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Publication numberUS3726789 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 10, 1973
Filing dateApr 5, 1971
Priority dateApr 5, 1971
Publication numberUS 3726789 A, US 3726789A, US-A-3726789, US3726789 A, US3726789A
InventorsS Kovach
Original AssigneeAshland Oil Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hydrocarbon conversion process for the production of olefins and aromatics
US 3726789 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Int. Cl. C10g 13/02 U.S. Cl. 208-80 10 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Disclosed is a petroleum refining process which maximizes production of aromatics and olefins. Process incorporates hydrocracking, catalytic cracking, reforming, polymerization, dehydrogenation and extraction operations with maximized cycling of refinery streams to the reforming and dehydrogenation phases.

RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation of our copending application Ser. No. 28,271, filed Apr. 21, 1970, now abandoned, which in turn was a continuation of our application Ser. No. 665,748, filed Sept. 6, 1967, now abandoned, but copending at the date of filing our Ser. No. 28,271 application.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the conversion of hydrocarbons, such as petroleum oils, shale oils, tar sand oils, and coal liquids to aromatics and olefins. More specifically, the present invention relates to an integrated petrochemical complex including units for the production of aromatics and olefins and their separation as pure hydrocarbons.

Still more specifically the present invention relates to a method for the conversion of petroleum oils, shale oils, tar sand oils and coal liquids to aromatics and olefins, comprising; separating a crude mixture to produce a C to C fraction, a C to 360 F. naphtha fraction, a 360 to 600 F. light gas oil fraction, and a 600 F.+ residuum fraction; hydrocracking the residuum to produce a C and C fraction, a C to C fraction, a C 360 F. fraction and a 360 F.+ fraction; catalytically cracking the 360 F.+ fraction of the hydrocracker and the virgin 360 to 600 F. fraction to produce a C and C fraction, a C to C fraction, a C to 360 P. fraction, and a 360 F.+ cycle oil fraction; recycling the cycle oil fraction to the hydrocracking unit; combining the virgin C to 360 P. fraction with the C to 360 F. hydrocracking fraction and the C to 360 F. catalytic cracking fraction and subjecting the combination to catalytic reforming to produce a C and C fraction, a C to C fraction and a highly aromatic reform'ate; solvent extracting the reformate to selectively remove aromatics and produce a non-aromatic rafiinate fraction, benzene, toluene, xylene and a C aromatic fraction; hydrodealkylating the toluene to produce additional benzene; clay treating the benzene from reforming and hydrodealkylation; isomerizing the xylene and crystallizing the isornerizate to produce ethylbenzene and/or paraxylene by removing ethylbenzene by fractionation, removing paraxylene from dimethylbenzene by crystallization and recycling the dimethylbenzene to the isomerization unit, or recycling the ethylbenzene and dimethylbenzene to the isomerization unit to extinction; separating pseudocumene from the 0 aromatic fraction, removing dureue from the remaining material by crystallization and isomerizing the residual product to 3,725,789 Patented Apr. 10, 1S73 produce additional quantities or durene; polymerizing the C to C catalytic cracking product and the C to C fraction of the reforming step to produce olefin polymers; hydrogenating the olefin polymers to produce isoparaffinio jet fuels and white oils; dehydrogenating C to C parafiins fromthe crude oils, the hydrocracking step, the reforming step and the polymerization-hydrogenation steps to produce a parafiin-olefin mixture; recycling the parafifins to the dehydrogenation unit; and subjecting the olefins to polymerization-hydrogenation to produce additional jet fuel and white oil.

SUMMARY OF THE PRIOR ART In conventional petroleum refinery operations, the crude oil is passed to a distillation unit normally called a crude column and the oil is fractionated into various cuts, including light and heavy naphtha, light and heavy gas oil fractions, and a residuum portion boiling too high to vaporize in the crude column. This residual portion can be subjected to vacuum distillation or coking operations to produce additional gas oil fractions.

Such conventional petroleum refining operations are generally conducted for the purpose of maximizing the production of automotive gasoline. Therefore, the light and heavy naphthas are processed in a catalytic reforming unit to yield gasoline. The light and heavy gas oil fractions are processed in a fluid catalytic cracking unit to yield gasoline and some light olefin materials. The light olefinic materials and parafiins are processed in a polymerization or alkylation unit to likewise produce automo tive gasoline.

More recently, hydrocracking has been utilized to convert gas oils and cycle oils to automotive gasolines and middle distillates. As a consequence of the utilization of hydrocracking, as indicated, reduced volumes of olefins are being produced.

Finally, the separation of olefins and aromatics from the integrated refinery streams is performed with the thought in mind that gasoline production will not be upset. Specifically, aromatic removal is selectively carried out so as not to reduce the octane value of the gasoline and olefin removal is selectively carried out so as not to interrupt or upset the production of alkylation product which, likewise, is incorporated in automotive gasoline.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In view of the foregoing, it is an object of the present invention to provide an integrated petrochemical complex wherein the full range of crude hydrocarbon oils are efiiciently and effectively converted to petrochemicals. It is a further object of the present invention to provide an integrated petrochemical complex wherein the full range of hydrocarbon crude oils is effectively and efliciently converted to aromatics and olefins. It is a still further object of the present invention to provide an integrated petrochemical complex wherein aromatics are produced through high severity reforming and olefins are produced through fluid catalytic cracking and dehydrogenation. Another and further object of the present invention is to provide an integrated petrochemical complex wherein aromatics are further processed to yield benzene and paraxylene and reduced amounts of ethylbenzene, pseudocumene and durene. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an integrated petrochemical complex wherein olefins are converted to isoparaffinic materials by polymerization and hydrogenation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an integrated petrochemical complex wherein light paraffins are converted to additional volumes of olefins by dehydrogenation. Another object of the present invention is to provide an integrated petrochemical complex wherein light paraffins are converted to additional volumes of olefins by dehydrogenation and the additional olefins are then converted to polyolefins by polymerization.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The single figure of the drawings shows the integrated system of the present invention in block diagram form.

In accordance with the drawings, a crude oil such as petroleum oils, shale oils, oils derived from tar sands, oils derived from coal, as by solvent extraction or carbonization, and like broad boiling range crude oils are charged to a still 10 through line 12. In still 10, the crude oil is fractionally distilled to separate C and C gases which are discharged through line 14, a C fraction discharged through line 16, a C to 360 F. (C fraction discharged through line 18, a light gas oil fraction boiling between about 360 and 600 F. discharged through line 20, and a residuum boiling above about 600 F. discharged through line 22.

The heavy residual fraction boiling above about 600 F. passing through line 22 is discharged to a hydrocracking line unit 24. C and C gases from the hydrocracking unit 24 are discharged through line 26, C to C gases are discharged through line 28, a naphtha fraction from C to 360 F. is discharged through line 30 and a light gas oil fraction boiling above about 360 F. is discharged through line 32. The light gas oil fraction from the distillation unit 10 (in line and the gas oil fraction from the hydrocracking unit in line 32 are combined and processed in a fluid catalytic cracking unit 34. The principal products of the fluid catalytic cracking unit are gases, including hydrogen, methane and ethane, discharged through line 36, C through C gases, discharged through line 38, a fluid catalytic cracked gasoline boiling from C to 360 F., discharged through line 40, and a heavy cycle oil boiling above about 360 F., discharged through line 42. The heavy cycle oils in line 42 are recycled to line 44 and thence to the catalytic cracking unit; and, when a highly aromatic cycle oil is obtained, this material is recycled to the hydrocracking unit 24 through line 46 controlled by valve 48. In hydrocracking unit 24, this highly aromatic cycle oil is converted to light paratfins, naphtha and gas oils. The naphtha or gasoline fractions from the distillation unit 10, the hydrocracking unit 24 and the catalytic cracking unit 34 are combined and sent to a high severity reforming unit 50. The principal products of the reforming unit 50 are hydrogen, methane, and ethane, discharged through line 52, C and C gases, discharged through line 54, and a liquid reformate of highly aromatic character, discharged through line 56. The reformate is then passed to solvent extraction unit 58 where aromatics are selectively removed by an aromatic selective solvent and an essentially non-aromatic raflinate is formed. The non-aromatic raffinate is recycled to the fluid catalytic cracking unit 34 through line 60 for further conversion to aromatics and principally light paraflins and olefins. The aromatic extract is divided into a high purity benzene, discharged through line 62, high purity toluene, discharged through line 64, high purity xylene discharged through line 66, and a C aromatic fraction. The toluene fraction is passed to the hydrodealkylation unit 68 to produce substantial quantities of benzene. The benzene from hydrodealkylation unit 68 is discharged through line 70 to a clay-treating unit 72 to produce a high purify benzene discharged through line 74. This benzene is combined with the benzene from the reforming unit which has been separated in the solvent extraction unit, to produce very substantial yields of benzene per barrel of crude oil fed to the processing system. The xylene fraction is passed to isomerization unit 76 and thence to crystallization unit 78 through line 80. Substantial amounts of ethylbenzene and paraxy ne are produc d from. the isomerizat on-crystallization operation. From the crystallization unit, ethylbenzene is fractionated out, as an overhead, and recovered through line 82, and a bottoms fraction of dimethylbenzene is discharged through line 84. The dimethylbenzene fraction is passed to cooling unit 86 to produce high purity paraxylene, which is discharged through line 88, and a mother liquor containing orthoand meta-xylene which is recycled through line 90 to isomerization unit 76. This recycle is practiced to extinction of the orthoand metaxylene. As an alternative, the isomerization unit can be operated with an isomerization catalyst capable of converting ethylbenzene to dimethylbenzene and the above crystallization and isomerization steps can be operated with recycle to extinction. The C aromatic fraction, produced from the extract of extraction unit 58, can be separated, as by fractionation, to produce high purity pseudocumene and tetramethylbenzene, which are discharged through lines 92 and 94, respectively. The tetramethylbenzene is passed to crystallization unit 96 to obtain high purity durene, discharged through line 98. The mother liquors of the crystallization unit 96, containing isodurene and prehnitene are discharged through line 100 to isomerization unit 102. In isomerization unit 102, these materials are converted to further amounts of durene which are recycled to crystallization unit 96 through line 104. Here again, the crystallization-isomerization is carried out with recycle to extinction.

The light paraffin-olefin fraction from the catalytic cracking of gas oils and reformate raflinates, is processed in polymerization unit 106. In this unit, the olefins are converted to polyolefinic materials boiling above gasoline. The polyolefinic material is discharged through line 108 to hydrogenation unit 110. In hydrogenation unit 110, the polymers are converted to isoparaflinic materials highly useful as jet fuels and white oils, discharged through line 112, and high octane gasoline, which is discharged through line 114. Light parafiins are separated and discharged through line 116. The light paraffin fractions (propane, butane, pentane) from distillation unit 10, hydrocracking unit 24, reforming unit 34 and hydrogenation unit 110 are passed to dehydrogenation unit 118 through line 120. The dehydrogenation unit 118 produces a mixture of paraflins and olefins which is discharged through line 122. This mixture is processed in polymerization and hydrogenation units 106 and 110 to yield additional quantities of isoparaflins for use as jet fuels and white oils. Unconverted light paraflins are recycled to dehydrogenation unit 118 through line 124 for conversion to further quantities of olefins. A by-product of the dehydrogenation unit is a large volume of high purity hydrogen discharged through line 126. This hydrogen is, of course, useful in the operation of the hydrodealkylation and the hydrocracking units. Further, substantial volumes of olefins are produced in the dehydrogenation unit which may be separated through line 128 and purified for ultimate product use.

While conventional petroleum refining techniques yield 50% or more of automotive gasoline per barrel of crude oil processed and treat the heavier liquids for use as home and factory fuels, the present system yields 70% or greater per barrel of crude oil of pure hydrocarbons of extremely high value.

Hydrocracking unit 24 may be a conventional hydrocracking means employing two-stage hydrocracking containing a conventional hydrocracking catalyst, such as a precious metal on silica-alumina. The hydrocracking unit is operated at a pressure above about 500 p.s.i.g., and preferably 1000 to 3000 p.s.i.g., a temperature of about 400 to 850 F., a hydrogen feed rate of about 1000 to 20,000 s.c.f. per barrel, preferably 2000 to 10,000 s.c.f. per barrel, of feed, and at a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.3 to 5.0.

The hydrocracking unit may be supplied with hydrogen from the reforming and dehydrogenation operations,

Rather than employ a two-stage hydrocracking unit, it is also possible to employ a hydrofining unit followed by a single stage of hydrocracking. In this instance, the hydrofining catalyst will be a conventional catalyst such as nickel-molybdate on alumina. Processing conditions for the removal of nitrogen-sulfur compounds from the feed in the hydrofining unit and to saturate olefins and aromatics include a liquid hourly space velocity of about 1 to 3, a temperature of about 650 to 800 F., a pressure of about 500 to 2000 p.s.i.g., and a hydrogen rate of about 1000 to 10,000 s.c.f. per barrel of feed.

Catalytic cracking unit 34 preferably utilizes a conventional fluid cracking catalyst such as fluidized silicaalumina, a pressure of about to 50 p.s.i.g., a temperature of about 850 to 1100 F., a catalyst to oil ratio of about 2/1 to 5/1, and a reactor space velocity of about 0.5 to 5.0.

Catalytic reforming unit 50 utilizes a conventional reforming catalyst such as platinum on alumina. However, the conditions of operation are substantially higher than conventional conditions in order to maximize the production of aromatics and hydrogen. The high severity reforming conditions employed include a temperature of about 900 to 1000 F., a pressure of about 50 to 200 p.s.i.g., a liquid hourly space velocity between about 1 ano 10, and a hydrogen rate of about 2000 to 10,000 s.c.f. per barrel of feed. A hydrofining section may also be included in advance of the reforming unit for the removal of nitrogen and sulfur compounds from the feed. This hydrofining unit will also contain a conventional catalyst, such as nickel-molybdate on alumina, and be operated under conditions including a temperature of about 600 to 800 F., a pressure of about 200 to 1000 p.s.i.g., a liquid hourly space velocity between about 1 and 10, and a hydrogen rate of about 200 to 2000 s.c.f. per barrel of feed. A conventional hydrogen purification unit adapted to remove light paraflins from reformer gases to yield a high purity hydrogen stream may also be combined in reformer 50.

The solvent extraction unit 58 is preferably a unit employing a solvent system selective for aromatic materials. Specifically a mixture of glycols and water may be utilized. The aromatic extract from extraction unit 58 is subjected to conventional fractionation yield pure aromatic fractions. These fractions are sent to their respective processing zones for further conversion and/or end product use.

The hydrodealkylation unit 68 may also be conventionally operated, utilizing a catalyst, such as chromia on alumina, at a temperature of about 1000 to 1400 F., a pressure of about 400 to 1000 p.s.i.g., a liquid hour- 1y space velocity of about 0.5 to 5.0 and a hydrogen rate of about 1000 to 4000 s.c.f. per barrel of feed. Hydrogen for the hydrodealkylation unit may also be supplied from the reforming and dehydrogenation operations. Benzene from the hydrodealkylation unit is preferably distilled and hot clay treated at a temperature of about 100 to 400 F. and a pressure of about 100 to 1000 p.s.i.g.

The isomerization-crystallization system for treating the xylene stream can be one of a series of such systems. The crystallization zone may contain 1 to 3 cooling stages in a temperature range from about 25 C. to 50 C. The isomerization zone can be a fixed or moving bed system. Isomerization can be utilized in the treatment of an ethylbenzene-rich or an ethylbenzene depleted stream. Isomerization, in this instance, can be practiced in the presence of a conventional catalyst such as platinum on silica-alumina and under conditions including a temperature of about 800 to 950 F., a pressure of 50 to 200 p.s.i.g., a liquid hourly space velocity of 0.5 to 10, and a hydrogen rate of about 500 to 3000 s.c.f. per barrel of feed.

Ethylbenzene can be removed from ethylbenzene-rich xylene streams by conventional fractionation such as superfractionation in a distillation column having about 200 to 300 theoretical trays. The ethylbenzene-depleted xylene stream can be isomerized under conventional conditions in a fixed or moving bed of an isomerization catalyst, such as silica-alumina. Temperatures of about 600 to 900 F., a pressure of about 0 to 1000 p.s.i.g., a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to 10, and a hydrogen rate of about 0 to 1000 s.c.f. per barrel of feed can be utilized.

Polymerization unit 106 is operated under conditions such that gasoline production is suppressed. More specifically, the polymerization zone utilizes a catalyst, such as boria-alumina, at a temperature of about 75 to 400 F.; a pressure of about to 1000 p.s.i.g.; a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.2 to 5.

Hydrogenation unit 110 employs a catalyst such as platinum on alumina, at a temperature of about 200 to 600 F., a pressure of about 100 to 1000 p.s.i.g., a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to 5.0, and a hydrogen rate of about 500 to 3000 s.c.f. per barrel of feed.

The dehydrogenation unit 118 may utilize a catalyst, such as chromia on alumina at a temperature of about 900 to 1200 F., a pressure from atmospheric to subatmospheric, a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to 10, and a gas dilution ratio of about 0 to 20 moles of gas per mole of feed.

To the extent olefins are to be withdrawn for chemical use, conventional separation means, such as distillation, or selective solvent extraction, may be employed. Olefin separation can also be effected by passing the dehydrogenation unit product through the polymerization zone with recycle of the unconverted light paraffins to essential extinction.

Having described the present invention in detail with reference to a specific flow diagram and specific examples, it is to be understood that these are by way of illustration only and that the present invention is to be limited only by the appended claims.

I claim:

1. A method of producing substantial volumes of ammatic hydrocarbons, comprising:

(a) subjecting a broad boiling range hydrocarbon oil to distillation to separate the same into: (1) gaseous C C and C fractions, (2) a liquid fraction having a boiling range between about C and 360 F., (3) a light gas oil boiling between about 360 and 600 F., and (4) a residuum fraction boiling above 600 F.;

(b) subjecting said fraction boiling above 600 F. to hydrocracking in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst at a pressure of about 500 to 3000 p.s.i.g., a temperature of about 400 to 850 F., a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.3 to 5.0 and at a hydrogen rate of about 1000 to 20,000 s.c.f./bbl. to produce:

(1) a gaseous C C and C fraction,

(2) a naphtha fraction boiling between about C and 360 F., and

(3) a light gas oil fraction boiling above about (c) subjecting said fraction boiling between 360 and 600 F. (a) from said distillation and said fraction boiling above 360 F. from said hydrocracking of (b) to fluid catalytic cracking in the presence of a cracking catalyst at a pressure of about 0 to 50 p.s.i.g., a temperature of about 850 to 1100 F., a catalystto-oil ratio between about 2:1 and 5:1 and a reactor space velocity of about 0.5 to 5.0 to produce:

(1) a gaseous C C and C mixture of parafiins and olefins,

(2) a gasoline fraction boiling between about C and 360 F., and

(3) a heavy cycle oil fraction boiling above about (d) recycling said fraction boiling above 360 F. from said catalytic cracking of (c) to said catalytic cracking in (c);

(e) subjecting said C C and C fraction from (c) to polymerization in the presence of a polymerization catalyst at a pressure of about 100 to 1000 p.s.i.g., a temperature of about 75 to 400 F. and a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.2 to 5.0 to produce gasoline and a polyolefinic product boiling above gasoline;

(f) subjecting said polyolefinic product from (c) to hydrogenation in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst at a pressure of about 100 to 1000 p.s.i.g., a temperature of about 200 to 600 F., a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to 5.0 and a hydrogen rate of about 500 to 3000 s.c.f./bbl. to produce a gaseous C C and C fraction, a gasoline fraction and an isoparaffin fraction;

(g) subjecting said C to 360 F. fraction from said distillation in (a), said C to 360 P. fraction from said hydrocracking in (b) and C to 360 F. fraction from said catalytic cracking in (c) to reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst at a pressure of about 50 to 200 p.s.i.g., a temperature of about 900 to 1000 F., a liquid hourly space velocity of about 1 to and a hydrogen rate of about 2000 to 10000 s.c.f./bbl. to produce:

(1) a gaseous C and C fraction and (2) a liquid reformate fraction;

(h) subjecting said liquid reformate fraction from (g) to solvent extraction to separate the same into a nonaromatic raffinate fraction, benzene, a toluene fraction, a xylene fraction, and an aromatic C plus fraction;

(i) subjecting said toluene fraction from said extraction in (h) to hydrodealkylation in the presence of a hydrodealkylation catalyst at a pressure of about 400 to 1000 p.s.i.g. a temperature of about 1000 to 1400 F. a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to 5.0 and a hydrogen rate of about 1000 to 4000 s.c.f./ bbl. to produce benzene;

(j) subjecting said xylene fraction from (h) to hydroisomerization in the presence of an isomerization catalyst at a pressure of about 50 to 200 p.s.i.g. a temperature of about 800 to 950 F. a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to 10 and a hydrogen rate of about 500 to 3000 s.c.f./bbl. to produce ethylbenzene and dimethylbenzenes;

(k) separating paraxylene from said dimethylbenzenes and recycling the remaining portion of the isomerizate from (j) to the isomerization in (j) until essentially all of the orthoand metaxylenes therein are eliminated;

( 1) subjecting the C -PlUS fraction from said extraction in (h) to separation to produce pseudocumene durene, isodurene, and prehnitene;

(m) subjecting said isodurene and said prehnite ne to isomerization in the presence of an isomerization catalyst at a pressure of about 0 to 1000 p.s.i.g. a

temperature of about 600 to 900 F. a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to 10 and a hydrogen rate of about 0 to 1000 s.c.f./bbl.,

(n) subjecting said non-aromatic raflinate from said extraction to said catalytic cracking in (e); and

(o) subjecting said gaseous C C and C fractions of (a)(1), (b)(1, (f) and -(g)(1) to dehydrogenation to produce a mixture of paraffins and olefins.

2. .A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein the heavy cycle oil boiling above 360 F. from the catalytic cracking in (c) is subjected to the hydrocracking when the aromatic content thereof has increased to a point where said aromatic content is predominant.

3. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein the solvent extraction in (h) is carried out by means of a glycol-water solvent.

4. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein the isomerization catalyst utilized in the isomerization of the xylene fraction in (j) is selected to convert the ethylbenzene to xylenes.

5. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein the C C and C fractions from the distillation, in (a), the hydrocracking, in (b), the reforming, in (g), and the hydrogenation in (e) are subjected to dehydrogenation in the presence of a dehydrogenation catalyst at a pressure of about atmospheric to subatmospheric, at a temperature of about 900 to 1200 F., a liquid hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to 10 and while maintaining a gas dilution ratio of about 0 to 20 moles of gas per mole of feed and the product of said dehydrogenation is subjected to the polymerization.

6. A method in accordance with claim 5 wherein C C and C parafiins are separated from the dehydrogenation product and recycled to the dehydrogenation.

7. A method in accordance with claim 5 wherein a portion of the olefinic content of the dehydrogenation product is separated therefrom prior to passage of said dehydrogenation product to the polymerization.

8. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein the hydrogen oil is a petroleum crude oil.

9. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein the hydrocarbon oil is an oil obtained from solid carbonaceous materials.

10. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein the polymerization catalyst is boria deposited on an alumina base.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,172,842 3/1965 Paterson 208 3,185,639 5/1965 Paterson 208-68 3,409,540 11/1968 Gould et al 208-79 DELBERT E. GANTZ, Primary Examiner G. E. SCHMITKONS, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3862899 *Nov 7, 1972Jan 28, 1975Pullman IncProcess for the production of synthesis gas and clean fuels
US3944481 *Nov 5, 1973Mar 16, 1976The Dow Chemical CompanyConversion of crude oil fractions to olefins
US4409092 *Oct 1, 1981Oct 11, 1983Ashland Oil, Inc.Combination process for upgrading oil products of coal, shale oil and crude oil to produce jet fuels, diesel fuels and gasoline
US4565620 *May 25, 1984Jan 21, 1986Phillips Petroleum CompanyCrude oil refining
US4594144 *Jun 14, 1985Jun 10, 1986Uop Inc.Process for making high octane gasoline
US4713221 *Sep 16, 1985Dec 15, 1987Phillips Petroleum CompanyHeavy cycle oil from catalytic cracking recycled to hydrofining unit
US4798665 *Apr 27, 1987Jan 17, 1989Uop Inc.Combination process for the conversion of a distillate hydrocarbon to maximize middle distillate production
US20120071701 *Sep 21, 2010Mar 22, 2012Uop LlcIntegration of Cyclic Dehydrogenation Process with FCC for Dehydrogenation of Refinery Paraffins
EP0436253A1 *Dec 20, 1990Jul 10, 1991Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V.Process for preparing one or more light hydrocarbon oil distillates
Classifications
U.S. Classification208/80, 208/58, 208/61, 208/68, 208/96, 208/67, 208/60, 208/70, 208/71
International ClassificationC07C5/27, C10G69/00, C10L1/06, C10G69/12, C07C15/00
Cooperative ClassificationC07C15/00, C10L1/06, C07C5/2702, C10G69/126, C10G69/00
European ClassificationC07C5/27A, C10G69/00, C10L1/06, C10G69/12P, C07C15/00