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Publication numberUS3731146 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 1, 1973
Filing dateDec 23, 1970
Priority dateDec 23, 1970
Also published asDE2159008A1
Publication numberUS 3731146 A, US 3731146A, US-A-3731146, US3731146 A, US3731146A
InventorsBettiga A, Chang L
Original AssigneeIbm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Toner distribution process
US 3731146 A
Abstract
Toner is distributed and charged on an impression development surface by contact with at least one doctor blade electrically insulated relative to other parts of the apparatus and made of material remote from the toner in the triboelectric series and close to the impression development surface material in the triboelectric series. The toner particles are charged because of contact with the doctor blade.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

nite States ate [191 ettiga et a1.

[54] TONER DHSTRTBUTION PROCESS [75] Inventors: Albert C. Bettiga; Leo S. Chang,

both of San Jose, Calif.

[73] Assignee: lnternational Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, N.Y.

[22] Filed: Dec. 23, 1970 [21] Appl. No.: 100,971

[52] US. Cl. ..317/3,117/17.5,117/111R, 118/261, 118/637 [51] Int. Cl. ..G03g 13/08 [58] Field of Search ..1 17/175, 111 R; 118/261, 637; 355/3, 15; 317/3 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,251,706 5/1966 Walkup ..ll7/l7.5

ROTATING ORUM RESIN GRAPHITE FLEXIBLE CONDUCTIVE SUBSTRATE RESILIENT FOAM BACKING 1 May 1, 1973 3,306,193 2/1967 Rarey et a1. ..118/637 3,296,965 l/l967 Reif et a1. 17/l7.5 3,152,012 10/1964 Schaffertuu.

2,892,709 6/1959 Mayer Lehmann ..1l7ll7.5

Primary Examiner-William D. Martin Assistant Examiner-4V1. Sofocleous Attorneyl-lanifin & Jancin and Joseph G. Walsh [57] ABSTRACT Toner is distributed and charged on an impression development surface by contact with at least one doctor blade electrically insulated relative to other parts of the apparatus and made of material remote from the toner in the triboelectric series and close to the impression development surface material in the triboelectric series. The toner particles are charged because of contact with the doctor blade.

- 5 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure TONER DISTRIBUTION AND CHARGING BLADES CONVENTIONAL ELECTROSTATIC PROCESS PAIENILUIIAY Hm 3,731,146

TONER DISTRIBUTION AND CHARGING 'BLAOES RESIN GRAPHITE FLEXIBLE CONDUCTIVE SUBSTRATE RESILIENT FOAM BACKING CONVENTIONAL ELECTROSTATIC PROCESS INVENNRS.

ALBERT C. BETTIGA LEO S. CHANG ATTORNEY TONER DISTRIBUTION PROCESS FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention is concerned with the distribution of toner particles in impression development electrophotography.

As is well known to persons skilled in the art, electrostaticprinting involves the production of electrostatic images on the surface of a dielectric member of the like, the application of charged minute electroscopic pigmented toner particles to the image bearing surface, and the fixing of the developed image before or after transfer to a print medium, such as paper. VArious then placed against the surface of the electrostatic image bearing member. The placing of the developing surface of the image bearing surface is performed so that virtually no relative peripheral speed exists during the contact between the developer and image bearing surfaces. Thus, there is substantially no wiping, patting, or other motion during contact as is usually found in other techniques '(e.g., brush or cascade development)- for applying the toner to the image-bearing surface.

PRIOR ART U.S. Pat. No. 3,152,012, issued Oct. 6, 1964 to R. M. Schaffert, and the references cited therein, summarize the prior art. In that patent, toner particles are carried to the impression developmentsurface by means of a transfer surface; The patent teaches (column 7, line 50) that a doctor blade may' be used to treat the transfer surface so as to distribute the toner. That procedure is in sharp distinction to the procedure of the present invention, according to which at least one doctor blade is used directly on the impression development surface. In this way the need for a transfer surface is avoided, and a considerable saving of machinery and space is obtained.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION toner uniformly and The process of the present invention may be un- DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The FIGURE shows diagrammatically (not according to scale) a preferred embodiment of an apparatus suitable for use in the process of the present invention.

Referring in more detail to the FIGURE, an apparatus is shown having the impression surface in a drum form. The system comprises an impression surface on a resilient backing with a toner reservoir adjacent to the drum surface. A series of toner distribution doctor blades are also provided. The blades rest directly on the impression drum and are held in contact by springs. They are electrically insulated. from the remainder of the apparatus. Toner is drawn under'the blades as the drum rotates. Contact'among the drum surface, the blades and the toner results in a uniform layer of triboelectrically charged toner on the impression surface of the drum. By rotation of the drum, the charged toner is then brought into contact with the photoconductor, where toner is selectively transferred to the latent electrostatic image, which is also rotating on a drum. In the process of the present invention, a single pass is sufficient to provide enough toner to give adequate image density. It is important that zero relative peripheral speed exist between the toner surface and the photoconductor, as is always the case in impression development.

The toner distribution process of the present invention is suitable for use with many impression development surfaces. Acceptable results have been obtained with a surface of matte finish aluminum. It is, however, particularly suited for use with the surfaces described in U. S. application Ser. No. 100,980 in the name of Leo S. Chang, filed on the same date as the present application. .That application ,descr ibes impression development surfaces which are resilient, conductive, rough and remote from the toner in the triboelectric series. An example of such a surface is one comprising small graphite particles dispersed in a-copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate. The surfaceis made resilient by means of a resilient substrate to insure opv timal contact with the photoconductor.

For the process of the present invention, the doctor blade edge is in contact with the impression developer surface and is held there by, for example, spring means. The blade, however, is otherwise electrically insulated from the remainder of the apparatus.

A single blade of the proper type is sufficient. It has unexpectedly been found advantageous, however, to use a plurality of blades, particularly three blades. There is apparently no advantage to using more than three blades.

For the process of the present invention, it is essential that the blade be made of material remote from the toner in the triboelectric series. The blade must be close to the impression development surface material in the triboelectric series, but it should not be identical to the impression development surface material. The triboelectric series has been long known to those skilled in the electrophotographic art. It is discussed, for example, in an article by V. E. Shashoua in the Journal of Polymer Science,'Vol. 33, pages 65-85 (1958). That article also describes a simple test for determining where a particular material should be placed in the triboelectric series.

Most toners in commercial use today are based on polymers or copolymers of materials such as styrene and methacrylate esters. For use with such toner, excellent results have been obtained using blades made of polytetrafluoroethylene (available from DuPont under the trademark Teflon). Polyformaldehyde (available from DuPont under the trademark Delrin) is particularly suitable for reversal development. Blades may also be made of composite resin or resin and filler materials,

. or of polymer coated metal.

If desired, bias voltage may be employed in the process of the present invention. This is a known concept in the art, and involves applying to the impression development surface a voltage of approximately the same magnitude and polarity as that of the light exposed (background) areas of the photoconductor. As mentioned previously, the use of bias voltage is known in the art, and is not an essential feature in the present invention. It is often desirable, however, to use it in conjunction with the process of the present invention.

In like manner, it is sometimes helpful to add the step of D.C. corona charging, for example, before, between or after the treatment with the doctor blades. D.C. corona charging enhances the charge of the toner, and

reduces background.

Excellent results have been obtained using doctor blades having circular tips in contact with the impression development surface. These circular tips have a radius of approximately three-thirty-seconds of an.

inch.

What is claimed is:

l. A process for distributing and charging toner particles on an impression development surface, said process comprising subjecting said toner particles and surface to contact with at least one doctor blade edge otherwise electrically insulated from the apparatus and made of material remote from the toner in the triboelectric series and close to the impression development surface material in the triboelectric series, said contact between the toner particles and the doctor blade charging said toner particles.

2. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein a plurality of blades are used.

3. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the blade is held in contact with the impression development surface by spring means.

4. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the blade is made of polytetrafluoroethylene.

5. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the blade is made of polyformaldehyde.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2892709 *Mar 7, 1955Jun 30, 1959Gen Dynamics CorpElectrostatic printing
US3152012 *Dec 19, 1960Oct 6, 1964IbmApparatus for the development of electrostatic images
US3251706 *Jan 4, 1954May 17, 1966Xerox CorpXerographic development method and apparatus
US3284224 *Jan 4, 1963Nov 8, 1966Xerox CorpControlled xerographic development
US3296965 *Jun 3, 1964Jan 10, 1967Interchem CorpMethod of electrostatic powder gravure printing and apparatus therefor
US3306193 *Sep 14, 1964Feb 28, 1967Continental Can CoElectrostatic screen printing with magnetic conveyer and moving base electrode
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3881927 *Apr 16, 1973May 6, 1975Xerox CorpHalf tone development process for touchdown system in electrostatic imaging
US3901187 *Sep 21, 1973Aug 26, 1975Xerox CorpDeveloper retoning apparatus
US4459009 *Jul 27, 1981Jul 10, 1984Xerox CorporationApparatus, process for charging toner particles
US4522866 *Mar 3, 1982Jun 11, 1985Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.Elastomer member with non-tacky surface treating layer and method of manufacturing same
US4615606 *Nov 2, 1983Oct 7, 1986Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.Apparatus for developing electrostatic latent image
US4628860 *Feb 21, 1986Dec 16, 1986Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaDeveloping apparatus
US4833059 *Mar 16, 1987May 23, 1989Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaDeveloping method using one-component non-magnetic toner with positive frictional charge
US4943504 *Jan 27, 1989Jul 24, 1990Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaMethod for developing an electrostatic latent image
US4943816 *Jun 14, 1989Jul 24, 1990International Business Machines CorporationHigh quality thermal jet printer configuration suitable for producing color images
US5032485 *Jun 27, 1990Jul 16, 1991Canon Kabushiki KaishaDeveloping method for one-component developer
US5044310 *Dec 22, 1989Sep 3, 1991Canon Kabushiki KaishaDeveloping apparatus for non-magnetic developer
US5096798 *Mar 18, 1991Mar 17, 1992Canon Kabushiki KaishaDeveloping method for one-component developer
US5114823 *Jul 23, 1990May 19, 1992Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaDeveloping method for electrostatic images
US5155532 *Nov 27, 1990Oct 13, 1992Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaMethod for developing an electrostatic latent image
US5177323 *Oct 23, 1991Jan 5, 1993Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaDeveloping device for developing an electrostatic latent image by a one-component developing agent
US5194359 *Aug 6, 1991Mar 16, 1993Canon Kabushiki KaishaDeveloping method for one component developer
US5210575 *Feb 13, 1991May 11, 1993Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaDeveloping apparatus including a blade for forming a toner layer
US5235387 *May 21, 1992Aug 10, 1993Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaDeveloping apparatus using a one-component nonmagnetic toner
US5288583 *Jan 24, 1992Feb 22, 1994Tomoegawa Paper Co., Ltd.Developing method using single-component nonmagnetic toners
US5317370 *Dec 11, 1992May 31, 1994Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaDeveloping apparatus including means for collecting used developing agent
US5600417 *Aug 31, 1993Feb 4, 1997Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaDeveloping device for electrophotographic apparatus
US5937236 *Sep 11, 1997Aug 10, 1999Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Ghost-image preventing apparatus for a developing roller
US6143580 *Feb 17, 1999Nov 7, 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Methods of forming a mask pattern and methods of forming a field emitter tip mask
US6358763Apr 10, 2000Mar 19, 2002Micron Technology, Inc.Methods of forming a mask pattern and methods of forming a field emitter tip mask
US6420012Jul 20, 2000Jul 16, 2002Bridgestone CorporationToner carrier and image-forming apparatus
US6810225Jul 10, 2002Oct 26, 2004Bridgestone CorporationConductive member and electrophotographic apparatus incorporating the conductive member
US7162180Aug 30, 2000Jan 9, 2007Bridgestone CorporationElastic roller
US8038591Mar 27, 2007Oct 18, 2011Lexmark International, Inc.Image forming apparatus component with triboelectric properties
US8500616Oct 9, 2007Aug 6, 2013Lexmark International, Inc.Toner mass control by surface roughness and voids
US20080240810 *Mar 27, 2007Oct 2, 2008Jonathan Lee BarnesImage Forming Apparatus Component With Triboelectric Properties
USRE34724 *Jul 25, 1990Sep 13, 1994Canon Kabushiki KaishaDeveloping apparatus for electrostatic image
Classifications
U.S. Classification361/226, 399/168, 430/101, 118/261, 427/474, 427/469
International ClassificationG03G15/08, G03G9/00
Cooperative ClassificationG03G15/0812, G03G9/00
European ClassificationG03G15/08F3, G03G9/00