US 3729107 A
A refuse handling system wherein refuse is placed in a container and compacted with a steam of water. After compacting the refuse is coated with a homogeneous film of a foamed polymeric material. The polymeric material can comprise any suitable resinous material. The container for use in this invention can be a wheeled vehicle. Compacted bails of refuse material and other goods in containers can be coated in accordance with this invention.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
U 1Jmted States Patent 1 1 1111 3,729,197
Present  Apr. 24, 1973 METHOD OF COMPACTING AND 2,998,214 8/1961 Peterman ..206/FCX COATING REFUGE MATERlAL 3.067352 12/1962 Vodicka et 21].. ..313/1 16 3,115,982 12/1963 Morrison ..220/1.5  Inventor: Mortimer T. Present, 535 West 73rd 3'416692 12/1968 Cline et 206/46 FC x Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 2,907,627 10/1959 Cummings... ..264/54 X 3,330,088 7/1967 Dunlea ..53/24  June 1969 3,451,185 6/1969 Tezuka.... ..53/22 21 Appl 35 090 3,514,696 6/1970 Harza ..62/341 Primary ExaminerEdward G. Whitby  U.S. C1. ..2l4/l52, 53/24, 53/124. w weikart E h & Naughton 1()()73,1l7/94,117/161P,117/161KP, 1 17/104 R, 117/D1G. 3, 206/46 FC, 220/9 F,  ABSTRACT 214 41 51 Int. Cl .365 5/04 f 1 handling sysmm wfierein refuse is Placed in a 158 Field Of Search ..53/24, 124; 100/73; compact? a 3 of water- 17/94 161 KP, 161 P, 47 DIG 3 161 DD, compacting the refuse 1s c oated with a homogeneol ls 161 H; 214/41, 152, 104 R; 206/46 FC; f ff foamed pFlymenc P g ff 220/9 F; 264/45 332; 61/35 mdtena can comprise any surta e resinous matena The container for use in this mventlon can be a  References Cited wheeled vehicle. Compact ed balls of refuse metenal and other goods m containers can be coated in ac- UNITED STAT S PATENTS cordance with this invention.
3,466,873 9/1969 Present ..61/35 7 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures METHOD OF COMPACTING AND COATING REFUGE MATERIAL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention is generally concerned with coating and compacting systems. More specifically this inven tion is concerned with a refuse handling system which is useful in the preparation of refuse for shipment to distant points for disposal. Likewise, the invention is concerned with a coating system for compacted and uncompacted refuse material and other goods.
2. Description of the Prior Art For many thousands of years human garbage and refuse have been disposed of by placing the same in undesirable areas which are usually called dumps. This method of disposal while having some advantages is thoroughly undesirable in a modern society due to the fact that these dumps are breeding places for rodents, insects and often emit obnoxious odors.
Because of the disadvantages of the open dump, suitable improvements were naturally forthcoming. A widely used method for disposing of garbage and refuse at the present time generally comprises a sanitary land fill. In this prior art embodiment, garbage and refuse is still hauled to an open pit or an isolated area. However, instead of allowing the garbage to remain in an open state, it is covered with a layer of earth. Generally the refuse is laid down in layers and each section is covered with a separate layer of earth. Before each layer of refuse is covered with earth fill it may be soaked with water and compacted with heavy rollers. While this method is quite satisfactory from a sanitation point of view, it is rather expensive and in many cases it is becoming impossible to utilize, due to the absence of suitable land for sanitary fill. Likewise, many big cities are virtually surrounded by suburbs. These generally have driven land prices up to a point where land cannot be economically utilized for sanitary land fills in the manner described above. Even though the sanitary land fill system is generally satisfactory, it is desirable that these land fills be located away from the human populace. Because of suburbs it is virtually impossible to find suitable land in the vicinity of many large cities. As a result of these problems there is an acute need for an alternative method for handling garbage and refuse.
In recent years the possibility of moving garbage and refuse to isolated areas which are considerably removed from their point of origin has been widely discussed. For example, it is widely advocated that garbage and refuse be shipped to remote areas such as abandoned strip mines for final disposal. These remote areas are often located a considerable distance from the chief source of garbage and refuse, namely large cities. In order to make this shipment possible the refuse and garbage must be properly handled before shipment commences.
In the prior art there is also a problem with protecting goods from the weather, and the environment from the goods during shipment.
This invention is concerned with a method whereby refuse and garbage can be properly treated before shipment and a method for sealing shipping Containers prior to shipment.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention is concerned with a refuse handling system wherein the refuse is placed in a container and continuously compacted with a stream of water. The stream of water is generally supplied by an overhead spigot. For use in accordance with this invention, it is preferred that the container be a wheeled vehicle. After compacting, the exposed areas of the container are coated with a homogeneous film of a foamed polymeric material. This film generally isolates the compacted refuse from insects and rodents and prevents the emission of obnoxious odors.
The invention also includes the coating of bails of compacted refuse material, containers containing bails of compacted refuse material, other goods and uncompacted refuse material with a foamed polymeric material.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a schematic side view illustrating one embodiment of the refuse handling system of this inventionwherein the refuse material is compacted and coated;
FIG. 2 is a schematic side view illustrating another embodiment of this invention wherein the exposed surface of the contents of a container containing compacted bails of'refuse material and other goods is coated; and
FIG. 3 is aschematic side view illustrating another embodiment of this invention wherein bails of compacted refuse material are coated.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. 1, it can be seen that at station 2 gondola car 6 is located on railroad track 22. While located at station 2 a conveyor 8 is adapted to continuously supply garbage and refuse material 7 to gondola car 6. Once refuse material 7 is located in the gondola car a continuous stream of water 11 is directed against this material. The stream of water 11 originates from a spigot 10 which is connected via pipes 9 and 12 to a pump 14. Due to the continuous pounding the stream of water exerts on the refuse, immediate compacting is effected. When the compacting is effected the used water is drawn from car 6 through suitable ports 3 which can be closed when not in use. This used water generally falls to the ground in the vicinity of track 22 and is collected. The collected water is pumped through pipe 20 to a filter 16 wherein excess debris is removed from the water. Water from filter 16 is transported to pump 14 through pipe 18 wherein it is recirculated in the manner as described above.
It can be seen from a close examination of FIG. 1 that spigot 10 is connected to a horizontal pipe section 9 which is in turn connected to a vertical pipe section 12. Spigot I0 is pivotally attached to horizontal pipe section 9 through liquid tight pivot 5. Likewise, thispipe section is pivotally attached to vertical section 12 via liquid tight pivot 13. Because of these pivotal mounting points, it is possible to direct water stream 1 1 against any point on the inside of the gondola car. Hence uniform and complete compacting is possible.
Once a gondola car is filled with compacted refuse, it is moved from station 2 to station 4. At station 4 the exposed area of gondola car is generally sealed with a foamed polymeric material. It can be seen that the upper side of the gondola car generally comprises open compacted refuse 7. Because this compacted refuse has a tendency to draw and breed insects and rodents and emit obnoxious odors, it is highly desirable that the compacted refuse be sealed in the gondola car before shipment. In accordance with this invention sealing is effected by the uniform application of a foamed polymeric material in the form of layer 35 to the exposed areas of the contents of gondola car 6.
The foam polymeric material is generally supplied in the form of a spray 24 which originates from nozzle 26. This nozzle is attached to a vertical pipe section 25 which in turn is pivotally attached to horizontal pipe section 28 via a liquid tight pivot 27. Horizontal pipe section 28 is in turn pivotally attached to a vertical pipe section 31 via a liquid tight pivot 29. Vertical pipe section 31 is attached to a pump 32 by means of a short pipe section 30.
Polymeric material is supplied to pump 32 from bin 33. It is understood by one skilled in the art that the mechanical nature of pump 32 and bin 33 will vary with the nature of a polymeric material being utilized. If a liquid polymeric system is being used, pump 32 can be a standard heavy duty pump. Conversely if a granular polymeric system is being utilized, pump 32 can be a heated or unheated extruder.
Polymeric materials as used in accordance with this invention contain a blowing agent which can be a gas or a compound which decomposes to produce a gas.
The polymeric material of spray 24 leaves nozzle 26 in an unfoamed but plastic state. The trapped or dissolved gases tend to expand when the pressure on the resin decreases after it leaves nozzle 26. Due to its plastic state upon leaving nozzle 26, the polymeric material has a tendency to adhere to any surface it comes into contact with. Once attached to a surface the dissolved gases continue to expand in such a fashion that a foam structure is formed in situ on the surface. That is to say, coating 35 in accordance with this invention incorporates a foam structure. Because a foam structure is utilized, it is possible to achieve maximum surface coverage with a minimum amount of polymeric material. This fact greatly enhances the economics of the subject invention.
Because physical properties of foam layer 35 are not critical a wide range of polymeric materials can be used in accordance with this invention. Likewise, because these physical properties are not critical and the fact that the coating need not stand up for extended periods of time, it is often possible to use off-grades of polymeric materials.
Examples of polymeric materials which are suited for use in this invention include both homopolymeric and copolymeric substances, such as (1) vinyl resins formed by the polymerization of vinyl halides or by the copolymerization of vinyl halides with unsaturated polymerizable compounds, e.g., vinyl esters, a, B-unsaturated acids, 01, B-unsaturated esters, a, B-unsaturated ketones, a, B-unsaturated aldehydes and unsaturated hydrocarbons such as butadienes and styrenes; (2) poly a -olefins such as polyethylene,
polypropylene, polybutylene, polyisoprene, and the like, including copolymers of poly a -olefins; (3) polyurethanes such as are prepared from polyols and organic polyisocyanates; (4) polyamides such as polyhexamethylene adipamide; (5) polyesters such as polymethylene terephthalates; (6) polycarbonates; (7) polyacetals; (8) polyethylene oxide; (9) polystyrene, including polymers of styrene with monomeric compounds such as acrylonitrile and butadiene; (l0) acrylic resins as exemplified by the polymers of methyl acrylate, actylamide, methylol acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and copolymers of these with styrene, vinyl pyridines, etc.; (ll) neoprene; (l2) condensates of aldehydes, especially formaldehyde and formaldehyde engendering substances such as paraformaldehyde; (13) modified and unmodified condensates of hydroxy benzenes like phenol, resorcinol, etc., with the aforementioned aldehydes; (l4) silicones such as dimethyl and methyl hydrogen polysiloxanes; (l5) unsaturated polyesters; (l6) cellulose esters including the nitrate, acetate, propionate, etc.; (17) phenoxy resins; (l8) polysulfanes and l9) polyphenylene oxide resins.
This list is not meant to be limiting or exhaustive but merely to illustrate the wide range of polymeric materials which may be employed in the present invention.
While a large number of resins can be used in accordance with this invention, it is preferred that a polyurethene resin be utilized. Polyurethene resins are particularly advantageous in that they are inexpensive and they incorporate physical properties which readily lend their usage to the subject invention.
A preferred composition for use in this invention consists of a two part polyurethene foam wherein one part is based on crude diphenyl methane diisocyanate. The second part consists of a polyether polyol, Freon which functions as a blowing agent, an amine catalyst with an organation compound and a cell control agent.
For purposes of effecting a foaming action when spray 24 is emitted from nozzle 26, the polymeric material as used in this invention incorporates a blowing agent. This blowing agent can be dissolved gases such as Freon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, air, etc., which tends to expand when the polymeric material is emitted from nozzle 26. When the polymeric material is emitted from the nozzle 26, it is in a softened state which generally permits the expansion of the entrapped gases therein so as to produce a cellular structure.
For use in accordance with this invention, the polymeric material can also contain a solid blowing agent which when heated decomposes in such a fashion so as to produce entrapped gas. This gas expands when the polymeric material is emitted from nozzle 26 in such a fashion as to form a uniform cellular structure.
The process as taught in this invention is adapted to utilize a wide range of solid blowing agents. For example, blowing agents such as azobisformamide; azobisisobutyronitrile; diazoaminobenzene; N,N-dimethyl- N,N-dinitroso terephthalamide; N,N-dinitrosopentamethylene-tetramine; benzenesulfonyl-hydrazide; benzene-l,3-disulfonyl hydrazide; diphenylsulfon-3-3; disulfonyl hydrazide; 4,4'-oxybis benzene sulfonyl hydrazide; p-toluene sulfonyl semicarbazide; barium azodicarboxylate; butylamine nitrile; nitroureas; trihydrazino triazine; phenylmethylurethane P-sulfonhydrazide; and sodium bicarbonate.
The composite process of this invention incorporates a compacting and a coating operation. However, it is within the realm of this invention that the coating operation be utilized in conjunction with other forms of compacted refuse material uncompacted refuse material and other goods. For example, the compacting can be effected by means other than those illustrated, in such a fashion so as to produce large bails of refuse material which likewise must be shipped to a disposal point. The coating of these bails when placed in a shipping container with the foamed polymeric material is within the scope of this invention.
FIG. 2 illustrates this aspect wherein gondola car 6 is loaded with compressed bails of refuse material 37. In this embodiment the exposed areas of .these bails are coated with a foam layer 35 in a manner similar to that described above.
Likewise, it is within the scope of this invention that other manner of goods be substituted for compacted bails 37. For example, the subject coating aspect is useful in conjunction with containers which are being used to ship other goods such as uncompacted refuse material, grain, salt, carbon black, etc. Generally this coating operation can be used to protect any goods during shipment which would be affected by the weather, or to shield the environment from the goods.
Finally, still another embodiment of this invention is illustrated in FIG. 3. In this embodiment compacted bails of refuse material 37 are produced in a compacting machine 39 not illustrated in detail. These bails, while traveling on porous conveyor 41 are coated on all sides with a layer 35 of polymeric material due to the action of sprays 24 which originate from nozzles 26 and 33. The overall spray arrangement is similar to that described above except that a lower spray assembly 42 has been added thereto. This lower spray assembly comprises a nozzle 38, a vertical pipe section 43, a pivot 40 and a connecting pipe section 43. In operation, nozzles 26 and 38 are adapted to swing on pivots 4t) and 27 in such a fashion that all sides of bails 37 are coated with a polymeric foam from streams 24. The coated bails of refuse material may then be safely handled due to the fact that all odors are sealed in and rodents and insects do not have access to the refuse material. This method of treatment is particularly advantageous in that the coated bails can be disposed of directly without further processing. Due to the fact that the refuse material is sealed in the bail, the chances for water pollution are minimized.
It is to be noted that the invention as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 incorporates a single spigot and nozzle 26. However, it is understood by one skilled in the art that a plurality of in series or parallel nozzles and spigots can be readilyincorporated into this invention.
Likewise, this invention is illustrated to incorporate a movable spigot and a nozzle 26. Again, it should be noted that in accordance with this invention these components can be stationary wherein effective compacting and coating is effected by moving the gondola car 6 under these components. As illustrated in FIG. 1, two stations are used in this invention wherein compacting and coating are effected at different points. It is within the realm of this invention to perform these operations at the same station.
Any convenient thickness of foamed polymeric material can be used in accordance with this invention. However, for economics, it is desirable that the thickness of the foamed layer be minimized. Only thicknesses on the order of three-eighths to threefourths of an inch are satisfactory for use in accordance with this invention. Thicknesses of less than a quarter of an inch do not have satisfactory structural integrity wherein thicknesses over three-fourths of an inch are to be avoided for reasons of economics.
In the above description of this invention, the use of mechanized spray nozzles as a means of spraying the foamed polymeric material is specifically described. It is within the scope of this invention to apply these materials from hand held spray guns. These spray guns would be manually controlled and would be used in place of nozzles 26 and 38 as described above. For purposes of spraying a container such as a gondola car, the operator could be located on a catwalk above the car.
Finally it should be noted that while a gondola car is specifically illustrated in some of the above described embodiments of this invention, it is readily understood that this invention can be used in conjunction with any container. For example, this invention can be used in conjunction with palletized containers and other wheeled vehicles, such as the cargo section of a truck.
The above described invention is particularly advantageous in that during shipment the compacted refuse material is securely sealed in the container. Due to this fact, obnoxious odors which are created by the decomposition of the refuse are not readily emitted to the atmosphere. In addition, due to the fact that the refuse material is coated, rodents are not readily attracted thereto. Finally the foamed polymeric material layer also acts as an effective insect barrier. Not only 'does it prevent insects from laying eggs in the refuse after it has been compacted, but it also prevents the escape of any insects from the refuse that should hatch from eggs which are laid therein.
The system of this invention also prevents loose refuse material and other goods from being blown out of the container after coating is effected. Because of the adhesive nature of the coating used, this coating forms a bond with the refuse material or other goods which will prevent it from being blown loose like a tarpaulin. Finally it should be noted that the whole system is made vandal proof.
What is claimed is:
l. A method of compacting refuse material which comprises the steps of placing said refuse material in a shipping container and subjecting said refuse to a stream of water and, after compacting, coating said refuse material with a homogeneous film of a foamed polymeric material.
2. A method of covering the exposed upper surface of the contents of a shipping container which comprises the application of a homogeneous film of foamed polymeric material in liquid form directly to the exposed upper surface of said contents, said foamed polymeric material solidifying to a rigid cell structure after application to the upper surface of said contents whereby the foamed plastic will contact the shipping container and thus seal the contents without the necessity of completely surrounding the contents with polymeric material.
ing of polyurethane, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and polystyrene.
6. The method of claim 2 wherein the polymeric material is a polyurethane.
7. The method of claim 2 wherein said shipping container is in a wheeled vehicle.