US 3722169 A
A method for construction of a multi-story building wherein the roof may be constructed first at an intermediate level, following which each floor is constructed in an elevation near ground level. After the floors are constructed, the roof and each floor is lifted to its ultimate elevation. The floors are constructed, one at a time, at closely vertically spaced intervals, and each is supported solely by the support columns during the construction. Thus, each floor serves as access to the construction of the next floor above but does not support the same. A constructional joint is provided to permit vertical movements of the floors relative to the columns after the floors are constructed. The joint basically comprises a collar arrangement disposed for receiving a vertical support column therethrough and the collar is shiftable vertically relative to the column. Further, the collar is constructed as an integral part of a horizontal beam extending outwardly from the column.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [1 1 Boehmig [111' 3,722,169 [451 Mar. 2 7, 1973 METHOD OF BUILDING 7 CONSTRUCTION  Inventor: Robert L. Boehmig, 3030 Peachtree Rd., Atlanta, Ga. 30305  Filed: Jan. 4, 1971 211 App]. No.: 103,665
Related U.S. Application Data v  Continuation-impart. of Ser. No 829,541, June 2, 1969, abandoned. I
 U.S. Cl ..52/745, 52/126 7  Int. Cl. ..'...E04b l/35  Field of Search ..52/66, 745, 126,236  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,758,467 I 8/1956 Brown ....52/l26 3,028,143 4/1962 Cheskin ..52/l26 X I FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS I 684,089 6/1930 France .;.52/745 Primary Examiner-John E. Murtagh Att0rneyBirch, Swindler, McKie & Beckett 57] ABSTRACT Y during the construction. Thus, each floor serves as access to the construction of the next floor above but does not support the same. A constructional joint is provided to permit vertical movements of the floors relative to the columns after the floors are constructed. The joint basically comprises a collar arrangement disposed for receiving a vertical support column therethrough and the collar is shiftable vertically relative to the column. Further, the collar is con- 'structed as an integral part of a horizontal beam extending outwardly from the column.
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504 306 INVENTOR ROBERT L. BOEHM IG 2am, fim mm ATTORNEYS 30 n I n r I 13 I I I I METHOD OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION RELATED APPLICATION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to the field of building construction and more particularly to lift-slab type construction for multi-story structures.
2. Description of the Prior Art In the past, lift-slab type building construction has been conducted by first erecting a number of support columns and'then constructing a stack of floors adjacent the columns. The floors were subsequently lifted to their final positions. During its construction, each floor was supported by the floor directly'therebelow. Often, this required at least the lowest floor to be structurally capable of supporting a load many times greater than the load it would be called upon to support after construction was completed.
It has not been commonplace to utilize structural steel frameworks in lift-slab type construction in the past. On the other hand, conventional construction methods have utilized structural steel frameworks for construction which facilitates either shear or moment type connections between the beam and the support columns.
The invention is not restricted to any particular type of floor construction but requires only that each floor be a structurally stable unit that can be elevated from initialposition to a final position in the manner of conventional lift slab construction. Typical floor conindividual floors, by assembling the steel members at required a moment'type connection utilizing a continu-' ously acting beam, rather than a shear type connection, the beam ends were welded to the column flanges and fillers were provided to extend, between the column flanges such that after the fillers were welded in place, the joint would cause rotation of the column in response to rotation of the beam. Thus, theconstructional requirements for a moment type. connection were vastly different than the structural requirements for a shear type connection.
7 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTlON The instant invention is aimed at alleviating the above stated problems. In this regard, it is an object of the invention to provide a method of construction for a multi-s tory building whereinnone of the floors need be constructed to support a load greater than required for the service conditions existingafter the construction of the building. It is an important object of the invention to'provide a method of building construction wherein each floor provides access to the next higher floor, but at a closer proximity to each previously completed floor, therebyfacilitatingthe construction of the latter. In addition, it is a very important aim of the invention to provide a structurally stable floor element having a supporting frame construction including a continuous beam structure permitting vertical movement of the floor element relative to the vertical columns after the floor element has been-constructed. In this connection, 4
one of the objects of the invention is to provide a beam plurality of vertical support members and thereafter constructing a closely vertically spaced series of structurally stable floor elements, each of the floor elements being supported substantially by the support members during its construction. .The elements are each initially disposed at first elevations facilitating construction of the next higher elements. After the construction of all the floor elements, each floor element is elevated to its predetermined final position. i
The method of the invention is facilitated by a collar type column to beam connection construction comprising a pair, of elongated beam portions disposed in laterally spaced, generally parallel relationship presenting an elongated gap therebetween. A firstelongated beam member is disposed in general parallelism to the beam portions. The first member has an extremity disposed at one end'of the gap centrally of the corresponding ends of the portions. A second elongated beam member is disposed in longitudinally spaced, longitudinally aligned relationship to the, first member. The second member has an extremity disposed at the opposite end of the gap centrally of the opposite ends of the portions. Means are provided for rigidly interconnecting the extremities of the beam members with the respective ends of the beam portions to present a substantially continuous beam disposed in horizontally extending relationship with the gap opening vertically and receiving a vertical column therethrough. Means are provided for rigidly interconnecting the column 7 and the beam portions. If the column in the beam portions are welded together, a moment type joint is produced. If the beam portions are bolted to the column, a shear type connection is produced. In this latter respect, the joint detail is applicable to converttionally constructed steel buildings with the unique advantage that continuous type floor beams can be utilized which transmit no bending movements to the columns.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of the structure of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary top plan view of a connection similar to the structure of FIG. 3 except that the beam and the column are interconnected by bolt and nut means to present a shear type connection;
FIG. 6 is a side elevational view of the structureof FIG. 5; I
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary top plan view of'a moment type connection structure similar to the structure of FIG. 3 except that the I-beam isrotated 90;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary top plan view of a connection similar to the structure of FIG. 7 except'that the beam is bolted to the column to present a shear-type connection; I
FIGS. 9 and 10 are enlarged, fragmentary top plan views of structures similar to 'the connections illustrated in FIGS; 3 and 5 respectively except that 'a box beam is utilized for the column rather than an I-beam;
FIG. 11 is a side elevational view on reduced scale of a multi-story building construction illustrating the manner in which the individual floors are supported during the early stages of construction utilizing the method of the instant invention;
FIG. 12 is a side elevational view of the building construction after the floors have been constructed and elevated to their final positions;
FIGS. 13 and 14 are views similar to FIGS. 11 and 12 side elevational view respectively illustrating a moment type joint utilized previously columns and beams;
FIG. 19 is a schematic diagram illustrating the shear type actionof the connection of FIGS. 15 and 16;
FIG. is a schematic diagram of the shear type ac tion produced by the structures illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6, 8 and 10; and Y FIG. 21 is a schematic diagram of the moment type action produced by the structures illustrated in FIGS. 3 and-4, 7, 9 and 17 and 18, the dashed lines on FIGS. 19, 20 and 21 indicate the deflected positions (exaggerated) of the loaded structure.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS A multi-story building structure which embodies the concepts and principles of the invention and which has been constructed in accordance with the method of the invention'is schematically illustrated in FIG. 12 and is broadly designated by the numeral 30. Structure 30 includes a plurality of structurally stable flo'or elements 32-42 and a roof element 44. A plurality of columns 46 are provided for supporting the floor and roof elements. 1 a
Each of the structurally stable floor elements 32-42 and the roof element 44 comprises a structural steel frame that supports a planar floor construction of types well known in the art. Each frame includes at least one elongated, horizontally extending beam 48. The beams 48 are intersected by the columns 46 as can be seen in for interconnecting FIG. 12; however, beams 48 are capable of acting as a substantially continuous beam which extends outwardly on both sides of each respective column 46.
The structure of the intersection between the beams 48 and the. columns 46 is illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2.
At each column 46, each beam 48 includes a pair of elongated beam portions 50. Portions 50 are disposed gated beam member 54 disposed in general parallelism to portions 50. Member 54 has an extremity 54a disposed at one end of gap 52.
Each beam 48 also includes a second elongated beam member 56 at each intersection with a column 46. The members 56 are each disposed in longitudinal aligned relationship to corresponding members 54 and each has an extremity 56a disposed at the opposite end of gap 52 from the corresponding extremity 54a. Each of the extremities 54a and 56a are disposed centrally of the corresponding ends of the portions 50. This arrangement of portions 50, member 54 and member 56 constructs a collar about column 46.
Generally speaking, beam portions 50 may be constructed of channels while beam members 54 and 56 may comprise I-beams. In FIGS. 3-6 column 46 is shown as comprising an I-beam disposed with its central web 58extending longitudinally of beam 48.
Beam member 54 is rigidly interconnected to beam portions 50 by means comprising three plates 60, 62 and 64 as best illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4. Plate extends transversely between channels 50 and longitudinally beyond the ends 50a thereof. Plate 60 is preferably attached to channels 50 by welding or the like along edges 65. A longitudinally extending slot 67 is provided in plate 60 for receiving the web 66 of I- beam 54. The upper flange 68 of 'l-beam 54 is then welded to plate 60. I
Plate 62 is welded in place between extremity 54a of beam member 54 and ends 50a of channels 50. The lower flanges of channels 50 and [beams 54 are attached to plate 64 by welding or the like.
Beam member 56 is attached to channels 50 at-theat each column 46, the member'54 the channels 50 and the member 56 act together as a substantially continuous beam 48. Beam 48 extends horizontally with the gaps 52 opening vertically. Each gap 52 receives a column 46 extending therethrough. Each column 46. is rigidly interconnected with a beam 48 so that thebeam 48 may be supported by the column 46.
Viewing FIGS. 3 and 4, it can be seen that flanges 70 of the I-beam constituting column 46 are welded to channels 50. Thus; a moment type connection between beam 48 and column 46 is provided. That .is to say, a clockwise rotation of beam 48 (FIG. 4) will cause a corresponding clockwise rotation of column 46. This is caused by the fact that beam 48 is not free to move relative to column 46. This moment type action is schematically illustrated in FIG. 21.
In FIGS. 5 and 6, a shear type connection between beam 48 and column 46 is illustrated where the com ponents are substantially identical with the components of FIGS. 3 and 4. In addition, a bearing plate 72 is welded to each side of the I-beam column 46. Plates 72 are then bolted to channels 50. Thus, a clockwise deflection of beam 48 (FIG. 6) does not cause a corresponding clockwise deflection of column 46 because the interconnection between the bolts and the corresponding bolt holes permits a slight amount of movement of beam 48 relative to column 46. This shear type action is schematically illustrated in FIG. 20.
In FIGS. 7 and 8, the column 46 is shown as an I- beam wherein the web 58 extends transversely of beam 48. In this embodiment also, column 46 may be welded (FIG. 7) or bolted (FIG. to channels 50 to provide a moment type connection wherein column 46 rotates with beam 48 (FIG. 7 and FIG. 21) or a shear type connection wherein deflections of beam 48 do not cause a corresponding deflection of column 46 (FIG. 8 and FIG. 20).
FIGS. 9 and 10 illustrate another embodiment of the invention wherein column 46 comprises a box-shaped section. In FIG. 9, column 46 is welded to channels 50 to provide a moment type connection and in FIG. 10, column 46 is bolted to channels 50 to provide a shear type connection.
The beams 48 of the invention provide efficiency and design flexibility in the construction of multi-story buildings which has not been possible in the past. This is best illustrated by comparing the structure of this invention with the structure of the prior art as shown in FIGS. -18. In the'past, it was not uncommon to provide shear type connections by merely terminating the beams 150 (FIGS. 15 and 16') at columns 160 and bolting beams 150 to columns 160 through the use of angle irons 170. The action of this type connection is illustrated schematically. inFIG. 19. On the other hand, if a moment type connection was desired, beams 150 were welded to column 160. Then filler plates 180 were installed in alignment with the flanges of beams 150 and were welded between the flanges of column 160. Thus, a rotational deflection of beam 150 would cause a corresponding rotational deflection of column 160 asillustrated schematically in FIG. 21. Manifestly, FIGS. 15-18 illustrate vividly that two different types of joint construction were required to achieve shear type or moment type connections. On the other hand, through the use of the instant invention, a single connection construction is utilized to produce a moment type connection by welding the beam to the column or a shear type connection by bolting the beam to the column.
The structure of the instant invention also facilitates lift-slab type construction. A structurally stable floor element, such as 32-42 which includes beams such as 48, constructed at one level and then elevated to another. The collars presented by beam portions 50 and the extremities 54a and 56a of beam members 54 and 56 are moveable relative to columns 46 to facilitate this elevation.
The ease of interconnecting beams 48 and columns 46 in accordance with the instant invention has also made possible a new method for construction of multistory buildings. This method is illustrated in FIGS. 11 and 12 and provides many advantages not obtainable through the use of prior art methods, the most important of which is illustrated in FIGS. 13 and 14.
Viewing FIGS. 11 and 12, a multi-story building is constructed in accordance with the instant invention by first erecting columns 46. A structurally stable floor element 32 is then constructed at or near ground level. Thereafter, a structurally stable floor element 34 is constructed at an elevation slightly above the elevation of element 32. Element 34 includes a plurality of beams 48 which may be preliminarily attached to columns 46 so that element 34 is supported substantially solely by columns 46 during its construction. .Thus, floor element 32 may serve to provide access to floor element 34 during construction of thelatter. Further, floor element 32 does not have to be of sufficient strength to support floor element 34 during the construction 'of the latter since floor element 34 is supported substantially solely by the columns 46.
Each of the structurally stable floor elements 32- 42 consists of a framework that supports a floor surface. By way of example, the framework may be a steel beam construction upon which is installed conventional wooden or metal flooring in a known manner. A conventional concrete floor can be constructed upon or within the confines of the framework by providing suitable forms upon or around the sides and the bottom of the framework and pouring concrete therein as is well known in the field for constructing concrete floors in non-lift slab type constructions. Openings in the floor surface are provided at each of the vertical support columns to facilitate removal of the temporary attachment means necessary for the practice of the method of this invention, slidable vertical movement of the floor elements to their final positions, and permanent attachment of the floor elements at their final position. Once the floor element is placed in final position, these openings can be closed. The concrete form is normally removed prior to moving the floor element to its final position.
Preliminary attachment of the structurally stable floor elements to the vertical support columns can be accomplished by temporary attachment means (not shown) now known in the field such as spot welding or bolting the framework directly to the vertical columns or by welding or bolting clip angle seats to the vertical columns, and supporting the framework on these seats. The temporary supports are removed prior to moving the floor element to its final position.
Movement of the floor elements to their final positions can be accomplished by any of the means now used in conventional lift-slab construction such as hoists and jacks.
'The remaining floor elements 36-42 are constructed in seriatim and each is supported solely by columns 46 during the construction thereof. In each case, each floor element provides access facilitating the construction of the next higher floor element and yet, none of the floor elements must be designed to support any of the succeeding floor elements during the construction thereof. The floor elements can be constructed as close together as a few inches, or spaced apart enough to structed, each is elevated in reverse order to its final elevation. Manifestly, the instant invention provides a method for constructing a multi-story building utilizing a lift-slab type procedure wherein the floor elements comprise a structurally stable unit having a steel framework.
The advantages provided by the method of the instant invention can be seen by comparing the method of the instant invention as shown in FIGS. 11 and 12 with a prior art method illustrated in FIGS. 13 and 14. In the prior art method,'the columns 300 were erected and then the floors 302-314 were constructed one after another. Floor 302 was constructed and then floor 304 was constructed and was supported by floor 302. Thereafter floor 306 was constructed and was supported by floors 304 and 302. Each succeeding floor was constructed on top of the floors already constructed and was supported by the lower floors. Thus,
the lower floor elements had to be designed to support a load much greater than required by normal service conditions. As pointed out above, this problem is solved completely by the method of the instant invention since each of the floor elements is supported solely by the vertical columns during its construction.
l. A method for constructing a multi-story building comprising the steps of:
comprising the steps of:
erecting a plurality of upwardly extending vertical columns of sufficient height to accommodate a plurality of stories of the completed building spaced along the height thereof, I constructing a first structurally stable floor element at a first elevation on said columns,- constructing a second structurally stable floor element directly attached to and supported solely by said columns-and removably attached to 'saidcolumns at a temporary elevation on said columns 7 spaced slightly above said first elevation,
elevating said second structurallystable floor element from said temporary elevation to a permanent elevation above said temporary elevation, and,
permanently attaching said second structurally stable floor element to said columns at said permanent elevation.
2. A method for constructing a multi-story building erecting a plurality of upwardly extending vertical columns of sufficient height to accommodate a plurality of stories of the completed building elevating said second structurally stablefloor ele- I ment from said second temporary elevation to a second permanent elevation above said second temporary elevation, permanently attaching said second structurally stable floor element to said columns at said second permanent elevation, elevating said first structurally stable floor element from said first temporary elevation to a first permanent elevation above said first temporary elevation, and 1 permanentlyattaching said first structurally stable floor element to said-columns at said first per .manent elevation.