US 3724453 A
A splint which is of particular value in extricating persons from vehicle crashes where an injury of the spine or neck is to be feared comprises a solid backing member which is of a length to stretch from adjacent the bottom of the spine to behind the head of an injured person, and which has secured thereto a harness for holding the head in position against the splint and further harness for rigidly securing the torso to the splint (which harness may also hold the arms rigidly).
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
I United States Patent 1191 [111 3,724,453 Dixon et al. [4 1 Apr. 3, 1973  SPLINTS 3,469,268 9/1969 Phillips  Inventors: Amers Ernest Dixon, 44 Sutton iggggg 243;? 3212;?
Street, Walkflgate, Newcastle upon 3515:1371 4/1967 Creelma n y Michael Proctor, 27 Beach 3,158,875 12/1964 Fletcher Avenue, Whitley Bay, both of En- 3,358,141 12/1967 Hoffman et a1 ..128/134 land g OTHER PUBLICATIONS  Filed: Aug. 4, 1970 US. Naval Medical Bulletin, Transport Splint for PP 60,840 Fractured Spines, by Wagoner et 211., Oct. 1939.
Primary Examiner-Dalton L, Truluck  Foreign Application Priority Data Assistant Examiner j Yasko Aug. 6, 1969 Great Britain ..39,341/69 Attorney-Jones and Lockwood  11.8. CI. ..128/87 R, 128/134  ABSTRACT  Int. Cl. ..A6lf 5/04 A splint which is of particular value in extricating per-  Fund of Search "128/ 3 3;: 5233 sons from vehicle crashes where an injury of the spine I or neck is to be feared comprises a solid backing member which is of a length to stretch from adjacent  References cued the bottom of the spine to behind the head of an in- UNITED STATES PATENTS jured person, and which has secured thereto a harness for holding the head 1n posmon against the splint and 1,867,215 7/1932 Ettinger ..128/83 further harness for rigidly securing the torso to the 2,579,733 12/1951 Branto splint (which harness may also hold the arms rigidly). 2,926,660 3/1960 Thompson ..l28/70 2,571,461 10/1951 Livingston et a1. ..128/327 4 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures PATENTEDAPR 3 I973 SHEET 2 [IF 2 SPLINTS This invention relates to a splint which is of particular value in enabling persons to be easily and safely moved under conditions where an injury to the spine or neck is to be feared.
This kind of injury is not uncommon as a result of vehicle crashes. In these situations the occupants of the vehicle often have to be removed from very constricted and difficult situations; on the other hand, if there is an injury to the spine or neck any twisting or extension of the body can be very dangerous and cause permanent injury or death.
An object of the present invention is the provision of a splint to which an injured person can be attached so that the person can thereafter be removed with the minimum of ill effect even if there is an injury to the spine or neck.
According to our invention a splint comprises a solid backing member which is of a length to stretch from adjacent the bottom of the spine to behind the head of an injured person, and which has secured thereto a harness for holding the head in position against the splint and further harness for rigidly securing the torso to the splint (which harness may also hold the arms rigidly). In a preferred form of the invention separate harnesses are used for the upper part of the torso and the lower part of the torso and there are preferably also straps which can be passed under the crutch (or round the hips or thighs) and behind the shoulders of the injured person to hold him securely against longitudinal movement in the event of his having to be raised vertically out of difficult positions.
Preferably too there is a face hole which enables the splint to be secured in front of the body with at least a hole opposite the nose so that there is no interference with breathing.
One form of the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a view of the front of the device;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the front of the device;
FIG. 3 shows a front view of the upper part of a person with the splint attached; and
FIG. 4 is a side view of FIG. 3.
The splint comprises a solid backing member which may be suitably moulded from a plastics material with glass fiber reinforcement, this backing member being approximately 2ft 8ins long and 8ins. wide with three apertures 12, 14 and 16. All three apertures are used to secure various attachments to the backing member; additionally the apertures 12 and 16 are useful as hand grips whilst the aperture 14 gives access to the nose and month if the splint is used in front of an injured person instead of behind.
Attached to the apertures 12 and 16 is a head harness 18. In detail, this consists of a strap 20 which is secured to the backing member 10 by being looped round one side of the backing member between the aperture 14 and the edge of the member. This strap 20 terminates in a metal loop 22, and a pad 24 is attached to the strap 20 so that the metal loop does not come into contact with the injured person when the head harness is in position. Another strap 26 of greater length is attached in a similar way to the other side of the backing member 10, the strap 26 having attached to one side thereof a strip 28 of hook-like nylon pile fabric and, separated slightly therefrom, a strip 30 of nylon pile material. The two strips are such that they will adhere together if they are pressed against each other, and are available under the trade mark VELCRO. If now the strap 26 is passed through the metal loop 22 and bent back on itself so that the strip 30 is pressed against the strip 28, the two straps 20 and 26 make a loop which is large enough to go round the head of an injured person.
A further strap 32, which is stretchable so that it can be increased in length, is secured at one end round the top of the splint through the aperture 12, and at the other end has a loop which can be passed over the strap 26. A further strap 34, which has a loop at each end, one for passing over the strap 20 and one for passing over the strap 26, has two stretchable portions 36, one near each end, and a substantially non-stretchable portion 38 at the center. A short strap 40 of rather thinner material has its ends attached to the strap 34 at the ends of the non-stretchable portion 38 of that strap.
All the above straps, if not required to be substantially stretchable, can be made of nylon'reinforced polyvinyl chloride or, if required to be stretchable, may be of elastic material covered with a puckered casing of nylon-reinforced polyvinyl chloride. The upper end of the splint is completed by a soft pad 42 of felt material stuck to the front of the backing member 10 round the aperture 14.
The upper arm straps 44 are pivotally mounted to the back of the backing member 10 through a nylon swivel bush 46. Each strap 44 consists of a broad portion extending outwardly about 1 foot from the bush 46 and a further narrower portionabout 2% inches wide and some 2 feet in length. One of the straps 44 has a strip 46 of nylon pile material running along its front face, whilst the other has a strip 48 of hook-like nylon pile fabric along the back. These straps may also be made of nylon-reinforced polyvinyl chloride.
Further down the splint, and mounted in a similar way on a swivel bush 54 are two lower arm straps 52 which are basically similar to the upper arm straps 44, though slightly shorter in length. One of these has a strip 56 of nylon pile material on the back face while the other has a strip 58 of hook-like nylon pile fabric on the front.
The splint is completed by crutch straps 60, 66 made of suitable braided or woven material, secured round the bottom end through the aperture 16. The strap 60 is about 4 feet long and has, secured to the reverse side thereof, a polyvinyl chloride strip 62 sewn to the strap at each end and in the middle to form two loops, the first loop being about 1 foot and the other loop about 1% feet from the end of the member 10. Also mounted on the strap 60 is a quick release clasp 64, which may be of a type used on safety belts in automobiles or in airplanes. The other crutch strap 66 is some 5% feet long and bears at its end a clip 68 which co-operates with the quick release clasp 64.
In order to use the splint on, for example, a person trapped in a crashed car, the splint is inserted behind the person. A separate resilient pad 70 supplied with the splint, is inserted between the neck and the splint, and the head harness 18 is then applied to the injured person by forming the straps 20, 26 into a loop round the forehead with the stretchable strap 32 over the head, the further strap 34 under the chin, with the thin strap 40 in front of the chin. Now the upper and lower arm straps 44, 52 are applied round the arms and torso, the strips 46, 48 and 56, 58 on the respective arms being pressed firmly together so that the torso is held securely against the splint and the arms are secured to the torso. The injured person is now completely immobilised and may often be moved without further straps being applied.
If, however, the injured person has to be removed vertically, some care must be taken to stop any longitudinal movement of the torso and head on the splint. To stop this the crutch straps are used. These are passed under the crutch and straight up the front of the person, the longer strap being passed around the shoulders behind the splint and downwardly, where the clip 68 is put into the clasp 64 on the other strap. Tension is then applied to the strap 60 so that the two straps 60, 66 are tight and the person is immobilised from longitudinal movement. In cases where the crutch straps cannot easily be passed between the legs of the injured person, for example in the case where the injured person is a woman wearing a long skirt the two crutch straps can be passed around the hips (as low as possible) and the longer straps 66 put through one of the loops formed between the strip 62 and the strap 60 after which the strap 66 is taken up round the shoulders of the injured person and down, the clip 68 and clasp 64 being engaged as before, and the strap 60 is pulled tight.
If it is necessary to immobilise the knees and ankles of the injured person further straps (not shown) supplied with the splint may be used for this purpose. The injured person may now be removed from the vehicle to safety and placed on an orthodox stretcher for transportation to the hospital. On arrival at the hospital the injured person can be examined with the splint in position since the backing member is transparent to X- rays.
The splint can also be used where a person has suffered a fracture of the pelvis or of the femur.
If it is impossible to apply the splint behind the injured person, it may instead be applied in the front of crutch or round the hips or thighs an the person, with the nose and mouth opposite aperture 14.
1. A splint comprising a solid backing member which is of a length to stretch from adjacent the bottom of the spine to behind the head of an injured person, a head harness secured to the backing member at the upper end thereof for'holding the head in position against the backing member, swivel means on the backing member, an upper torso harness comprising two straps individually mounted on the said swivel means for rigidly holding the upper part of the torso to the backing member, further swivel means on the backing member and a lower torso harness comprising two straps individually mounted on the said further swivel means for rigidly holding the lower part of the torso to the backing member, and a face hole in said backing member at the upper end thereof wherein said face hole is so located in said backing member as to be 'opposite the nose of an injured person when the splint is applied to the front of the person.
2. A splint according to claim 1, having also straps secured to the backing member for dptskslin plrltdekil' thle e in es ou ders of an injured person to hold the person securely against longitudinal movement on the splint. I
3. A splint according to claim 1, wherein said head harness comprises a first pair of straps secured to said backing member and adapted to form an adjustable loop for holding the forehead of an injured person, a stretchable strap secured at one end to the top of said backing member and at the other end to said adjustable loop and adapted to pass over the top of the head of an injured person, and a chin strap secured at each end to said adjustable loop and adapted to hold the chin of an injured person.
4. A splint according to claim 2, wherein said crutch strap means comprises first and second crutch straps secured to said backing member, said first crutch strap carrying first and second loops adapted to receive said second crutch strap, and quick release clasp means connected to the free ends of said crutch straps.