US 3730170 A
An apparatus for distributing a sample of blood contained in a syringe or blood collecting tube comprises a distribution housing which is divided into at least two chambers, and which includes conduit means extending from each chamber to blood culture bottles. The needle of the blood collecting tube passes through puncturable sealing means formed in the distribution housing and the partition between the chambers of said housing to enable the selective distribution of blood to the respective blood culture bottles.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Michael APPARATUS FOR DISTRIBUTING A SAMPLE OF BLOOD TO A PLURALITY OF CULTURES  Inventor: Thomas M. Michael, 8 Carol Ann Road, Lynnfield, Mass. 01940  Filed: Apr. 29, 1971  Appl.No.: 138,519
 U.S. Cl ..l28/2 F, 128/DIG. 5, 128/214 R,
128/276  Int. Cl. ..A6lb 5/14  Field of Search ..128/2 F, 2 R, 2 G,
128/2 B, DIG. 5, 275, 276,214 R, DIG. 12, DIG. 13; 137/609, 610, 612
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,459,182 8/1959 Naftulin 128/214 R 2,674,265 4/1954 Dennis 2,832,338 4/1958 Ryan 3,492,991 2/1970 Dyer, Jr. ..l28/214 R [451 May 1, 1973 3,157,201 11/1964 Littman...... ..128/2.05 D 3,610,228 10/1971 Temkin ..128/2.05 D 2,868,200 l/1959 Gewecke ..l28/214 R 3,613,663 10/1971 Johnson ..128/2 F 3,382,865 5/1968 Worrall, Jr .....l28/2 F 3,494,351 2/1970 Horn ..128/2 F 1 3,585,995 6/1971 Perkins et all ..l28/276 Primary Examiner-Kyle L. Howell Attorney-Thomas M. Marshall 5 7 ABSTRACT An apparatus for distributing a sample of blood contained in a syringe or blood collecting tube comprises a distribution housing which is divided into at least two chambers, and which includes conduit means extending from each chamber to blood culture bottles. The needle of the blood collecting tube passes through puncturable sealing means formed in the distribution housing and the partition between the chambers of said housing to enable the selective distribution of blood to the respective blood culture bottles.
7 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures APPARATUS FOR DISTRIBUTING A SAMPLE OF BLOOD TO A PLURALITY OF CULTURES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION tions it is necessary to test the sample blood, either I along or in admixture, with various anti-clotting substances and other'various solutions.
As an example, in almost all cases of fever, be it of unknown origin, post-operative, or suspicion of bacterial infection, a single or multiple blood culture test is required. The proper procedure is to inoculate five to millimeters of fresh venous blood drawn from the patient at bedside into bottles containing 50 to 100 millimeters of broth. These bottles contain either aerobic or anaerobic media; and routinely both should be used. The bottles are subsequently incubated at 37C. for a period of up to 21 to 28 days and checked periodically for possible bacterial growth.
Ithas been routine to require more than one culture to be taken from a patient during the period of his illness or during the follow-up of his recovery for a possible bacteremia.
The general use of aerobic and anaerobic bottles simultaneously produces certain problems for the technician, nurse, or physician who must draw adequate amounts of blood for both bottles, and subsequently divide it under sterile conditions. It has been common practice to require clamping of the blooddrawing tube while the technician exchanges the bottles. In other cases an additional venipuncture was a required in order to obtain an additional sample of blood. All of these prior techniques have certain in herent disadvantages, including the obtaining of contaminated samples, and discomfort to the patient.
It has been known that technicians have arbitrarily decided to take only one sample and eliminate the others. This arbitrary decision is of critical dimensions in that it may curtail the discovery of the causative agent of the illness.
Recognizing the above problems, various devices have been provided for the distribution of a single sample of blood to a plurality of blood sample cultures. Such devices have taken the form of complicated assemblies which are difficult to maintain in a sterile condition, and are difficult to operate thereby discouraging the technician from making the required number of blood cultures in order to recover the causative agent of the illness.
Accordingly, it is an object of the subject invention to provide a simple apparatus for distributing a sample of blood to a plurality of cultures.
It is a further object of the invention to provide an apparatus to provide for the simultaneous inoculation from one source to both aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles. Accordingly, the apparatus of subject invention will facilitate the recovery of all possible microorganisms from a blood sample.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an apparatus for selectively distributing a sample of blood to a plurality of cultures.
It is still a further object of the invention to provide an apparatus for distributing a sample of blood as it is being withdrawn from the donor to a plurality of cultures withoutcausing discomfort to the donor.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description and appended claims taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the first embodiment of the apparatus of the subject invention;
FIG. 2 is a partial sectional view of the distribution housing means of the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1,
and taken along line 22 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a partial sectional view of a second embodiment of the subject apparatus;
FIG. 4 is a partial sectional view taken along line 4- 4 at FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 illustrates a portion of the third embodiment of the apparatus of the subject invention;
FIG. 6 illustrates one part of the holder for use with the third embodiment of the subject apparatus illustrated in FIG. 5;
FIGS. 7'and 8 illustrate two operational positionsof the apparatus of the third embodiment of the subject invention.
Referring to FIG. 1, the subject apparatus for distributing a sample of blood is generally indicated by the numeral 1 and includes a distribution housing 2, from which extend a plurality of tubes 3 and 3' leading to blood culture bottles 4 and 5. As shown in FIG. 2, the distribution housing 2 includes an upper cylindrical member 10, preferably made of plastic, which is closed at its upper end by a puncturable rubberstopper 11,
and closed at its lower end by a puncturable diaphragm 12. Also sealingly connected to diaphragm 12 is the lower portion of the distribution housing which is formed by a tubular cylindrical member 13 closed at its lower end. The resulting distribution housing is defined by two hermetically sealed chambers A and B separated by puncturable diaphragm 12. In addition, an aperture is provided in each chamber, aperture 15 being provided in the upper chamber A, and aperture 16 being provided in the lower chamber B, which apertures respectively connect to conduits l7 and 18. The rubber tubes 3 and 3" are respectively attached to conduits 17 and 18, and connect at their opposite ends to fittings l9 and 20 to which cannulas 21 and 22 are connected. If desired, the cylindrical members 10 and 13 of the distribution housing 2 may include concave recesses 30 and 31 which are effective to produce enlarged images of the chambers for better visual control by the technician of the depth of penetration of the needle into the distribution housing.
In operation, the apparatus of the subject invention is used to distribute sample blood which is already in a syringe or blood collecting tube (not shown) having a cannula 40 (FIG. 1) which is adapted to be inserted directly into the apparatus of the subject invention through a puncturable rubber stopper 11. Blood is in jected directly into the apparatus through the rubber stopper, first filling the upper chamber A from which the blood is conducted through the conduit 17 and hose 3 to the blood culture sample bottle 4. After the first sample bottle has received sufficient sample blood,
the technician would force needle 40 through the cen tral puncturable diaphragm 1'2 and into the lower chamber B, thereby allowing for the existing vacuum in bottle 5 to withdraw the blood from chamber B into the second blood culture bottle 5. As is readily apparent, the amount of blood entering the upper chamber A and lower chamber B is manually controlled by the technician. At no time is it necessary for the technician to shift bottles or in any way contaminate the sample blood.
FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate a second embodiment of the subject apparatus wherein the distribution housing means comprises a cylindrical housing member 50 closed at opposite ends, and having a conduit extension 51 integrally formed therewith on which a puncturable rubber stopper 52 is mounted. In addition, the housing 50 includes two conduits 53 and 54 respectively connected to tubes (similar to tubes 3 and 3 illustrated in FIG. 1) which extend to the blood sample culture bottles. A stop-cock valve 60 is mounted within the housing member 50 for rotation about the central axis thereof, with the control knob 61 of the valve 60 being disposed externally of the cylindrical housing 50. As illustrated in FIG. 3, the stop-cock valve 60 includes an angled conduit 62 which is operative to connect the conduit extension 51 of housing member 50 with either of the conduits 53 or 54 leading to the blood culture bottles. One position of the stop-cock valve 60 is illustrated in FIG. 3 in solid lines, which the second position is illustrated in dotted lines, whereby sample blood may be conducted from the needle 40 through the distribution housing means to either conduit 53 or 54.
Still a third variation of the subject apparatus is illustrated in FIGS. 5 through 8, with the construction of the distribution housing means 100 being identical to the construction illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, except that, instead of the conduits leading from the distribution housing means being disposed on opposite sides of the housing as in the embodiments of FIGS. 14, the apparatus is (as illustrated in FIG. 5) in the form of an L-shaped arrangement wherein both conduits 101 and 102 are aligned and extend from the chambers A and B on the same side of the distribution chamber housing 100. In addition, depending from the lower end of the distribution chamber housing 100 is an elongated holder, designated by numeral 103, which is preferably formed of plastic and comprises an elongated cylindrical tube having a flattened end portion 104 against which the technician applies pressure, to be more fully described hereinafter. The apparatus of the third embodiment additionally includes a cooperating holder means illustrated in FIG. 6, and formed of a cylindrical member 110 which is slotted with a discontinuous slot S adapted to accommodate the conduits 101 and 102 leading from the distribution chamber housing. At the upper end of the slotted holder, a rubber stopper 111 is provided through which a double-ended cannula C is secured.
FIG. 7 illustrates the composite arrangement of the third embodiment of the subject apparatus, with the slotted holder 110 being mounted over the distribution chamber means 100 and its depending holder 103, and with the conduits I01 and 102 being disposed in the slot S, as shown by the dotted lines in FIG. 6. In this position the cannula extends into the upper chamber of housing 100 whereby the technician may draw with the extended opposite end of the cannula C from a donor (patient) the venus sample blood which is conducted via cannula C into the upper chamber A and thence into the blood sample bottle. After the first blood sample bottle is filled it is merely necessary for the technician to rotate the slotted holder 110 about its longitudinal axis, while maintaining the cannula in the donor, after which the technician would apply pressure against the lower depending holder 103 in order'to force the cannula C into the lower chamber B for obtaining sample blood for the second sample culture bottle.
As in the previous embodiments, the distribution chamber means 100 includes concave recesses 120, 121 in order to produce enlarged images of the cannula C for better visual control and precision of penetration. The primary advantage of the third embodiment is that it is not necessary to employ an intermediate syringe or blood collecting tube, and an immediate preparation of a plurality of blood culture bottles may be obtained at bedside.
Although several embodiments of the subject invention have been described in detail, it is readily apparent that various modifications and adaptations are contemplated within the scope of the invention. For example, the conduits leading from the distribution housing means may be made of soft plastic tubing of the noncollapsible type. In addition, it is also readily apparent that the distribution housing means may be formed of a single element having a flexible puncturable diaphragm suitably mounted within the housing to define a plurality of chambers. Also, more than two chambers may-be provided in the distribution housing means. Therefore, this invention is not limited by the above description and drawings but rather by the following appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for distributing a sample of blood to a plurality of cultures comprising:
a hollow distribution housing means having a plurality of apertures extending into the interior thereof;
a needle puncturable sealing means in one wall of said housing means;
conduit means respectively connected at one end to each of said apertures and terminating at their opposite ends in a needle for conducting a sample of blood from the housing means to the cultures;
holder means comprising .a two-part cooperating holder, the first part being a cylindrical member secured to said distribution housing means at a wall opposite said needle puncturable sealing means, while the second part of said holder means comprises a hollow cylindrical member having an open end and an opposite closed end, said hollow cylindrical member having a slot opening in said open end and extending longitudinally toward said closed end, the closed end of said second part having a double-ended needle cannula extending therethrough such that one end of said needle cannula extends into said hollow cylindrical member and the other end of said needle cannula is exposed outwardly of said hollow cylindrical member;
said distribution housing means and the first part of said holder being received within the second part of said holder with the needle puncturable sealing means in a position to be punctured by said one end of the needle cannula; and
said conduit means extending outwardly of said holder means through said slot.
2. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein the distribution housing means comprises a cylindrical member, said member being closed at one end while the other end is sealed by said needle puncturable sealing means, and which member is divided into two chambers by a further needle puncturable diaphragm, with said apertures disposed in the housing in communication with each of said chambers.
3. Apparatus as in claim 2 wherein the cylindrical member is made of plastic.
4. Apparatus as in claim 2 wherein the cylindrical housing is made of transparent plastic and includes concavely recessed wall portions .to provide an enlarged view of the interior of thedistribution housing means.
5. Apparatus as in claim 2 wherein the appertures and the associated conduit means are disposed on the same side of the cylindrical housing.
6. Apparatus for distributing a sample of blood to a plurality of cultures as in claim 1 wherein the cylindrical member of the second part of the housing means is slotted with a discontinuous slot adapted to accommodate the conduit means leading from the distribution housing means.
7. Apparatus for distributing a sample of blood to a plurality of cultures as in claim 1 wherein the distribution housing means includes a further needle puncturable diaphragm for dividing the interior thereof into two chambers, with the apertures being provided in the wall of the housing means to enable communication between each of said chambers and the conduit means.