in its battery position.
A striker member 46 is slidably mounted in the receiver 4 rearward of the bolt assembly. The strike 46 is biased forwardly in the receiver 4 by a spring 48 which is positioned in a pocket 50 in the striker 46 and which surrounds a spring guide 52 formed on the striker 46. A sear 54 is pivotally mounted in the receiver 4 on a pin 56 and is biased in a counterclockwise direction about the pin 56 by a spring 58. The sear 54 includes a notch 60 which engages the striker 46 and holds the latter in a cocked position wherein the striker spring 48 is compressed. A trigger 62 is pivotally mounted on a pin 64 in the receiver and is biased in a clockwise direction about the pin 64 by a spring 66. The trigger 62 includes a finger 68 which engages the sear 54 so that when the trigger 62 is pivoted in a counter-clockwise direction, the finger 68 causes the sear 54 to pivot in a clockwise direction to release the striker 46 and permit the latter to be driven forward by the spring 48. The forward portion of the striker 46 is provided with a relief or recess 70 which is aligned with a projection 72 on the rear of the bolt insert 22 when the operating handle 40 is locked in the receiver slot portion 44. The projection 72 and recess 70 thus prevent the striker 46 from contacting the rear surface 1 of the firing pins actuator 34 unless the bolt is locked in I its battery position. The projectiles 12 may be fed from a box magazine 13 mounted on the gun.
FIG. 2 shows the manner in which the device is actuated to fire the projectile 12. The trigger 62 is pulled to pivot the sear 54 and release the striker 46. The striker 46 then moves forward under impetus of the spring 48 to impact the firing pin actuator 34, the bolt insert projection 72 being received by the striker recess 70. The actuator 34 then moves forward against the firing pin 32 compressing the spring 36 and driving the nose of the firing pin 32 into the propellant chamber 24 and against the propellant pellet. The pellet is thus caused to deflagrate and produce pressurized combustion gases which pass through the port 30 and passage 28 to act upon the rear face of the projectile 12 and drive the latter from the projectile chamber 10 and through the barrel bore 8.
To prepare the device for a subsequent firing, the operating handle is moved upwardfand out of the receiver slot portion 44, thus causing the bolt insert 22 to rotate within the receiver. The projection 72 is thus moved out of registry with the striker recess 70, and the striker 46 is pushed somewhat rearwardly in the receiver. The spring 36 is thus free to move the firing pin 32 and actuator 34 rearwardly in the bolt assembly to withdraw the nose of the firing pin 32 from the propellant chamber 24. It will be noted from FIG. 3, that the bolt insert 22 is formed with a projecting pin 23 which is slidably disposed in a slot 25 in the main body portion 16 of the bolt assembly. The bolt body 16 is also provided with a pin 17 which is slidably disposed in a slot 19 in the receiver The bolt body slot 25 includes a laterally extending portion 27 into which the pin 23 passes when the handle 40 is pivoted into the receiver slot portion 44. The pin 23 and slot 25 establish a driving connection between the bolt insert 22 and bolt body 16. The receiver slot 19 also includes a laterally extending portion 21 into which the pin 17 passes when the bolt body 16 is rotated.
When the handle 40 is moved upwardly and out of the receiver slot portion 44, the bolt insert 22 is rotated and the pin 23 is moved out of the portion 27 of the slot 25 and against the sidewall of the slot 25, thus causing sufficient rotation of the bolt body 16 tomove the pin 17 out of the lateral portion 21 of the receiver slot 19. The bolt assembly is then ready to be withdrawn to its retired position. This is accomplished by pulling the handle 40 rearwardly through the receiver slot 42 to the position shown in FIG. 3. The bolt insert 22 is thus moved rearwardly for a predetermined distance causing the pin 23 to slide rearwardly through the slot 25 until the pin 23 contacts the rear wall of the slot 25. Further rearward movement of the insert 22 is imparted to the bolt body 16 which is then pulled back until the nose 18 has been withdrawn to a position rearward of the magazine 13 to permit another projectile 12 to issue from the magazine forward of the bolt nose 18. At this point the propellant chamber 24 will have been moved rearwardly into registry with a propellant loading port 29 to permit insertion of a propellant pellet into the chamber 24. Rearward movement of the bolt insert 22 also returns the striker 46 to its cocked position and compresses the striker spring 48. It is noted that the undersurface of the bolt insert projection 72 is inclined as at 73 to permit the sear notch to move upward into position to engage the striker 46 when the bolt assembly is returned to its battery position. A propellant pellet is then inserted into the propellant chamber 24 through the loading port 29 and the handle 40 is returned and locked in its original position. The bolt nose 18 thus positions the new projectile 12 in the projectile chamber 10. After the elements have been returned to their respective positions shown in FIG. 1, the device is ready for firing. It is noted that the device could be readily used with a propellant magazine as well as a projectile magazine.
FIG. 4 discloses a modification of the device of FIG. 1, wherein both the projectile and propellant pellet are loaded into the device manually. The barrel 6 of the modified device includes a projectile loading port 9 in its top portion, which port 9 is closed and sealed by the bolt nose 18 when the latter is in its battery position, and which is cleared for insertion of a projectile 12 (shown in phantom) when the bolt nose 18 is in its retired position, as shown in FIG. 4. The propellant chamber configuration, and its manner of operation is the same as described in FIGS. 1-3, and is, therefore, not shown in FIG. 4 for purposes of clarity and brevity.
FIG. 5 discloses yet another modification of the device of this invention which is adapted to fire onepiece ammunition having a propellant charge which is cemented or otherwise secured to the rear face of the projectile 82. The unitary ammunition is fed from a The device includes a barrel 88 secured to the receiver I 86 and having a bore 90 which is enlarged at 92 to form a firing chamber in which the round of ammunition is seated. A bolt body 94 is slidably mounted in the receiver 86 for reciprocating movement therein between a retired position and a battery position, the latter of which is shown in FIG. 5. The bolt body 94 carries a nose piece 96 which extends forwardly from the bolt body into the barrel bore enlargement 92 Gas sealing grooves 98 are formed on the exterior of the bolt nose 96 to seal the barrel bore enlargement 92 against combustion gas leakage rearwardly of the chambered round of ammunition. When the bolt body 94 is moved rearwardly to its retired position, the bolt nose 96 is concurrently moved rearwardly to a position to the rear of the magazine 84 so as to be in position to pick up a fresh round of ammunition and push the latter forward into thechambered position when the bolt body 94 is returned to its battery position.
A flame cut-off plate 100 is mounted on the bolt body 94 for pivotal movement about a pin 102, the
plate 100 in a clockwise direction about the pin 102. A
slot or pocket 106 is formed in the barrel 88 and positioned so as to receive the forward part of the plate 100 to locate and hold the latter in position when the bolt body 94 is in its battery position. The tip of the plate 100 is tapered as at 108 and 110, and the upper part of the pocket 106 is tapered as at 112. Thus when the plate 100 is retracted'out of the pocket 106, the spring 104 causes the plate 100 to pivot in a clockwise direction about the pin 102 until the taper 110 abuts the bolt nose 96. After the plate 110 has been retracted rearwardly for a sufficient distance, a fresh round of ammunition is free to move upwardly out of the magazine 84 and into the barrel bore enlargement 92 into alignment with the bolt nose 96. The bolt body 94 is then moved back into its batter position to chamber the fresh round of ammunition. Forward movement of the bolt body 94'results in concurrent forward movement of the plate 100 which progresses until the taper 108 contacts the next round of ammunition protruding from the magazine 84. The next round is then pushed back down into the magazine 84 by the advancing plate 100. Subsequently the taper 110 moves against the pocket taper 112 to cam the plate 100 about the pin 102 and into alignment with the pocket 106. The final increment of forward movement of the plate 100 results in the plate 100 being returned to the forwardmost position within the pocket 106, as shown in FIG. 5.
A firing pin 114 is slidably mounted within a passage 116 in the bolt body 94. The firing pin 1 14 extends into a bore 118 in the bolt nose 96 to a point rearward of the propellant charge 80. The firing pin 114 is provided with external grooves 120 to seal the bore 118 against combustion gas leakage. The firing pin 114 is biased rearwardly by a spring 122 mounted in the bolt body 94, and the firing pin 1 14 is driven forward by a triggeractuated striker (not shown), against the spring 122, to cause the tip of the firing pin to crush a primer charge (not'shown) on the rear' of the ammunition round to fire the latter.
It will be readily appreciated that the device of this embodiments of the invention may be made without departing from the inventive concept, it is not intended to limit the invention otherwise than as required by th appended claims. 1
What is claimed is: l. A device for firing caseless ammunition, said device comprising:
a. a barrel having a bore;
b. an enlarged chamber adjacent to said bore and communicating therewith, said chamber being operative to receive and seat a projectile;
c. a bolt assembly mounted adjacent said enlarged chamber, said bolt assembly includinga nose portion telescopingly receivable in said enlarged chamber to position a projectile therein, said nose portion forming a gas-tight seal in said enlarged chamber rearward of the projectile, and said bolt assembly including an insert member positioned rearward of said nose portion, said insert member containing a propellant chamber for receiving a caseless propellant charge;
d. firing means carried by said bolt assembly for causing deflagration of a caseless propellant charge in said propellant chamber; and
,e. means providing fluid communication between said propellant chamber and said enlarged chamber.
2. The device of claim 1, further comprising a receiver connected to said barrel, said bolt assembly being mounted in said receiver for movement therein between a battery position and a retired position, a propellant loading port in said receiver, said insert member being movable independently of said nose portion to align said propellant chamber with said loading port when said bolt assembly is. in said retired position; and said firing means is a firing pin carried by said insert member. 1
TATE i" @F HQE Patent No. 3 72Z 23 v Dated March 27 1973 Inventofls) Fred Go Parisi It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
In .6010 1, line 40-, please delete "projection" and insert --=projecting--;
In Co].o 2 following line 23, please insert has been 1 firedg s Signed and sealed this lLtth day of August 1973.
RENE D. TEGTMEETR Attesting Officer Acting Commissioner of Patents FORM powso USCOMM-DC scan-P69 0.5. GOVERNMENT PRINI ING OFFlCE: I969 0-3664