|Publication number||US3730560 A|
|Publication date||May 1, 1973|
|Filing date||Oct 8, 1970|
|Priority date||Feb 13, 1969|
|Publication number||US 3730560 A, US 3730560A, US-A-3730560, US3730560 A, US3730560A|
|Inventors||Abildgaard William H, Groswith Charles T Iii|
|Original Assignee||Abildgaard Lab|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (36), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
ilnited States Patent [191 Abildgaard et al.
[451 May 1,1973
[ METHOD OF FORMING AND CASING BOOKS AND PRODUCT THEREOF  Inventors: William H. Abildgaard, Los Altos Hills; Charles T. Groswith, III, Palo Alto, both of Calif.
 Assignee: Abildgaard Laboratories, Inc.,
Mountain View, Calif.
22 Filed: Oct. 8, 1970 21 Appl.No.: 79,086
Related U.S. Application Data  Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 799,045, March 13, 1969, Pat. No. 3,596,929, and a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 872,134, Oct. 29, 1969.
FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLlCATlONS 8/1960 Germany ..28l/29 2/1939 Germany ..281/21 Primary Examiner-Lawrence Charles Att0rney-Julian Caplan 57 ABSTRACT An uncased book is first prepared. The outside end papers on each of the top and bottom of the book consists of a sheet of paper, flexible plastic, cloth, or the like, coated with pressure-sensitive adhesive with the sensitive surface outermost and protected by a protective release covering scored in at least two lines adjacent to the inner edge. Spaced holes are punched, drilled or otherwise formed adjacent to the inside margin of each sheet of the book, including the end papers. A first narrow strip of plastic having projecting studs spaced the same as the holes and a second narrow strip formed with corresponding holes are provided. The studs are inserted through the holes in the end-papers, sheets and second strip and the strips forced toward each other, compressing the sheets there-between. The excess stud lengths are cut off and heads similar to rivet heads formed, securing the uncased book in assembled condition. A case is provided similar to'conventional book cases. lnitially such case has a central spine strip of double-face, pressure-sensitive material, one face adhered to the cover, the other covered by a detachable protective release strip. To assemble the book to the case, the first step is to remove the protective release strip from the spine strip, then to press the spine of the uncased book so that it adheres to the middle of the spine strip and to bend the excess width of the spine strip around the outside of the plastic strips. Next a narrow band of protective release cover is removed to ex ose about hree-eighths inch of each end leaf imme lately outside the plastic strips. The case is then creased to form spine beads and creases between the beads and the boards of the case. Finally, the remainder of the protective release covers are removed, causing the end leaves to be secured to the insides of the covers of the case.
7 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures PATENTEDMY 1 W I 3,730,560
SHEET 1 [IF 5 INVENTOR.
WILL/AM H Aa/LosAA/a BY CHA RL ES 77 GROSW/ THE ATTORNEY PATENTEDW 11973 3,730,560
SHEET 3 OF 5 INVENTOR. W/LL/AMHAB/LDGAARD CHARLES I'GROSW/THHZ ATTORNEY METHOD OF FORMING AND CASING BOOKS AND PRODUCT THEREOF This invention is a continuation-in-part of our copending applications, Ser. No. 799,045, filed Feb. 13, 1969, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,596,929 and Ser. No. 872,134, filed Oct. 29, 1969. v
This invention relates to a new and improved, method of forming and casing books and the product thereof.
A principal object and advantage of the present invention is to greatly reduce the number of operations required to bind an uncased book and to case said book. The labor required is very materially reduced; the use of existing bindery equipment is almost entirely eliminated; and the amount of additional equipment required is minimal and inexpensive. More particularly, conventional book binding requires a large number of sewing, glueing, beading and rounding steps, each of which normally requires specialized equipment and, further, the casing in of the uncased book required glueing and fabricating steps. All of the foregoing steps are either eliminated or greatly simplified by practice of the present invention.
Conventional bindery practice requires utilization of large areas of bindery floor space, since the various parts which are ultimately assembled in the cased book are ordinarily spread out and must be left in spread condition while glue dries and while other portions are being completed and assembled. Hence, not only is the amount of labor and machinery greatly reduced by practice of the present invention, but even the floor space required in a bindery is reduced because of the fact that it is not necessary to spread out the book parts as has heretofore been the practice.
Ordinary practice at the present time requires the collection of the sheets of the book in signatures which are generally four sheets or multiples thereof folded to page size and sewn and glued to a backing strip. Such bindery practice limits the versatility of fabrication and makes it well nigh impossible to insert or delete sheets once the make-up of the book has been commenced. In accordance with the present invention, since the sewing and glueing of signatures is eliminated, the individual sheets forming the book may be made up and collated or otherwise assembled as required and as changed from time to time as sheets may be added or deleted or altered.
Accordingly, the present invention makes printing more flexible since the formation of .the book is not restricted to the four-page technique.
A further feature of the invention is the reduction in the amount of skilled labor required. The operator of the equipment used to practice the present invention does not require extensive training in order to practice the method ofthe invention.
The present invention is compatible with standard book manufacture, but there are certain differences in the construction which, although not readily apparent to the eye (without dissecting the book), make for a stronger and more durable book construction.
One of the features of the invention which improves the durability of the book is the fact that the end leaves and their reinforcement strips are locked under plastic strips which also lock the sheets of the book together. In conventional binding practice, the end leaves are generally not secured to the top and bottom signatures in a durable manner. Hence, many bindings fail where the end leaves are joined to the front and back covers of the case. The present invention has considerable advantage over prior construction in that these areas are more securely reinforced.
One of the important steps in conventional book manufacture is the formation of a bead between the hinge area of each cover and the spine cover. Such bead is desirable in order to facilitate opening of the book without breaking the binding. The present invention automatically provides a bead along each edge of the spine, said bead being shaped by the plastic strips which extend along the top and bottom adjacent to the spine edge of the uncased book formed in accordance with the present invention. The casing material fits around the strips and thus forms the bead.
Another feature of the invention is the fact that the binding is extremely flexible. When the book is open a very deep gutter is achieved. Hence, the page is opened fiat and is legible as close to the spine as in conventional book construction.
-An additional feature of the foregoing advantage of the present invention is the fact that since the book opens in a deeper gutter, any selected page will fit on the platen of a copying machine, lying flat on the platen without danger of breaking the binding.
In accordance with the present invention, holes are formed adjacent to the inner margin of each sheet, the holes being spaced apart at intervals of approximately 1 inch. Such holes maybe formed by punching the sheets in groups or drilling all of the sheets of the assembled book. However, the holes may also be formed in an offset printing press when the sheets are printed thereby eliminating the separate punching steps of conventional practice.
Other objects of the present invention will become apparent upon reading the following specification and referring to the accompanying drawings in which similar characters of reference represent corresponding parts in each of the several views.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a male binding strip used in the practice of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a female strip.
FIG. 3 is an exploded perspective view of the sheets of the book immediately prior to binding.
FIGS. 4 to 8 inclusive are schematic views illustrating steps in forming the uncased book.
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of an uncased book formed in accordance with the invention.
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary perspective view of the case for the book.
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the beginning of attaching the uncased book to its case.
FIGS. 12 to 14 are fragmentary sectional views showing further steps in the attachment of the uncased book to the case.
FIG. 15 is a fragmentary sectional view through the cased book.
FIG. 16 is a fragmentary end elevation of a modification.
FIGS. 17 and 18 are fragmentary perspective view of steps in the fabrication of a further modified book.
FABRICATION OF THE UNCASED BOOK Nos. 872,134 and 799,045, in certain respectsi'ln practice of the method, two plastic strips 26 and 29 are employed, formed of polyvinyl chloride or other suitable material. The strips are approximately one-fourth inch in width and one-sixteenth inch in thickness and are of a length equal to the length of the sheets of the book. At approximately 1 inch intervals, spaced along the length of strip 26 and indented somewhat from the ends, are studs 27 approximately three thirty-seconds inchin diameter and formed with tapered points 28 at their tops. Second strips 29 are also provided formed with holes 31 at intervals corresponding to studs 27 and of a size to accept said studs. Holes 31 are formed with countersinks 32 on one surface. As hereinafter explained, excess lengths of studs 27 are cut off and the protruding ends of the studs are deformed to fill the countersinks 32 and to form heads 33 similar to rivets.
Each sheet 21 which is to form the book is punched or drilled with holes 22 spaced inward from the inside margin of sheet 21a distance of approximately oneeighth inch. The holes 22 may be formed in the printing of the sheets 21 within the capacity of the press on which the sheets are printed. In accordance with common book practice, one or more end leaves 23, similarly punched with holes 22 are placed on the top and bottom of the pile of sheets 21 making up the printed matter of the book. Each outer end leaf 23 has a pressure-sensitive adhesive on its outer face and is initially protected by a detachable cover 24. Cover 24 is formed with a first longitudinal slit 25a spaced from the inner edge the width of strip 26 or 29, a second slit 25b spaced inward of 25a about three-eighthsinch, and, optionally, a third slit 250 about midway between slit 25b and the outside edge of leaf 23. Holes 22 pass through leaf 23 and through cover 24 between slit 25a and the inner edge of 24.
In assembly of the uncased book, strip 29, with countersink 32 downmost, is positioned on a support 37, the said support 37 being grooved to receive the strip 29 and also being apertured immediately below the holes 31. The front end leaf 2 3 is positioned along with its cover 24 above strip 29 with the holes 22 aligned-with holes 31. The sheets 21 are also placed on top of front end leaves 23 and the back end leaves 23 are placed on the top of the pile. This assembly is illustrated in FIG. 4. Thereupon strip 26 is applied from the top of the pile by inserting the points 28 through the holes 22 in the end leaves 23 and sheets 21 and also through the holes 31. The points 28 extend below the strip 29 a distance depending upon the thickness of the sheets 21, .hence subject to considerable variation. (FIG. 5) Thereupon a pressure bar 36 is pressed against strip 26 compressing the sheets 21 between the two strips 26 and 29 (FlG. 6). Heated knife blades 38 are moved from right to left as viewed in FIG. 7 to cut off studs 27 at a distance slightly below the bottom of strip 29.-The apertures in support 37 permit the inward movement .of the blades 38. (FIG. 7). Thereupon the blades 38 are raised, melting and deforming the material on the ends of studs 27 so that the countersink 32 is filled by the material forced therein by the upward movement of blades 38 (FIG. 8). The blades 38 are retracted and the pressure of bar 36 is maintained until the plastic has set. The heads 33 thus formed in the countersinks 32 secure the strips 26 and 29 in spaced position with the sheets 21 and end leaves 23 secured there-between. Thereby uncased book 41 is completed.
ASSEMBLY OF CASE The case 46 to which the uncased book 41 is assembled is subject to considerable variation. Essentially, standard cases 46 may be used but considerable variation may also be made therein. The case 46 shown in FIG. 10 has a covering 47 of cloth, plastic, natural or artificial leather, or other suitable book-binding material. The material 47 is cut in a size sufficient to accommodate the page size and spine width of the uncased book 41 with overlaps to form the tum-ins 52, 53. Extending longitudinally of the material 47 at the center is a strip 48 of a resilient material such as plastic foam which is attached to the inside of covering 47 and its upper surface is pressure-sensitive and covered with a protective strip 48a. Strip 48 is of a length equal to the height of the completed book and of a width at least equal to the thickness of the uncased book 41 and may be wider by twice the width of strip 26 or 29. At either side of strip 48 extending longitudinally of the material 47 is a hinge-forming area 49 of a width to form the completed bead and binge crease hereinafter described. These areas 49 are the most flexible portion of the completed cover. Outwardly of the areas 49 are the cover boards 51 which conventionally are made of cardboard and are of a dimension such as to project beyond the top, bottom and outside edges of the sheets 21 making up the uncased book 41 so as to protect the uncased book from damage, all as in accordance with conventional book binding practice. Prior to application of strip 48, boards 51 are glued to the inside of covering 47, then the top and bottom of the material 47 is turned in to form. the top and bottom turn-ins 52 which adhere to the boards 51. Similarly the side edges are turned in to form the edge turn-ins 53. Comers54 are mitered in accordance with conventional bookbinding practice. Thereupon, strip 48 and covering 48a are applied.
The assembly of the uncased book 41 to the case 46 is illustrated in FIGS. 10-15. With the boards 51 uppermost, covering 48a is stripped off and the spine edge of the uncased book 41 is positioned centered with respect to the strip 48 and caused to adhere thereto. The excess width of strip 48 is folded around and secured to the outsides of strips 26 and 29. The narrow strips of cover 24 between slits 25a and 25b are then peeled off. A blunt tool is drawn along the outside of covering material 47 at hinge forming area 49 immediatelyoutside the outer edges of strips 26 and 29 causing material 47 to adhere to cover 24 in longitudinal hinge creases 58 at the hinge forming areas 49.
Thereupon, the cover 24 outside slits 25b is removed in a single operation or, where third slit 250 is used in two operations, and each end leaf 23 is caused to adhere to the inside of board 51. Directing attention to FIG. 13, the area 49 overlies the strip 26, 29 and extends there-beyond and is formed with a crease 58 in the area between the strip 26 and board 51. This provides a bead 59 inward of the crease 58 which is given fullness by the thickness of the strips 26, 29. Hence, the
book has a front and back covers 56 and a spine covering 57 and resembles high grade bound books in the presence therein of the creases 58 and beads 59.
Directing attention to FIG. 16, a modification of the preceding book is shown. Many of the elements of this modification are very similar to the preceding, and the same reference numerals, followed by the subscript a are used to designate similar elements. In this modification case 460 is fastened under strips 26a and 29a. Thus holes 66, corresponding in spacing to studs 27a are formed in each of the hinge forming areas 490. The case is laid around the sheets 21a and end leaves 23a with holes 66 aligned with the holes (not shown, but similar to holes 22 of FIG. 3) of sheets 21a. The studs 27a are then inserted through the holes in the case, sheets and strip 29a and heads 33a formed as before. End leaves 23a may be glued or otherwise attached by use of adhesive to the inside of covers 56a before or after strips 26a, 29a are installed, or this step may be eliminated entirely.
FIG. 17 and FIG. 18 illustrate a further modified book. Many of the modifications are similar to the preceding, and the same reference numerals, followed by the subscript b, are used to designate similar elements. In this modification a covering 47b is initially placed under strip 26b and is apertured to receive the studs of said strip. After strip 29b has been secured as has been described in the fabrication of the uncased book of FIGS. 5-8, then covering 47b is drawn over the outside of strip 26b, around the spine of the book and then around the outside of strip 29b. A tool 71 is used to trim the covering 47b to proper size and to tuck the edge thereof under the inner edge of strip 29b. If desired, the inner surface of covering 47b may be pressure-sensitive or the covering may be caused to remain in place by adhesive or various other means.
What is claimed is:
1. A cased book comprising an uncased book having a plurality of sheets, front and back end leaves on the outside of said uncased book, each said end leaf having pressure-sensitive material on its outer surface, and binding means binding said end leaves and sheets together so that said end leaves are securely bound to said sheets prior to assembly of said uncased book to a case; and a case for said uncased book having front and back covers, a flexible spine and covering means for the outsides of both said front and back covers and of said spine, said case prior to adherence to said uncased book being adapted to encase a range of thicknesses of uncased books by reason of the flexibility of said spine, said end leaves permanently adhering to the insides of said front and back covers by means of said pressuresensitive material, said pressure-sensitive material extending to the outer edges of said end leaves, the outer edges of said covers extending outwardly beyond the outer edges of said end leaves, said indices of said covers being devoid of exposed adhesive beyond the outer edges of said end leaves, the spine edge of said uncased book being centered relative to said flexible spine.
2. A book according to claim 1 which further comprises a spine strip of resilient material extending longitudinally down the middle of said flexible spine and a resilient pad having pressure-sensitive material centered relative to said spine to the spine edges of said uncased book.
3. A cased book comprising an uncased book formed of sheets each formed with a plurality of first apertures along the inner margins of said sheets, at least one front and back end leaf on the outside of said sheets each formed with a plurality of second apertures corresponding to the spacing of said first apertures, a first narrow plastic strip formed with a plurality of third apertures corresponding to the spacing of said first apertures and overlying one edge of one of said end leaves adjacent to the inner edge of the side of said uncased book opposite said first plastic strip, means on the ends of said studs securing said studs to said first strip to form an uncased book, said end leaves each being provided with pressure-sensitive adhesive on its outer surface and initially protected by a removable protective cover, each said end leaf being securely bound between said plastic strips to said sheets; and a case for said uncased book having front and back covers and a flexible spine, and covering means for the outsides of both said front and back covers and of said spine, said case prior to adherence to said uncased book being adapted to encase a range of thicknesses of uncased books by reason of the flexibility of said spine, said end leaves permanently adhering to the insides of said front and back covers by means of said pressuresensitive adhesive after said protective covers have been removed, said pressure-sensitive material extending to the outer edges of said end leaves, the outer edges of said covers extending outwardly beyond the outer edges of said end leaves, said insides of said covers being devoid of exposed adhesive beyond the outer edges of said end leaves, the spine edge of said uncased book being centered relative to said spine portion of said covering.
4. A book according to claim 3 which further comprises a spine strip of resilient material extending longitudinally down the middle of said flexible spine and pressure-sensitive material on said spine strip adhering said spine strip to the spine edge of said uncased book.
5. A book according to claim 3 in which said spine strip extends over the outsides of both said plastic strips.
6. A book according to claim 5 in which said covering means is formed with creases between the outside edge of each said strip and the inside edge of the adjacent cover.
7. A book according to claim 6 in which covering means and said plastic strips form beads along each spine edge of said cased book.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATELOEQQCLO R'RE CQTION Patent no. 3,730,560 Dated ma 1, 1973 Inventor(s) H y AL.
It is certified thaterror appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected asshown below:
Column 6,- cancel Claim 3 and substitute the following:
3. A cased book comprisingjan uncased book formed of sheets each formed with a plurality of first apertures along the inner margins of said sheets, at least one frontand back end leaf on the outside of said sheets each formed with a plurality of second apertures corresponding to the spacing of said first apertures,
a first narrow plastic strip fomedwith a plurality of third apertures corresponding to the spacing of saidfirst apertures and overlying one edge of one of said end leaves adjacent to the inner edge of the side of said uncased book, a second narrow'plastic strip formed with a plurality of studs corresponding in sapcing to and projecting. through said first, second and third apertures and overlying the edge of the other of said end leaves adjacent to the inner edge of the side of said uncased book opposite said first plastic strip, means" on treends of said studs securing said studs to said first strip to form an uncased book, said end leaves each being provided with pressure-sensitive adhesive on its outer surface" and initially protected by a removable protective cover, each said end leaf being securely bound' betw'een'said plastic strips to said sheets, and a case for said uncased book having front, and
FORM PO-IOSO (10-59) USCOMM' DC Gov-6* U.S. GOVERNME NT PRINTING OFFICE: I909 0-366-334.
PATENT NO. 3,730,550
s PAGEHZ. i. .7
back covers and a flexible spine, and covering means for the outsides of both said front and back covers and of said spine, said case prior to adherence tov said uncased book being adapted to encase a range of thicknesses of uncased books by reason of the fletibility of said spine, said end leaves permanently adhering to the insides of said front and back covers by means of said presuresensitive adhesive after said protective covers have been removed, said pressuresensitive material extending to the outer edges of said end leaves, the outer edges of said covers extending outwardly beyond the outer edges of said end leaves, said insides of said covers being devoid of exposed adhesive beyond the outer ledges of said end leaves, the spine edge of said uncased book being centered relative to said spine portion of said covering.
Signed and sealed this 25th day of December 1973.
EDWARDIM; FLElCHER,JR RENE D. "IEGTMEYER t At testing Officer Acting Commissioner of Patents
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|U.S. Classification||281/21.1, 281/29, 412/43, 412/21|
|International Classification||B42B5/08, B42D1/02, B42B5/00, B42D1/00, B42D1/06|
|Cooperative Classification||B42D1/02, B42D1/06, B42B5/00, B42B5/08|
|European Classification||B42B5/08, B42D1/02, B42D1/06, B42B5/00|