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Publication numberUS3729221 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 24, 1973
Filing dateFeb 4, 1969
Priority dateFeb 5, 1968
Also published asDE1904053A1, DE1904053B2, DE1904053C3
Publication numberUS 3729221 A, US 3729221A, US-A-3729221, US3729221 A, US3729221A
InventorsH Granig
Original AssigneeH Granig
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Collision actuated bumper
US 3729221 A
Abstract
Piston-cylinder means are connected to a bumper bar and are connected to gas-supplying means for supplying compressed gas to said piston-cylinder means. The piston-cylinder means are adapted to respond to an expansion said supply of gas. Venting means are provided for venting said piston-cylinder means.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 11 1 Granig [111 3,729,221 451 Apr. 24,1973

[ COLLISION ACTUATED BUMPER [76] Inventor: Hubert Granig, Missingdorfstrasse 13/13, Vienna, Austria [22] Filed: Feb. 4, 1969 [21] App]. No.1 796,395

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Febv 5, 1968 Austria ,.-..8A1()9()/68 [52] US. Cl. ..293/9, 293/24, 293/60, 293/73 [51] Int. Cl ..B60r 19/12 [58] Field of Search 180/105; 293/9, 10,

293/24, 25, 26, 60, 63, 70, 73, 88,89, 99, DIG. 2, 86; 60/261, 26.11; 124/11 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,628,118 2/1953 Gunnels, Jr. "293/73 2,873,994 2/1959 Omps ,293/86 1,581,301 4/1926 Stott et a1 ..293/26 1,593,866 7/1926 Christinzio ..293/73 1,723,508 8/1929 Hansen ..293/24 1,783,335 12/1930 Laher ..293/88 1,985,184 12/1934 Methlin ....124/11 X 2,024,636 12/1935 Gallina ..293/63 2,026,113 12/1935 Williams ..293/88 2,179,427 11/1939 Scheutz ..293/89 2,403,730 7/1946 MacNeille ....60/26.11 X 3,286,460 1 1/1966 Stadler et a1. ..60/26.11

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 331,351 7/1930 Great Britain ..293/89 Primary ExaminerGera1d M. Forlenza Assistant Examiner-Robert Saifer Att0rneyErnest G. Montague 57 1 ABSTRACT Piston-cylinder means are connected to a bumper bar and are connected to gas-supplying means for supplying compressed gas to said piston-cylinder means. The piston-cylinder means are adapted to respond to an expansion said supply of gas. Venting means are provided for venting said piston-cylinder means.

11 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures Patented April 24, 1973 3,729,221

4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENI'OR Patented A ril 24,1973

4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR ORNEY Patented April 24, 1973 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG]? FIG/5 INVENT OR /Z/ f /z Z Z A ORNEY III! Patented A ril 24, 1973 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 a B W F A ORNEY COLLISION ACTUATED BUMPER This invention relates to a device for protecting motor vehicles in case of an impact accident. It is an object of the invention to avoid the consequences of such accident. It is known that injury resulting from traffic accidents is mainly due to the fact that the occupants of the vehicle are subjected to excessively high deceleration or acceleration.

It is an object of the invention to reduce the deceleration or acceleration to an extent which is tolerable by the human organism. For this purpose, the time which is available for the deceleration or acceleration must be prolonged. This is accomplished according to the invention by an increase of the distance over which the deceleration or acceleration takes place. According to the invention, this distance is increased in that a bumper bar is secured to a piston-cylinder unit, which is connected to a pressure generator, in which pressure is generated by an expanding gas, which has been produced, e.g., by ignitable cartridges. At the time of the impact, one or more cartridges are preferably ignited in dependence on speed and the resulting expanding gas produces the pressure which is required for the desired deceleration, which should be as constant as possible. The gas flowing out of a valve must perform the work which corresponds to the kinetic energy that is consumed.

The operation of this system may be initiated, e. g., by the actuation of a push button by the driver of the vehicle, or in response to the braking pressure exceeding a predetermined value. 1

Accident statistics show that the driver performs a defensive response in most cases when an accident is impending and that this response may consist, e.g., of an application of brakes or a deflection of the course of the vehicle. These actions are not adequate in most cases. Whereas this defensive response is inadequate when the conventional means are employed, it is an object of the invention to utilize this response so as to avoid the consequences of accidents, at least to a considerable extent.

The increasing traffic has increased the danger for the occupants of a car as well as for pedestrians. It has been observed that the design of most motor vehicles does not give due consideration to the needs of a pedestrian which is endangered by an accident. Frequently there are relatively sharp edges and headlight coverings at the front end of the vehicle.

To eliminate this disadvantage, one embodiment of the invention comprises, for the protection of pedestrians, a catching net, which is preferably connected to the bumper bar and is adapted to be extended under gas pressure relative to the bumper bar and adapted to be rearwardly extended by tension or pressure relative to the bumper bar in dependence on the speed of the vehicle. This arrangement affords a yielding impact surface and a longer acceleration distance to a pedestrian.

Further details of the invention will be explained more fully with reference to the drawing, which shows diagrammatically and by way of example an embodiment of the protective device according to the invention.

FIG. I is a perspective view showing the general structure of the protective device.

FIGS. 2 and 3, respectively, are a side elevation and a top plan view, in both cases partly in section, and show a detail intended to retract the protective device in dependence on speed.

FIG. 4 is a side elevation showing a detail of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 shows a device for producing the gas pressure required to extend the protective device.

FIG. 6 is a side elevation showing a device for extending a catching net for the protection of pedestrians.

FIGS. 7 and 8, respectively, are side and rear elevations showing as a detail the mounting of a bumper bar.

FIGS. 9 and 10, respectively, are a side elevation and a top plan view showing as a detail the means for controlling the protective device in dependence on velocity and number of revolutions per minute.

FIG. 11 shows as a detail a means for controlling a throttle so as to prevent a reduction of the speed of the engine of the vehicle.

FIGS. 12 to 17 show details for returning the pedestrian-protecting means in response to pressure.

If the driver of the vehicle believes that he cannot avoid an impact with an obstable, he will depress an initiating push button or the like, whereby a locking device 12 is released and a cartridge in the cartridge container 20 is directly ignited. The pressure which is generated by the cartridge moves the telescopic assembly l and the bumper bar 2 away from the vehicle. That part of the telescopic assembly 1 which is firmly connected to the vehicle may also be used as a carrying element for the mounting for the engine and for the suspension of the wheels.

In the conventional telescopic assemblies, which can be employed, the gap between the adjacent tubes forms an air cushion, which is compressed as the tubes are ex-- tended. In this way, a hard impact at the end of the extending movement is prevented. A rebound is prevented by the escape of that compressed air through the sliding fit clearances or through openings provided for this purpose. When the vehicle impinges on an obstacle, the distance between the bumper bar 2 and the body of the vehicle will be decreased. In the embodiment shown by way of example in FIGS. 2-5, this return movement is utilized to ignite a number of cartridges 54 in the cartridge container 20. The number of cartridges which will thus be ignited will be dependent on velocity. Alternatively, the ignition may be initiated by an element which is mounted on the impact side of the bumper bar and which may consist of a release number 20 such as an electric contact, a loop member or the like operatively connected to ignite the cartridges. In the present embodiment, a cable 16 which is secured to a cross-tie I5 is wound up on a drum 22, which is rotated by a spiral spring 39. As the cable 16 is wound up, a finger 26 slides from a groove 24, which is formed in the inside surface of the drum, through an oblique transfer groove 25 into a groove 24'. The direction of the transfer groove 25 is such that the finger 26 can slide from its initial position in' the groove 24 into the transfer groove 25 only when the cable 16 is being wound up. This sliding movement of the finger into the groove 24 is assisted by a tension-compression spring, which is in its neutral position when the finger is between the two parallel grooves 24 and 24".

By means of a release pin 29, the finger 26 releases a lever 30, which is mounted on a shaft 38. By means of an actuator 31, the finger releases a lock 60. As a result, firing pins fire a number of cartridges, which in dependence on velocity have been exposed by a blocking slide member 56.

When these cartridges have been fired, the telescopic assembly 1 is supplied with the pressure which is required to impart to the vehicle the desired deceleration in case of an impact.

It is known that the lowest peak deceleration will be reached when the deceleration is as uniform as possible throughout the deceleration distance. For this reason, an excessive rise of the working pressure in the telescopic assembly '1 due to the decrease in volume should be avoided, if possible, particularly because otherwise the drum 22 would have to be provided with a separate lock to prevent a rebound. In the present example, the winding-up of the cable 16 and the movement of the release pin 29 and of the lever 30 are accompanied by the movement of a lever 40, which is mounted on the shaft 38, and of an actuator 40 (FIG. 3), which opens an operating valve 103 (FIG. 13, 13a).

The cross-section which is opened by the valve 103 may be preferably variable and dependent on speed. In the embodiment shown by way of example, the crosssection of the valve is varied in that the length of the actuator 40 actuating the valve is constantly decreased or increased under the control of the tachometer. For this purpose, a shaft 104 is moved by the tachometer and by means of a gear on the shaft 104 and gear teeth on roll 105 rotates the latter so that the latter is reciprocated because the stationary part of the actuator 40 engages a helical groove 106 in the roll 105. An end plate 107 which is connected to the roll 105 is thus moved relative to a guide 108, which is secured to the slide plate 103 of the valve. As a result, the lost motion of the actuator 40 is increased or decreased and the free area of the valve is controlled in dependence on velocity.

The opening of that valve 103 depends on the gas flow rate which must be reached to provide for the desired variation of pressure with time. The bumper bar 2 can preferably be moved into an oblique position on the telescopic assembly 1, e.g., by means of laterally movable bolts 71 (FIGS. 7 and 8), which are rotatable in sleeves 67 having a central opening 67a and slidable in a lateral guide 2a formed in the bumper bar 2, carrying rubber buffers 68 and 70 and are biased by a spring 69. The bumper bar 2 has passage slots for the telescopic assembly. Because the bumper bar can be adjusted to an oblique position, an oblique plane is presented in most cases, e.g., in the case of an impact on a tree and tends to move the vehicle laterally so that the kinetic energy need not be entirely consumed at that obstable. This process is favored by a tube 18, which connects, e.g., two telescopic assemblies 1 so that pressure can be applied to one assembly 1 more easily than to both assemblies 1 at the same time.

The bumper bar will suitably be designed so that it will not be deformed by a deceleration below a predetermined value.

After such impact, the residual pressure'in the telescopic assembly 1 will cause the bumper bar 2 to be fully extended. As a result, the cable 16 will be pulled from the drum 22 and the finger 26 will slide from the groove 24' into the transfer groove 25 and the groove 24 so that the release pin 29 is moved and by the lever 30, shaft 38, lever 40' and actuator 40 closes the valve 103. This will avoid a rapid further pressure drop. The valve will not be re-opened until the vehicle impinges once more on an obstable.

The expanding pressure gas which serves to transmit force and to consume kinetic energy is preferably produced by an ignition of cartridges which are filled with a suitable powder, which may be an explosive or deflagrating powder. It will obviously also be possible to use a compressed gas or the like which can be ignited.

The following provisions can be made by way of example to enable the use of the present invention also in case of a collision with a pedestrian.

A catchingnet is wound up on a roll 22 or the like and is connected to vertically and horizontally extendable telescopic assemblies 4 and 13.

For instance, if the driver of the vehicle actuates a separate push button, the extending cartridge in the cartridge chamber 20 is directly fired. Because the locking means 12 remain engaged, the extending bumper bar 2 and a device 10 (FIG. 6), which is retained by the locking means 12, cause an actuation of cocks 64 and 65 for firing the cartridges 63 and 66.

Upon the firing of cartridges 63 and 66, the telescopic assemblies 4 and 13 are extended so that the net 6 is unrolled by a tension cable 8, which is secured to the bumper bar 2 and trained around the axis of the tie 15. As a result, the net forms an inclined surface. The distance from the extended tie 15 to the ground will be desirably within the height of the shin bone of a pedestrian.

To avoid an ignition of the cartridges S4 for operating the impact-protection device, the actuation of the push button for operating the means for the protection of pedestrians operates an actuator 32 (FIGS. 2 and 3), which by means of a wedge 36 and apin 37 imparts a lateral movement to the lever 30 so that the latter, which is mounted on the shaft 38 is disengaged from the actuator 31.

An acceleration may now be imparted to the pedestrian, e.g., in either of two basic modes.

In the first mode the pressure applied by the extending cartridge to the telescopic assembly 1 is selected so that the inertia force of the heaviest pedestrian for which the device is designed cannot overcome said pressure at the design peak velocity and the differential force required to return the bumper bar 2 against that pressure is produced by the engineer the like of the vehicle and transmitted, e.g., by the cable 16.

For this purpose, the cable 16 is adapted to be coupled to the engine, preferably to the V-belt pulley, by means of the drum 22, a gear rim 23, a pinion 49, a coupling shaft 50 and a coupling arm 35.

The velocity at which the bumper bar 2 and the net 6 are retracted corresponds to the velocity of the pedestrian and can be controlled in response to the speed of the engine.

The following automatic control system may' be adopted, e.g., for this purpose: The actuation of the pedestrian push button closes the circuit of an electric motor 84 or the like (FIGS. 9 to 11). This circuit includes a pointer 73 of a tachometer. That pointer 73 carriesa'sliding contact 74, which slides on a path described by a complementary contact 75 in the form of a sheet metal strip having the shape of a circular ring. The strip lies in said path when it moves through a slot 75a on the upper side of an insulating dial 76.

The movement of said sheet metal strip is continuously controlled from the tachometer by a rack 77 and a pinion 78.

The input shaft of the tachometer is suitably provided with a free-wheel, which ensures that the tachometer will remain in operation when the wheels are blocked and that the indicated speed will be reduced in that case by a design value.

When the sliding contact 74 is in contact with the sheet metal strip 75, the circuit of the electric motor 84 is closed so that the latter by means of a gear 80 and a shaft 79 opens the throttle valve 85 of the engine. This takes place, e.g., when the speed of the engine is below the design speed which is determined by the tachometer. When the speed is higher than the design speed, the sliding contact 74 has already interrupted the circuit and the throttle valve 85 closes the intake pipe 86 preferably completely.

The control of the throttle valve by the accelerator pedal is disabled at the time when the pedestrian push button is actuated. This disabling is preferably effected by a disengaging fork 81, which disengages a clutch 87.

When the pedestrian-protecting device is rendered operative, the engine clutch must also be disengaged, e.g., by a spring, which acts on the clutch lever and is provided with a detent device at each end. When one detent device is released, the clutch lever is depressed. When the second detent device is released, the spring is deprived of its abutment and is pushed back by the clutch lever.

The clutch arm 35 of the drum 22 is coupled to the motor when the cable 16 is wound up upon the impact of the tie with the pedestrian. As a result, the lever 30 which has disengaged the actuator 31 is displaced. Because the lever has been laterally moved under a locking device 33, the lever releases said locking device 33 to cause the drum clutch to be engaged.

The means for actuating the rack 77 may be adjustable in length, e.g., in the same manner as the means for opening the valve 103. In this case, the distance by which the bumper bar 2 has been extended can be taken into account in the selection of the speed unless the tie 15 of the fully extended bumper bar collides with the pedestrian. In this case, the shaft 104 shown in the drawing would sense at the drum 22 the distance by which the bumper bar has been extended and would transmit that distance in a predetermiend ratio to the roll 105. The same principle might also be adopted for the same purpose in that a scale 88 or 93 of an automatic control means, to be described hereinafter, is moved.

In some cases it might be necessary to retract the bumper bar 2 as soon as possible. For this purpose, a separate push button may be operated to cause the actuator 41 to release the locking device 33 and to connect the drum clutch to the engine. The extended net is wound up by a spiral spring 5 as the pressure fluid from the assemblies 4 and 13 escapes through suitable openings, e.g., through openings which have been struck into the cartridges by the strikers 64 and 65.

To enable a disengagement of the clutch arm 35 by the tension cable 16, a sleeve 47 (FIGS. 3 and 4) may be provided on the cable 16 and may cooperate with a linkage 44, 45, 46 and 48. This linkage serves to actuate a disengaging bar 43, which retracts the clutch shaft 50 against the force of the spring 42.

The second basic mode of automatically controlling the acceleration of the pedestrian involves a variation of the pressure in the telescopic assemblies 1. The extending pressure used for this purpose may be the same as in the system which has just been described.

The bumper bar 2 is extended as has just been described. To impart to the pedestrian an optimum design acceleration, it is necessry to measure the resultant of the mass of the pedestrian and the speed of the vehicle.

In the system which has been described before and in the last-described system the pressure might be selected for an average weight of the pedestrian and an average speed. Likewise, the telescopic assemblies 4 and 13 and the catching net 6 could be incorporated in the vehicle alone. Improved results will be obtained, however, if all features of the present invention are combined.

The resultant is measured by springs 95, which are held by mountings 14 on the telescopic assembly 1 and act on the pins 95. Hence, the tie 15 impinges on the legs of the pedestrian and lifts off the same against the force which is due to the friction of the road surface and the leg mass which is to be accelerated. This movement is transmitted to the springs 95 by the pressure in the assemblies 4 and 13 and moves these springs in dependence on the resultant. The pressure in the assemblies 4 and 13 may previously be lower than the abovementioned force.

A loop member is preferably pivotally connected to the mountings 14 and serves to transmit the movement of the spring to a scale 88, which is attached to the bumper bar 2 or the like at the center thereof. This loop member 90 has a sliding contact, which is disposed over the scale and which carries current at the time when the pedestrian push button is operated. A small displacement of that loop member 90 causes the sliding contact to reach the first field of the scale so that the current flows over that field and a lead 91 to a magnetic locking means 99 to release the same.

As a result, a spring 101 opens a valve 96 having a relatively large opening so that the pressure escapes. During the last part of the spring displacement, a mounting 97 of the spring is laterally unlatched by a wedge 98 so that the spring 101 is disengaged from the valve 96.

The pressure drop is measured by a manometer 92, which is preferably connected to the connecting tube 18 and causes a movement of a finger 94 over a scale 93, which is also provided with electrically conducting fields, which are connected to similar fields on the scale 88. When the loop member 90 has moved past the first field of the scale 88, it will remain on the field, which in accordance with the characteristic curve of the spring 95 preferably represents the resultant; The current will then flow to that field on the scale 93 which is connected to the field of scale 88 contacted by the loop member. When the live field of scale 93 is contacted by the finger 94 in response to a pressure'drop, a circuit is closed which serves to actuate a locking means for a closing field 102- and the valve 96 is closed. The valve 96 must be so large that the design pressure is preferably reached during the time from the contact with the tie to the end of the design deceleration distance. This distance is determined by the telescopic assemblies 4 and 13. The contact loop member 90 on the scale 88 and the contact finger 94 on the scale 93 are preferably arranged to move in opposite senses.

The operating valve 103 has also been opened as the tie 15 was retracted so that the cable 16 was wound up and the pressure drop in the telescopic assembly 1 is now automatically controlled by the preferably variable opening of said valve.

What is claimed is:

1. A protection device against accidents of motor vehicles, comprising a bumper bar,

at least one cylinder means adapted to be secured to a vehicle and operatively connected to said bumper bar for varying the distance of said bumper bar from said vehicle,

pivotal and lateral shiftable connection means for connecting said bumper bar so as to be capable of inclined position connecting in a horizontal plane relative to the vehicle,

a pressure system for said at least one cylinder means containing an expandable medium for operative engagement of said cylinder means,

means for releasing and expanding said cylinder means,

said pressure system for said cylinder means having at least one outlet, and

said means for releasing and expanding said cylinder means comprises an electrical release member disposed in front of said bumper bar and operatively connected to said pressure system for actuating the latter upon hitting on obstacle.

2. A protection device against accidents of motor vehicles, comprising a bumper bar,

at least one cylinder means adapted to be secured to a vehicle and operatively connected to said bumper bar for varying the distance of said bumper bar from said vehicle,

pivotal and lateral shiftable connection means for connecting said bumper bar so as to be capable of inclined position connecting in a horizontal plane relative to the vehicle,

a pressure system for said at least one cylinder means containing an expandable medium for operative engagement of said cylinder means,

means for releasing and expanding said cylinder means,

said pressure system for said cylinder means having at least one outlet,

said pressure system includes a pressure producer operatively connected to said cylinder means,

cartridge storage means in said pressure producer,

a plurality of cartridges arranged in said cartridge storage means, respectively,

trigger pin means operatively disposed adjacent each cartridge storage means for igniting said cartridge in said cartridge storage means, respectively,

a plurality of pawls,

said trigger pin means is provided with recesses into which said pawls, respectively, engage,

an actuator connected to said pawls, and

a release means coupled to said actuator and being operatively connected to said bumper bar for actuation upon impact with an obstacle.

3. The apparatus, as set forth in claim 2, wherein said release means comprises,

a drum sleeve mounted for rotatable movement,

a spiral spring biasing said drum sleeve for rotation,

a cable for winding on said drum sleeve and secured to said bumper bar,

said drum sleeve formed with two grooves arranged on the inner side of said drum sleeve perpendicular to the axis of rotation of said drum sleeve,

an inclined groove connecting said two grooves to one another,

a release pin having disposed thereon a finger cooperatively entering said grooves,

a pull-push spring operatively biasing said finger along said grooves, said finger in a neutral position of said pull-push spring lies between said two grooves, and upon a return rotation of said drum sleeve caused by said spiral spring, said finger enters in said inclined groove and said release pin is moved, and

a release lever coupled with said release pin and engaging said actuator.

4. The device, as set forth in claim 3, further comprising a drive adapted to be coupled to a motor of the vehicle, and

said drum sleeve being operatively driveable, by said drive, with said motor.

5. The device, as set forth in claim 4, wherein said drive is automatically coupleable to said motor.

6. The device, as set forth in claim 4, wherein said drive is manually coupleable to said motor.

7. The device, as set forth in claim 4, further comprising a coupling disposed in said drive of said drum sleeve,

and

a pull cable capable of being brought into engagement with said coupling and operable at will by the driver of the vehicle. a

8. A protection device against accidents of motor vehicles, comprising a bumper bar,

at least one cylinder means adapted to be secured to a vehicle and operatively connected to said bumper bar for varying the distance of said bumper bar from said vehicle,

pivotal and lateral shiftable connection means for connecting said bumper bar so as to be capable of inclined position connecting in a horizontal plane relative to the vehicle,

a pressure system for said at least one cylinder means containing an expandable medium for operative engagement of said cylinder means,

means for releasing and expanding said cylinder means,

said pressure system for said cylinder means having at least one outlet,

said at least one outlet constitutes an exit valve having a variable valve cross section,

said releasing means includes a release lever,

a shaft on which said release lever is secured, and

a pull cable operatively connected to said exit valve and to said release lever.

9. A protection device against accidents of motor vehicles, comprising a bumper bar,

at least one cylinder means adapted to be secured to a vehicle and operatively connected to said bumper bar for varying the distance of said bumper bar from said vehicle,

pivotal and lateral shiftable connection means for connecting said bumper bar so as to be capable of inclined position connecting in a horizontal plane relative to the vehicle,

a pressure system for said at least one cylidner means containing an expandable medium for operative engagement of said cylinder means,

means for releasing and expanding said cylinder means,

said pressure system for said cylinder means having at least one outlet, said connection means comprises bolt means for the inclined positioning connecting of said bumper bar with said cylinder means, said bumper bar has slots in which said bolt means are disposed laterally shiftable, springs biasing said bolt means in said slots of said bumper bar, and rubber buffers carried in said slots of said bumper bar adjacent said bolt means. 10. The device, as set forth in claim 9, wherein said bolt means are turnable in said slots of said bumper bar about a vertical axis. 1 l. The device, as set forth in claim 10, further comprising sleeves in which said bolt means are turnable.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3860258 *Oct 5, 1972Jan 14, 1975Ford Motor CoBumper support and energy absorbing frame system for a motor vehicle
US3869017 *Oct 5, 1972Mar 4, 1975Ford Motor CoEngine mounting and energy absorbing frame for a motor vehicle
US3893726 *Apr 1, 1974Jul 8, 1975Raymond Lee Organization IncShock absorber vehicle bumper
US4190275 *Mar 16, 1978Feb 26, 1980Fibco Inc.Impact attenuator
US4366976 *Apr 8, 1980Jan 4, 1983Hubert GranigCushioning means for motor vehicles
US4825192 *Nov 24, 1987Apr 25, 1989Wells Kenneth ARetractable guard for vehicles
US5029919 *Feb 15, 1990Jul 9, 1991Bauer John KPneumatic shock absorber for an automobile bumper having venting means
US8371628 *Dec 17, 2009Feb 12, 2013Korea Advanced Institute Of Science And TechnologyLength-variable shock absorbing apparatus for vehicle
US8657336 *Oct 7, 2011Feb 25, 2014Jamal AtraProtective device for trucks
US8657337 *Aug 10, 2012Feb 25, 2014Jamal AtraProtective device for trucks
US20110042976 *Dec 17, 2009Feb 24, 2011Korea Advanced Institute Of Science And TechnologyLength-variable shock absorbing apparatus for vehicle
US20120299280 *Aug 10, 2012Nov 29, 2012Jamal AtraProtective Device for Trucks
WO1998008713A1 *Aug 30, 1997Mar 5, 1998Lee Heung JaiAutomobile bumper impact absorbing device and control method thereof
Classifications
U.S. Classification293/9, 293/134, 293/117, 293/129, 293/24
International ClassificationB60R21/34, B60R19/40
Cooperative ClassificationB60R19/40, B60R21/34
European ClassificationB60R19/40, B60R21/34