|Publication number||US3731146 A|
|Publication date||May 1, 1973|
|Filing date||Dec 23, 1970|
|Priority date||Dec 23, 1970|
|Also published as||DE2159008A1|
|Publication number||US 3731146 A, US 3731146A, US-A-3731146, US3731146 A, US3731146A|
|Inventors||Bettiga A, Chang L|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (31), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
nite States ate [191 ettiga et a1.
 TONER DHSTRTBUTION PROCESS  Inventors: Albert C. Bettiga; Leo S. Chang,
both of San Jose, Calif.
 Assignee: lnternational Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, N.Y.
 Filed: Dec. 23, 1970  Appl. No.: 100,971
 US. Cl. ..317/3,117/17.5,117/111R, 118/261, 118/637  Int. Cl. ..G03g 13/08  Field of Search ..1 17/175, 111 R; 118/261, 637; 355/3, 15; 317/3  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,251,706 5/1966 Walkup ..ll7/l7.5
ROTATING ORUM RESIN GRAPHITE FLEXIBLE CONDUCTIVE SUBSTRATE RESILIENT FOAM BACKING 1 May 1, 1973 3,306,193 2/1967 Rarey et a1. ..118/637 3,296,965 l/l967 Reif et a1. 17/l7.5 3,152,012 10/1964 Schaffertuu.
2,892,709 6/1959 Mayer Lehmann ..1l7ll7.5
Primary Examiner-William D. Martin Assistant Examiner-4V1. Sofocleous Attorneyl-lanifin & Jancin and Joseph G. Walsh  ABSTRACT Toner is distributed and charged on an impression development surface by contact with at least one doctor blade electrically insulated relative to other parts of the apparatus and made of material remote from the toner in the triboelectric series and close to the impression development surface material in the triboelectric series. The toner particles are charged because of contact with the doctor blade.
- 5 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure TONER DISTRIBUTION AND CHARGING BLADES CONVENTIONAL ELECTROSTATIC PROCESS PAIENILUIIAY Hm 3,731,146
TONER DISTRIBUTION AND CHARGING 'BLAOES RESIN GRAPHITE FLEXIBLE CONDUCTIVE SUBSTRATE RESILIENT FOAM BACKING CONVENTIONAL ELECTROSTATIC PROCESS INVENNRS.
ALBERT C. BETTIGA LEO S. CHANG ATTORNEY TONER DISTRIBUTION PROCESS FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention is concerned with the distribution of toner particles in impression development electrophotography.
As is well known to persons skilled in the art, electrostaticprinting involves the production of electrostatic images on the surface of a dielectric member of the like, the application of charged minute electroscopic pigmented toner particles to the image bearing surface, and the fixing of the developed image before or after transfer to a print medium, such as paper. VArious then placed against the surface of the electrostatic image bearing member. The placing of the developing surface of the image bearing surface is performed so that virtually no relative peripheral speed exists during the contact between the developer and image bearing surfaces. Thus, there is substantially no wiping, patting, or other motion during contact as is usually found in other techniques '(e.g., brush or cascade development)- for applying the toner to the image-bearing surface.
PRIOR ART U.S. Pat. No. 3,152,012, issued Oct. 6, 1964 to R. M. Schaffert, and the references cited therein, summarize the prior art. In that patent, toner particles are carried to the impression developmentsurface by means of a transfer surface; The patent teaches (column 7, line 50) that a doctor blade may' be used to treat the transfer surface so as to distribute the toner. That procedure is in sharp distinction to the procedure of the present invention, according to which at least one doctor blade is used directly on the impression development surface. In this way the need for a transfer surface is avoided, and a considerable saving of machinery and space is obtained.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION toner uniformly and The process of the present invention may be un- DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The FIGURE shows diagrammatically (not according to scale) a preferred embodiment of an apparatus suitable for use in the process of the present invention.
Referring in more detail to the FIGURE, an apparatus is shown having the impression surface in a drum form. The system comprises an impression surface on a resilient backing with a toner reservoir adjacent to the drum surface. A series of toner distribution doctor blades are also provided. The blades rest directly on the impression drum and are held in contact by springs. They are electrically insulated. from the remainder of the apparatus. Toner is drawn under'the blades as the drum rotates. Contact'among the drum surface, the blades and the toner results in a uniform layer of triboelectrically charged toner on the impression surface of the drum. By rotation of the drum, the charged toner is then brought into contact with the photoconductor, where toner is selectively transferred to the latent electrostatic image, which is also rotating on a drum. In the process of the present invention, a single pass is sufficient to provide enough toner to give adequate image density. It is important that zero relative peripheral speed exist between the toner surface and the photoconductor, as is always the case in impression development.
The toner distribution process of the present invention is suitable for use with many impression development surfaces. Acceptable results have been obtained with a surface of matte finish aluminum. It is, however, particularly suited for use with the surfaces described in U. S. application Ser. No. 100,980 in the name of Leo S. Chang, filed on the same date as the present application. .That application ,descr ibes impression development surfaces which are resilient, conductive, rough and remote from the toner in the triboelectric series. An example of such a surface is one comprising small graphite particles dispersed in a-copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate. The surfaceis made resilient by means of a resilient substrate to insure opv timal contact with the photoconductor.
For the process of the present invention, the doctor blade edge is in contact with the impression developer surface and is held there by, for example, spring means. The blade, however, is otherwise electrically insulated from the remainder of the apparatus.
A single blade of the proper type is sufficient. It has unexpectedly been found advantageous, however, to use a plurality of blades, particularly three blades. There is apparently no advantage to using more than three blades.
For the process of the present invention, it is essential that the blade be made of material remote from the toner in the triboelectric series. The blade must be close to the impression development surface material in the triboelectric series, but it should not be identical to the impression development surface material. The triboelectric series has been long known to those skilled in the electrophotographic art. It is discussed, for example, in an article by V. E. Shashoua in the Journal of Polymer Science,'Vol. 33, pages 65-85 (1958). That article also describes a simple test for determining where a particular material should be placed in the triboelectric series.
Most toners in commercial use today are based on polymers or copolymers of materials such as styrene and methacrylate esters. For use with such toner, excellent results have been obtained using blades made of polytetrafluoroethylene (available from DuPont under the trademark Teflon). Polyformaldehyde (available from DuPont under the trademark Delrin) is particularly suitable for reversal development. Blades may also be made of composite resin or resin and filler materials,
. or of polymer coated metal.
If desired, bias voltage may be employed in the process of the present invention. This is a known concept in the art, and involves applying to the impression development surface a voltage of approximately the same magnitude and polarity as that of the light exposed (background) areas of the photoconductor. As mentioned previously, the use of bias voltage is known in the art, and is not an essential feature in the present invention. It is often desirable, however, to use it in conjunction with the process of the present invention.
In like manner, it is sometimes helpful to add the step of D.C. corona charging, for example, before, between or after the treatment with the doctor blades. D.C. corona charging enhances the charge of the toner, and
Excellent results have been obtained using doctor blades having circular tips in contact with the impression development surface. These circular tips have a radius of approximately three-thirty-seconds of an.
What is claimed is:
l. A process for distributing and charging toner particles on an impression development surface, said process comprising subjecting said toner particles and surface to contact with at least one doctor blade edge otherwise electrically insulated from the apparatus and made of material remote from the toner in the triboelectric series and close to the impression development surface material in the triboelectric series, said contact between the toner particles and the doctor blade charging said toner particles.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein a plurality of blades are used.
3. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the blade is held in contact with the impression development surface by spring means.
4. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the blade is made of polytetrafluoroethylene.
5. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the blade is made of polyformaldehyde.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2892709 *||Mar 7, 1955||Jun 30, 1959||Gen Dynamics Corp||Electrostatic printing|
|US3152012 *||Dec 19, 1960||Oct 6, 1964||Ibm||Apparatus for the development of electrostatic images|
|US3251706 *||Jan 4, 1954||May 17, 1966||Xerox Corp||Xerographic development method and apparatus|
|US3284224 *||Jan 4, 1963||Nov 8, 1966||Xerox Corp||Controlled xerographic development|
|US3296965 *||Jun 3, 1964||Jan 10, 1967||Interchem Corp||Method of electrostatic powder gravure printing and apparatus therefor|
|US3306193 *||Sep 14, 1964||Feb 28, 1967||Continental Can Co||Electrostatic screen printing with magnetic conveyer and moving base electrode|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3881927 *||Apr 16, 1973||May 6, 1975||Xerox Corp||Half tone development process for touchdown system in electrostatic imaging|
|US3901187 *||Sep 21, 1973||Aug 26, 1975||Xerox Corp||Developer retoning apparatus|
|US4459009 *||Jul 27, 1981||Jul 10, 1984||Xerox Corporation||Apparatus, process for charging toner particles|
|US4522866 *||Mar 3, 1982||Jun 11, 1985||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Elastomer member with non-tacky surface treating layer and method of manufacturing same|
|US4615606 *||Nov 2, 1983||Oct 7, 1986||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Apparatus for developing electrostatic latent image|
|US4628860 *||Feb 21, 1986||Dec 16, 1986||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Developing apparatus|
|US4833059 *||Mar 16, 1987||May 23, 1989||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Developing method using one-component non-magnetic toner with positive frictional charge|
|US4943504 *||Jan 27, 1989||Jul 24, 1990||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Method for developing an electrostatic latent image|
|US4943816 *||Jun 14, 1989||Jul 24, 1990||International Business Machines Corporation||High quality thermal jet printer configuration suitable for producing color images|
|US5032485 *||Jun 27, 1990||Jul 16, 1991||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Developing method for one-component developer|
|US5044310 *||Dec 22, 1989||Sep 3, 1991||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Developing apparatus for non-magnetic developer|
|US5096798 *||Mar 18, 1991||Mar 17, 1992||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Developing method for one-component developer|
|US5114823 *||Jul 23, 1990||May 19, 1992||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Developing method for electrostatic images|
|US5155532 *||Nov 27, 1990||Oct 13, 1992||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Method for developing an electrostatic latent image|
|US5177323 *||Oct 23, 1991||Jan 5, 1993||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Developing device for developing an electrostatic latent image by a one-component developing agent|
|US5194359 *||Aug 6, 1991||Mar 16, 1993||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Developing method for one component developer|
|US5210575 *||Feb 13, 1991||May 11, 1993||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Developing apparatus including a blade for forming a toner layer|
|US5235387 *||May 21, 1992||Aug 10, 1993||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Developing apparatus using a one-component nonmagnetic toner|
|US5288583 *||Jan 24, 1992||Feb 22, 1994||Tomoegawa Paper Co., Ltd.||Developing method using single-component nonmagnetic toners|
|US5317370 *||Dec 11, 1992||May 31, 1994||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Developing apparatus including means for collecting used developing agent|
|US5600417 *||Aug 31, 1993||Feb 4, 1997||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Developing device for electrophotographic apparatus|
|US5937236 *||Sep 11, 1997||Aug 10, 1999||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Ghost-image preventing apparatus for a developing roller|
|US6143580 *||Feb 17, 1999||Nov 7, 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Methods of forming a mask pattern and methods of forming a field emitter tip mask|
|US6358763||Apr 10, 2000||Mar 19, 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Methods of forming a mask pattern and methods of forming a field emitter tip mask|
|US6420012||Jul 20, 2000||Jul 16, 2002||Bridgestone Corporation||Toner carrier and image-forming apparatus|
|US6810225||Jul 10, 2002||Oct 26, 2004||Bridgestone Corporation||Conductive member and electrophotographic apparatus incorporating the conductive member|
|US7162180||Aug 30, 2000||Jan 9, 2007||Bridgestone Corporation||Elastic roller|
|US8038591||Mar 27, 2007||Oct 18, 2011||Lexmark International, Inc.||Image forming apparatus component with triboelectric properties|
|US8500616||Oct 9, 2007||Aug 6, 2013||Lexmark International, Inc.||Toner mass control by surface roughness and voids|
|US20080240810 *||Mar 27, 2007||Oct 2, 2008||Jonathan Lee Barnes||Image Forming Apparatus Component With Triboelectric Properties|
|USRE34724 *||Jul 25, 1990||Sep 13, 1994||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Developing apparatus for electrostatic image|
|U.S. Classification||361/226, 399/168, 430/101, 118/261, 427/474, 427/469|
|International Classification||G03G15/08, G03G9/00|
|Cooperative Classification||G03G15/0812, G03G9/00|
|European Classification||G03G15/08F3, G03G9/00|