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Publication numberUS3736411 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 29, 1973
Filing dateMay 17, 1971
Priority dateMay 17, 1971
Publication numberUS 3736411 A, US 3736411A, US-A-3736411, US3736411 A, US3736411A
InventorsC Berndt
Original AssigneeAtomic Energy Commission
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Graphics display system
US 3736411 A
Abstract
A system for computing and displaying prompt and delayed effects of nuclear explosions with respect to a geographical area. The display is based on various input parameters concerning the initial conditions under which an explosive is detonated. The display is a superposition of prompt effects, viz., blast, thermal effects, etc., represented by concentric circles; fallout, represented by a time varying growing and variegated mosaic pattern; and a map whose scale is controllable upon command, this being accomplished by three separate images simultaneously projected on a screen from three separate sources. A computer controls the display and makes changes on it, utilizing relationships which characterize nuclear effects as functions of time. The apparatus is useful for understanding, analyzing, demonstrating and predicting the effects of nuclear weapons.
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I Umted States Pat H 11 3,736,41 1 Berndt [4 1 May 29, 1973 [54] GRAPHICS DISPLAY SYSTEM Primary Examiner-Eugene G. Botz {75] Inventor: Carl W. Berndt, Danville, Calif. Attorney-Roland Anderson [73] Assignee: The United States of America as [57] ABSTRACT represented by the Atomic Energy commissiqn washington 1) c A system for computing and displaying prompt and I delayed effects of nuclear explosions with respect to a [22] May 1971 geographical area. The display is based on various [21] Appl. No.: 144,035 input parameters concerning the initial conditions under which an explosive is detonated. The display is Related Application a superposition of prompt effects, viz., blast, thermal [63] Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 31 ,349, April 15, effects, etc., represented by concentric circles; fallout, 1969, abandoned. represented by a time varying growing and variegated mosaic pattern; and a map whose scale is controllable [52] US. Cl. ..235/l, 35/25, 353/31, upon mmand, this being accomplished by three 353/11, 340/3 444/1 separate images simultaneously projected on a screen [5 1] Int. Cl. ..G03b 29/00 f three Separate Soul-SI A computer controls the I [58] Fleld of Search ..235/l51 display and makes changes on it utilizing relationships 56 R f d which characterize nuclear effects as functions of 1 e erences time. The apparatus is useful for understanding, UNITED STATES PATENTS analyzing, demonstrating and predicting the effects of nuclear weapons. 3,558,865 1/1971 Berndt ..235/l51 7 Claims, 45 Drawing Figures Q, I I I I T In I .gf if. {1"

,, A ,MAP BACKGROUND MIRROR NUMERICAL MAP BACKGROUND READOUT 1 PROJECTION I I 31 33 RT MIRROR 28 35C 3 38 I I.

INTERFACE DIGITAL LOGIC COMPUTER I I M 34 42 40 37 no FALLOUT PATTERN CONTROL \/22 LOGIC PROMPT EFFECTS 13 CIRCLE GENERATOR CONTROL CIRCLE 17 PANEL LOGlC Patented May 29, 73

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91 PROMPT PROMPT EFFECTS EFFECTS A2521 5232? 1 92 I 201 202 2 03 MAP I DISPLAY 31? INTERFACE 6 3;" INTERFACE CONTROLLER S lNTERFACE PANEL F" I l 224 22? -17 18 f 23 24 READ DIGITAL CIRCLE ONLY COMPUTER ENERATOR MEMORY (ROM) Fig. 5

INVENTOR. Car/W Berndt BY /6w( ATTORNEY.

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MEN 53 an; QNNH SSEHUGV EHII) Patented May 29, 1913 48 Shots-Shoot 9 THIS ENTRANCE FRO I (DNSTRUCT SEOLENCE PARAMETERS (LPC), AFTER LOAD FROM TAPE 0R DISC NDVE LOAD CONTIUL TABLE (LCTO) TO SEQUENCE PARAMETERS TABLE (SPTO) IDMAL ENTRANGE INTO CFA FLU! PRIXERA'T BLIXIKS AFTER THEY HAVE COPIETED THEIR OPERATION ENTER HETE ERTN A ENTER SUBROUTINE CKOl TO READ sTART RANT UP msc FOR 5 sEc ENTER TERE TTTEN msc ERRoR occuRs INITIALIZE SPTO INDEX (1)99 (ITTPUT ERROR WORD ERRO T0 LIGHT ANY INDICATED ERROR LIGHTS TURN (N START LIGHT CLEAR SKIP AND ERROR LIGHTS INDICATOR (ERRO) T ENTRY IN SEOIHICE PARNETER THIS INDD( INDICATES RHICH IS TO BE PROCESSED EXIT DIRECTLY TO CFE TO READ IN FALLOUT LOAD FLNCTIUI AND LOAD FALLOUT Patented M 29, 19

THIS KIND 0F BITRY (READ 0) CAN BE USED A9 A DUI-W ENTRY TO PROVIDE THE SAIE SKIP INCREIEIIT FOR A PROGRAM BLOCK THAT (PERATES AT TN) PLATES IN THE PROGRAM SEQIENIE OR TO PROVIDE A BRANCH ADDRESS FOR A SPECIFIC (IINDITIGI FIUI ITEM DADD IN SPTO 48 Shah-Shut 10 GET NIIIBER 0F ENTRIES TO BE SKIPPED SKIP AND ADD SKIP*A T0 SPTO INDEX C099 I CLEAR SKIP READ AND CHEO SLM PROGRAM BLOCK (DNTAINING NNIB NORIB FROM DISC ADDRESS DADD T0 CORE ADDIESS (ADD. NNDS. DADD AND CADD GIVEN IN SPTD Patented May 2 9, 1973 3,736,411

45 Sims-Shoot 11 JADD MAY BE THE ENTRANOE TO A PROGRAN BLOCK, (112 OR ANY OTHER ENTRANOE SETEXIT ADDRESS FRIH CFA JADD=OIEENABLESABLOO TOBETEAD IN TO VALUE OF JADD IN SPTD BEFORE THE BLOCK THAT USES IT.- IN THE NEXT ENTRY, THEN, THE BLOCK TO BE READ IS READ AND (PERATED. FOR EXAMPLE. NDC IS READ IN BEFORE NlA IS READ AND EXECUTED IECRENENT SPTO INEX VALUE (D99 BY VALUE OF BACK'A SETSPTO INID C099 v TONDTTSPTO ENTRY EXIT TO ADDRESS GIVENBY JADD IN SPTO Famed May 29, 1913 4s sum-Lama 1:

CLEAR ERROR WORD ERRO AND INPUT SRD FLAG SRDF READ AND PRU'PT/FALLOUT EXECUTE FALLOUT INPUT AIR ENSITY (ll-INS) AND WEAPON TYPE (NEAT). BITER SUBROUTIIE COVT TO COWERT DENSITY TU FLOATING POINT. STORE DENS IN TABLE VARIABLES AND NEAT IN TABLE FLAGS IN PCOI Pahatod May 29, 1913 45 Mil-Shut NO YES FmI-I ROI-1.

ETC.: I= WEAPON TYPE) INPUT THE C AND L TYPE (ITNSTANTS FOR NEUTRON AND GAI IWI RADIATION CONVERT TO FLOATING POINT USING SUBROUTINE COVT AND STORE RESULTS IN TABLES CGAM, OIEU LGN-I, LNEU IN PIDI (STORED AT OGAI'KI) OIEU(I),-

GET corsmws c ,---c FR M RUN AND CCNVERT T0 FLOATING POINT USIMi SUBROUTINE UJVS. USE IIJLTIPLYING FACTORS STORED IN TABLE CM IN CFB TO INPROVE ACCURACY SINCE C ,-C HAVE (NLY 3 SIGNIFICANT DIGIIS IN R04 Patented May 29, 1973 3,736,411

45 Mime 14 TEST TO SEE IF A (fl'PUTE STORE OR FECALL IS SET, A WEAPON NlI'BER IS NO SET, AND A ILLTIWEAPOI RANGE IS SET INPUT YIELD (YIEL) AND HEIGHT OF BURST (IDB). CONER'T TO FLOATING POINT LBING COVT AND STORE RESULT IN TABLE VARIABLES IN POIN Patented May 29, 1913 3,736,411

NOTE I IOIIE II INPUT R NGE (RIG) INPUT PRESSURE (PRES) RADIATION (IRAD), (INVERT T0 FLOATING POINT [SING SLB- AND D ERIW FLUX (OCAL). COIVERT TO ROUTINE COVT AND STORE RESULTS IN FLOATING POINT USING SUBROUTINE COVT AND TABLE VARIABLES IN PCOI STORE IN TABLE VARIABLES IN PIIN INPUT GAINA SHIELDING FACTOR (GAPS) AND NEUTROI SHIELDING FACTOR (NEUS). CONVERT TO FLOATING POINT USING IDVT AND STOIE IN TABLE VARIABLES IN PCOI INPUT VLLNERABILITY NU 'BER (VUL), VUINERABILITY K-FACTOR (VULK), PRESSURE FLAG (PRFL AND VISIBILITY FLAG (VISF). (OVVERT VUL TO FLOATING POINT, LBING (DVT. STORE VUL, VULK IN TABLE VARIABLES IN PCOI. (INVERT PRF AND VISF TO THEIR PIUPER INTEGER FORMATS GIVEN IN TABLE 2 AND STORE RESULTS IN TABIE FLAGS IN PIDN Patented May 29, 1973 3,736,411

45 Shah-Shut 16 IS YIEL ..WITHIN MINIMM (DNVERT YIEL NIII MAXIMM LIMITS GIVEN T0 KI IN TABLES MINI m1) MAXI IN PCON SET ERRJR 3 EJ4A Patented May 29, 1913 3,736,411

48 Blah-Shut 17 ILLEGN. ATE ALL OTHER INPUTS SET ERROR 11 INPUT WITHIN MINIMLM AND wxxmm LIMITS GIVEN IN TABLES MINI mm mm m P(1)N OUTPUT ERROR LIGHTS TURN START LIGHT (N EXIT T0 CFA TO READ NEXT PRJGRPM BLOCK TURN START (PF

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3558865 *Mar 31, 1967Jan 26, 1971Atomic Energy CommissionWeapons effect display system
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4181971 *Feb 9, 1976Jan 1, 1980The University Of AkronApparatus for presenting a sequence of fixed pictures
US4283766 *Sep 24, 1979Aug 11, 1981Walt Disney ProductionsAutomatic camera control for creating special effects in motion picture photography
US4296930 *Jul 5, 1977Oct 27, 1981Bally Manufacturing CorporationTV Game apparatus
US4432732 *Jul 26, 1982Feb 21, 1984Kunihiko YanoMethod for predicting properties of a chemical compound
US4475172 *Jun 18, 1981Oct 2, 1984Bally Manufacturing CorporationAudio/visual home computer and game apparatus
US4582491 *Feb 7, 1983Apr 15, 1986Marconi Instruments LimitedTraining apparatus
US4628465 *Nov 6, 1984Dec 9, 1986Nippondenso Co., Ltd.Method and apparatus for measuring shape of injected substance
US4631691 *May 14, 1984Dec 23, 1986Rca CorporationVideo display device simulation apparatus and method
US4817039 *Feb 27, 1986Mar 28, 1989Fwg Associates, Inc.Atmospheric controlled video simulation system
US4827414 *Jul 8, 1985May 2, 1989Christianson Charles LMonitoring system and method for nuclear weapons effects detection and damage assessment
US5016192 *Sep 8, 1986May 14, 1991Sony CorporationVideotex terminal with a memory for storing plural picture frames
US5519809 *May 22, 1995May 21, 1996Technology International IncorporatedSystem and method for displaying geographical information
US5648914 *Jun 30, 1992Jul 15, 1997The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyMethod of defending against chemical and biological munitions
US5945985 *May 20, 1996Aug 31, 1999Technology International, Inc.Information system for interactive access to geographic information
US6108001 *May 21, 1993Aug 22, 2000International Business Machines CorporationDynamic control of visual and/or audio presentation
US6511186 *Jul 7, 2000Jan 28, 2003Sarnoff CorporationFocus and aim device and method for image projection
US6961070 *Apr 16, 2002Nov 1, 2005Information Decision Technologies, LlcMethod to graphically represent weapon effectiveness footprint
US7692653 *Oct 1, 2001Apr 6, 2010Versata Development Group, Inc.System and method for presenting statistics
US8686879Sep 25, 2008Apr 1, 2014Sikorsky Aircraft CorporationGraphical display for munition release envelope
WO1983002843A1 *Feb 7, 1983Aug 18, 1983Marconi Instruments LtdTraining apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification345/440, 434/218, 353/31, 345/634, 376/914, 353/11, 376/217, 345/442, 345/629
International ClassificationG06T15/70
Cooperative ClassificationY10S376/914, G06T13/00
European ClassificationG06T13/00