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Publication numberUS3725943 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 3, 1973
Filing dateOct 12, 1970
Priority dateOct 12, 1970
Also published asDE2150660A1
Publication numberUS 3725943 A, US 3725943A, US-A-3725943, US3725943 A, US3725943A
InventorsW Spanos
Original AssigneeItt
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Turnstile antenna
US 3725943 A
Abstract
A multimode turnstile antenna providing simultaneously, without interference, right and left hand circularly polarized omnidirectional patterns and a vertically polarized omnidirectional pattern. Four coaxial cables are disposed vertically and parallel to each other. A frusto-conical member has its smaller diameter end disposed adjacent the upper ends of the coaxial cables to electrically and physically interconnect the outer conductors of all the coaxial cables. This arrangement, when the two pairs of diagonally disposed coaxial cables are excited in a balanced relationship and the pairs are excited orthogonally by first energy, provides simultaneously both right and left hand circularly polarized omnidirectional patterns. When four members are disposed adjacent the upper half of the coaxial line with each of these members being coupled to the center conductor of a different one of the coaxial lines and extending outwardly at an angle (preferably 90 DEG ) with respect to the associated one of the coaxial lines with the members orthogonally related with respect to each other, the antenna, in addition, simultaneously provides, when each of the four coaxial lines are excited inphase by second energy, a vertically polarized omnidirectional pattern. An embodiment of a feed arrangement is disclosed enabling the four coaxial lines to be excited inphase by the second energy and simultaneously to enable each of the four coaxial lines to be excited by the different orthogonally related first energy.
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tes at Elite St Spanos Apr. 3, 1973 [54] TURNSTILE ANTENNA [75] Inventor: William M. Spanos, Wayne, NJ.

[73] Assignee: International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, Nutley, NJ.

[22] Filed: Oct. 12, 1970 [21] Appl. No.: 79,964

[52] US. Cl ..343/797, 343/846 [51] Int. Cl. .343 854, l-10lq 21/26 [58] Field of Search ..343/773, 798, 846, 797, 854

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,432,858 12/1947 Brown ..343/797 3,262,121 7/1966 Holloway .....343/773 3,295,134 12/1916 Lowe ..343/854 3,579,244 5/1971 Dempsey et al ..343/797 Primary ExaminerEli Lieberman Attorney-C. Cornell Remsen, Jr., Walter .l.- Baum, Paul W. Hemminger, Charles L. Johnson, Jr., Philip M. Bolton, Isidore Togut, Edward Goldberg and Menotti J. Lombardi, Jr.

57 ABSTRACT A multimode turnstile antenna providing simultaneously, without interference, right and left hand circularly polarized omnidirectional patterns and a vertically polarized omnidirectional pattern. Four coaxial cables are disposed vertically and parallel to each other. A frusto-conical member has its smaller diameter end disposed adjacent the upper ends of the coaxial cables to electrically and physically interconnect the outer conductors of all the coaxial cables. This arrangement, when the two pairs of diagonally disposed coaxial cables are excited in a balanced relationship and the pairs are excited orthogonally by first energy, provides simultaneously both right and left hand circularly polarized omnidirectional patterns. When four members are disposed adjacent the upper half of the coaxial line with each of these members being coupled to the center conductor of a different one of the coaxial lines and extending outwardly at an angle (preferably 90) with respect to the associated one of the coaxial lines with the members orthogonally related with respect to each other, the antenna, in addition, simultaneously provides, when each of the four coaxial lines are excited inphase by second energy, a vertically polarized omnidirectional pattern. An embodiment of a feed arrangement is disclosed enabling the four coaxial lines to beexcited inphase by the second energy and simultaneously to enable each of the four coaxial lines to be excited by the different orthogonally related first energy. 1

' 7 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures LANCQD HYBRID OHM/DIRK r/ONAL FOR T INPNA S 5 INPHA 55 5 FOR T J POR 7' Cl CULARL Y POLARIZED OMN/D/RECI'IMAL PORT 1i SE ANTENNA BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to antennas and more particularly to turnstile antennas.

Because of existant space limitations and a need for greater numbers of antennas to provide radiating means for a multiplicity of services, the trend in antenna design is toward compact multipurpose radiators which provide more than one function. For example, in mobile applications, requirements exist for providing radio communications and navigation functions simul- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is to provide a multimode antenna suitable for utilization in satellite systems. 7

Another object of the present invention is to provide a multimode turnstile antenna capable of having simultaneously a vertically polarized omnidirectional pattern, a right hand circularly polarized omnidirectional pattern and a left hand circularly polarized omnidirectional'pattern.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide a multimode turnstile antenna capable of utilization with satellite systems, LOS communication systems and/or navigation systems.

A feature of the present invention is the provision of a multimode turnstile antenna capable of having simultaneously a vertically polarized omnidirectional pattern, a right hand circularly polarized omnidirectional pattern and a left hand circularly polarized omnidirectional pattern comprising four coaxial transmission lines disposed in a vertical, parallel relationship, each of the coaxial lines including an inner conductor and an outer conductor; and a frusto-conical member having its smaller diameter end disposed adjacent the upper end of the coaxial lines to electrically and physically interconnect the outer conductors of all the coaxial lines.

Another feature of the present invention is the provision of four members disposed adjacent the upper end of the coaxial lines, each of the members being coupled to the center conductor of a different one of the coaxial lines and extending-outwardly at an angle with respect to the associated one of the coaxial lines.

A further feature of the present invention is the provision of a multimode turnstile antenna as described above wherein each of the four coaxial lines are excited by inphase energy and simultaneously each of the coaxial lines are excited by different orthogonally related energy.

BRIEF DESO I 1 ON OF THE DRAWING The above-mentioned and other features and objects of this invention will become more apparent by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a multimode turnstile antenna and its feed arrangement in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a top view of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is the elevational pattern for left hand circular polarization resulting from the antenna of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is the elevational pattern for right hand circular polarization resulting from the antenna of FIG. 1; v

and

FIG. 5 illustrates the figure 8 elevational pattern for vertical polarization resulting from the antenna of FIG. 1.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EIVIBODIMENT For purposes of explanation, let us consider a UHF (ultra-high frequency) line-of-sight (LOS) ground-toground communication, UHF satellite communications and L-band DME (distance measuring equipment)/l"acan or' RSB (Radar Safety Beacon)/IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) applications wherein the following requirements would exist for an antenna at a user terminal.

Function Polarization Frequency Band Pattern Coverage UHF LOS Vertical 225-400 MHZ Figure 8 in Communications elevation, omnidirectional UHF 7 Satellite Dual Circular 225-400 MHZ Hemispherical Communication DME/Tacan Vertical 960-1215 MHZ Figure 8 in RSB/[FF elevation, omnidirectional The term dual circular as presented in the above table refers to right and left hand circularly polarized radiation. The term hemispherical present in the above table has reference to a right and left hand circularly polarized omnidirectional pattern.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is illustrated therein a multimode turnstile antenna in accordance with the principles of the present invention including four coaxial transmission lines 1-4, each of which includes an outer conductor 5 and winner conductor 6. The outer conductor 5 of coaxial lines 1-4 are interconnected electrically and physically by frust-conical member 7 which has its smaller diameter end 8 physically and electrically interconnecting the outer conductors of coaxial transmission lines 1-4. The length of the side of member 7 is greater than one quarter wavelength at the operating frequency. To inner conductors 6 at the upper end thereof are connected members 9, 10, 11 and 12 to form a turnstile antenna. Members 9-12 are disposed at an angle, preferably with respect to coaxial transmission lines 1-4 and extend outwardly from the center conductors 6 thereof in such a manner as to dispose elements 9-12 in an orthogonal relationship with respect to each other.

The structure including members 9-12 and frustconical member '7 (member 7 acting as a reflecting element) provides a hemispherical antenna pattern when each of the pairs of coaxial lines l and 4 and coaxial lines 2 and 3 are excited in a balanced relationship and these pairs of coaxial lines are orthogonally excited by a given energy for transmission from the antenna structure, or when hemispherically radiated energy is received by member 7 in conjunction with members 9-12. The frusto-conical member 7 and members 9-12 due to their hemispherical antenna pattern provides the multifunction of providing both right and left hand circular polarization with an omnidirectional pattern. This arrangement would be suitable for UHF satellite communication as indicated in the above table.

To provide vertical polarization for UHF LOS communications or DME/Tacan, RSB/IFF applications, members 9-12 together with member 7 (member 7 acting as a radiating element) are employed. Each of members 9-12 having a length equal to approximately 0.35D at the operating frequency of the antenna, where D is equal to the diameter of the base of the frustoconical member 7 as shown in FIG. 2. The length of the side and the diameter D of the base of member 7 and the length of members 9-12 controls the radiation patterns generated by the antenna of this invention. To provide the desired transmission of vertically polarized omnidirectional energy, coaxial lines 1-4 must be energized by the desired energy inphase or upon reception of vertically omnidirectional energy, coaxial lines 1-4 will be excited inphase by the received energy.

FIG. 3 illustrates the elevational hemispherical pattern produced by the left hand circularly polarized excitation of members 9-12 and member 7, FIG. 4 illustrates the hemispherical elevation pattern provided by right hand polarization excitation of members 9-12 and member 7 and FIG. illustrates the figure 8 elevational pattern produced by the vertically polarized excitation of members 9-12 and member 7.

polarization is applied to port 17 and fed through power divider 16 to the inphase ports of balanced hybrids l3 and 14. This results in an inphase excitation of coaxial lines 1-4 as indicated by the symbol applied to the ports of hybrids 13 and 14 connected to the center conductors of coaxial lines l-4. This inphase excitation of the coaxial lines 1-4 will result in the figure 8 elevational antenna pattern shown in FIG. 5 due to members 9-12 and member 7.

The circular polarization pattern for transmission is simultaneously provided by excited port 18 of quadrature hybrid '15 with left hand circularly polarized signal and port 19 of quadrature hybrid with right hand circularly polarized signal. This results in a 0 phase shift for left hand circularly polarized signals (a 90 phase shift for right hand circularly polarized signals) at port 20 of hybrid 15 which is coupled to the balanced port of hybrid -13. Hybrid 13 produces a 0 phase shift for left hand circularly polarized signals (a +90 phase shift for right hand circularly polarized signal) for excitation of transmission line 4 and a 180 phase shift for left hand circularly polarized signal a phase shift for right hand circularly polarized signal) for excitation of transmission line 1. Simultaneously, the energy applied to ports 18 and 19 is coupled from port 21 of hybrid 15 to the balanced port of hybrid 14 resulting in a +90 phase shift for left hand circularly polarized signal (a 0 phase shift for right hand circularly polarized signals) for excitation of transmission line 3 and a -90 phase shift for left hand circularly polarized signal (a phase shift for right hand circularly polarized signal) for excitation of transmission line 2. The resultant excitation of coaxial lines 1-4 with different balanced and orthogonal energy results in a circularly polarized signal radiated from the antenna structure including members 9-12 and member 7.

When the antenna structure of FIG. 1 is employed for receiving left and right hand circularly polarized energy, members 9-12 and member 7 cause coaxial lines 1 and 4 and coaxial lines 2 and 3 to be excited in a balanced relation with these pairs of coaxial lines being excited in phase quadrature. This results in the ports of hybrids 13 and 14 being excited as follows: 0 (+90) from line 4, 180 (90) from line 1, +90 (0) from line 3 and 90 (180) from line 2. There then will result at ports 18 and 19 output signals resulting from received left hand and right hand circularly polarized signals. When the antenna structure including members 9-12 and member 7 receive vertically polarized omnidirectional radiation, coaxial transmission lines 1-4 are excited by inphase received energy as indicated by the symbol applied to the ports of hybrids 13 and 14. The output from the inphase ports of hybrids 13 and 14 are coupled to port 17 through power adder 16.

While I have described above the principles of my invention in connection with specific apparatus, it is to be clearly understood that this description is made only by way of example and not as a limitation to the scope of my invention as set forth in the objects thereof and in the accompanying claims.

I claim:

1. A multimode turnstile antenna capable of having simultaneously a vertically polarized omnidirectional pattern, a right hand circularly polarized omnidirectional pattern and a left hand circularly polarized omnidirectional pattern comprising:

four coaxial transmission lines disposed in a vertical parallel relationship, each of said coaxial lines including an inner conductor and an outer conductor;

a frusto-conical member having its smaller diameter end disposed adjacent the upper end of said coaxial lines to electrically and physically interconnect said outer conductors of all said coaxial lines; and

four members disposed adjacent'said upper end of said coaxial lines, each of said members being coupled to said center conductor of a different one of said coaxial lines and extending outwardly at an angle with respect to the associated one of said coaxial lines. 7

2. An antenna according to claim 1, wherein said members are orthogonally related with respect to each other.

3. An antenna according to claim 2, wherein each of said coaxial lines are excited by inphase energy and simultaneously each of said coaxial lines are excited by different orthogonally related enery- 4. An antenna according to claim 2, wherein each of said members have a length equal to approximately one quarter wavelength at the operating frequency of said antenna.

5. An antenna according to claim 2, wherein the side of said frusto-conical member has a length greater than one quarter wavelength at the operating frequency of said antenna.

6. An antenna according to claim 2, further including a first balanced hybrid having a first balanced port, a first inphase port, a first port coupled to said center conductor of a first of said coaxial lines and a second port coupled to said center conductor of a second of said coaxial lines diagonally disposed with respect to said first of said coaxial lines, said first port being responsive to first energy, said second port being responsive to said first energy having a 180 phase relationship with said first energy at said first port and said first and second ports simultaneously being responsive to inphase second energy;

a second balanced hybrid having a second balanced port, a second inphase port, a third port coupled to said center conductor of a third of said coaxial lines and a fourth port coupled to said center conductor of a fourth of said coaxial lines diagonally disposed with respect to said third of said coaxial lines, said third port being responsive to said first energy having a phase relationship with said first energy at said first port, said fourth port being responsive to said first energy having a +90 phase relationship with said first energy at said first port and said third and fourth ports simultaneously being responsive to said inphase second energy;

third means connected in common to said first and second inphase ports; and

a quadrature hybrid having a fifth port, a sixth port, a 0 phase port coupled to said first balanced port and a 90 phase port coupled to said second balanced port.

7. An antenna according to claim 6, wherein said third means includes a power divider.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3906514 *May 23, 1973Sep 16, 1975Harris Intertype CorpDual polarization spiral antenna
US3919710 *Nov 27, 1974Nov 11, 1975Bottoms Donald JTurnstile and flared cone UHF antenna
US4012742 *Dec 29, 1975Mar 15, 1977International Telephone And Telegraph CorporationMultimode loop antenna
US4031539 *Dec 11, 1975Jun 21, 1977Rca CorporationBroadband turnstile antenna
US4088970 *Feb 26, 1976May 9, 1978Raytheon CompanyPhase shifter and polarization switch
US4198641 *Feb 14, 1977Apr 15, 1980Rca CorporationRotating field polarization antenna system
US4317122 *Aug 18, 1980Feb 23, 1982Rca CorporationDuopyramid circularly polarized broadcast antenna
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Classifications
U.S. Classification343/797, 342/373, 342/365, 343/846
International ClassificationH01Q21/26, H01Q25/00, G01S1/02, G01S19/44, G01S19/46
Cooperative ClassificationH01Q21/26, H01Q25/00, G01S1/02
European ClassificationG01S1/02, H01Q25/00, H01Q21/26
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 22, 1985ASAssignment
Owner name: ITT CORPORATION
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:INTERNATIONAL TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:004389/0606
Effective date: 19831122