|Publication number||US3736946 A|
|Publication date||Jun 5, 1973|
|Filing date||Mar 15, 1971|
|Priority date||Mar 15, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3736946 A, US 3736946A, US-A-3736946, US3736946 A, US3736946A|
|Inventors||Wagner G, Yando S|
|Original Assignee||Wagner G, Yando S|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (16), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1 Yando et a1.
[ 51 .Eune 5, 1973  APPLIANCE AND PROCESS FOR NAIL ORNAMENTATION  Inventors: Stephen Yando, 315 W. 57th St., Apt. 16A, New York,'N.Y. 10019; Gloria Wagner, 225 E. 74th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10021 22 Filed: Mar. 15, 1971  Appl.No.: 124,370
'  US. Cl ..132/88.5  Int. Cl. ..A45d 40/30  Field of Search ..132/88.5, 88.7, 73,
2/1942 Klein .l28/l53 4/1956 Crawford ..128/l53  ABSTRACT An ornamentation appliance for applying designs to human nails. A support strip adapted to overlie a human digit carries on a shiny surface thereof a planar design in weakly adherent contact. The design and adjacent shiny surface are overcoated with a transfer adhesive whereby pressure transfer of overcoating and adherent design to said nail is enabled. Adhesive bands are provided on the strip for anchoring it during the pressure transfer step. A method for use of the appliance is also set forth, wherein following transfer the design and adjacent nail are overcoated with a composition including a film-former solute in a solvent which does not substantially dissolve the material of the design.
5 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures Patented June 5, 1973 3,736,946
I NVENTURS STEPHEN YANDO GLORIA WAGNER ATTORN EY APPLIANCE AND PROCESS FOR NAIL ORNAMENTATION BACKGROUND OF INVENTION This invention relates generally to ornamentation of the human body, and more specifically relates to an appliance and method for ornamenting finger and/or toe nails with esthetically appealing designs and patterns.
Within recent years ornamentation of the body has become increasingly fanciful and it has in consequence become fashionable to apply relatively complex and colorful designs to portions of the body.
As opposed to the ancient art of tatooing or the like, the techniques utilized in these modern instances are usually such as will result in a non-permanent design, in that it is usually desirable to change the designs in accordance with the dictates of the wearers dress or mood. By way of example, an inked transfer sheet has been utilized to transfer a washable representation of a flower or the like to the skin of a wearer, as onto the arms, knees or so forth.
Turning our attention to a specific part of the anatomy, it may be observed that throughout history and in diverse cultures human beings have evidenced an interest in providing decorative ornamentation upon finger and toe nails. Most commonly such ornamentation has taken the form of a tint or coloration applied to the nails in the form ofa paint-like composition, such as for example, so-called nail polish. It is also known, however, to provide a colorated appearance at the nail surface by other than application of a liquid coating composition; For example, fingernail shaped decalcomania have been adhered to nail surfaces following initial removal of the decalcomania from their support sheets by the well-known immersion-in-water techniques.
In this connection it may be noted that in spite of the aforementioned trend to emplacement of fanciful designs on the anatomy, little use has been made for such purposes of one of the most obvious anatomical features viz., human finger and toe nails. In principle the nails would appear to be eminently suited for such purposes in that they are highly visible and in a state of almost constant motion, in consequence of which they are natural focal points for the observer of the person. While various explanations may be offered for this seeming paradox, the basic explanation appears to be firstly that the relatively small and curving nail surfaces are difficult to apply designs to; and secondly, that it is very difficult to retain thus emplaced designs, in that the nail surfaces are subjected to a high degree of wear particularly during the course of washing and bathing.
In accordance with the foregoing, it may be regarded as an object of the present invention, to provide apparatus and method for simply and effectively applying fanciful designs to human finger and toe nails.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a design transfer appliance which enables an unskilled user to accurately and rapidly transfer simple or complex designs to the users nails, and without the employment of special tools or acquired techniques.
It is an additional object of the invention to provide a design transfer appliance which is effective, economical to produce, and disposable upon completion of the transfer process.
It is a still additional object of the invention, to provide a method for transfering and emplacing a design on a nail surface, whereby simple pressure techniques may be utilized for initial transfer, and which yet renders the transferred design highly resistant to destruction by ordinary wear and tear at the nails.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION Now in accordance with the present invention, the foregoing objects, and others as will become apparent in the course of the ensuing specification, are achieved through use ofa support strip carrying on a shiny calendered surface thereof a planar design which is in weakly adherent contact with the surface. The strip is of appropriate shape to approximately overlie a human digit, as for example a somewhat elongated rectangle. The design and adjacent shiny surface are overcoated with a transfer adhesive whereby pressure transfer of the overcoated adhesive and adherent design to an underpositioned nail is enabled. Adhesive bands are provided on the strip for anchoring it at the digit during the transfer step. According to the preferred method of the invention, and following the transfer step, the design and adjacent nail are overcoated with a composition including a clear film-former solute in a solvent which does not substantially dissolve the material of the design. The said solvent may further include an agent which tackifies the design substance whereby to improve surface bonding between design and film and provide better bonding to the underlying nail.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS The invention is diagramatically illustrated by way of example, in the drawings appended hereto, in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of part of a sheet of transfer appliances in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view through a portion of the FIG. 1 sheet, taken along the line 1 1 therein;
FIG. 3 is an isometric view, depicting use of the transfer appliance in applying a design to a finger nail, and
FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-section, depicting on an exaggerated scale a transferred and overcoated design in place on a nail.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT In FIG. 1 a plan view appears of a portion of a sheet 1 including a plurality of transfer appliances 3 in accordance with the invention. For purposes of the present discussion, simultaneous reference may be had to FIG. 2, showing a cross-section along the lines 1 1 of FIG. 1. Individual appliances 3 are seen to be formed as generally rectangular elongated members, a series of such members being adjoined to one another at their lateral edges by perforate joints 5 to form the sheet 1 which sheet may extend to the right (in the sense of the drawing) to include any convenient number of separable appliances. The provision of appliances 3 in the form of units detachable from sheets such as 1 represents a convenient and economic manner in which to manufacture and market the appliances 3; but it is, of course, possible to manufacture and/or market the appliances as individual units.
The individual appliance 3, as may be seen both from FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, comprises a generally rectangular support strip 9 upon the surface 8 of which is deposited a design 11. The strip 9 typically comprises a high quality, relatively translucent white paper, the surface 8 at least of which has been coated and calendered, as is known in the art, to produce a shiny and smooth finish,
such that the adhesive forces between the surface 8 and design 111 are quite weak. The strip 9 is typically of a width approximating that of the digit carrying the nail to which design ill is to be applied, and of length sufficient to extend at least over the first joint of the digit. Such dimensions may, of course, be conveniently chosen to render the appliances usable by children, adults or so forth.
Design 1 Il may be any fanciful drawing, lettering, pattern, graphical representation or so forth, and may be relatively continuous across its extent or may consist as in the fanciful peace symbol shown of individual line elements. The design 111 is typically screenprinted with an ink of such composition that the deposited pattern comprises essentially nitrocellulose, but as will be subsequently pointed out, the specific material comprising the design is significant with respect to a film overcoating which will ultimately be applied to the transfer design. The design ill is deposited adjacent one end of strip 9 in order to permit it to be positioned in overlying relationship to a nail.
Overcoating the design I1, and at least the adjacent points on shiny surface 8, is a thin transfer adhesive layer 13. The latter, which typically comprises a wax, serves upon pressure contact with a nail surface to provide an adherent bond between the nail and design 11 which exceeds in strength the very weak bond present between design ill and surface 8, in consequence of which transfer of design 11 to the nail is enabled. In this connection it may be observed that the sequence of sandwiched layers utilized herein, i.e., the paper substrate, a weakly adherent pattern, typically of nitrocellulose, and an overlying transfer adhesive, are in themselves well-known for use in transferring lettering or the like to metal and similar surfaces; and accordingly transfer adhesives suitable for layer 13 are widely known in the art and need not be further detailed here.
Flanking design 11, along the upper lateral edges 15 and 17 of appliance 3, are a pair of adhesive bands 19 and 21. Lateral edges 15 and 17 are then seen to be cut inwardly in an arc-like manner at portions 23, 25, such cut portions serving to provide an opening 24 between perforatedly joined strips 9, which opening facilitates separation of the individual units. Below the cut portions 23, 25, at a longitudinal point beyond the midpoint of strip 9, a third relatively wide band of adhesive 27 extends transversely across the strip.
FIG. 3 illustrates the manner in which the appliance 3 is utilized in transferring a design to a human finger nail, and when taken together with FIG. 4 illustrates the basic method of the invention. Thus in FIG. 3 the appliance 3 is seen to be aligned over the finger 29 with the design 11 overlying the nail 31. Appliance 3 is first anchored in its position via adhesive band 27 which firmly secures strip 9 to finger 29 between the first and second joints. The narrow waist of strip 9 between cut portions 23 and 25 provides a transverse flexibility to strip 9 which facilitates accurate final positioning of design 11 relative to nail 31 before adhesive bands 19 and 21 are pressed to the sides of the finger 29 adjacent to nail 31 thereby firmly anchoring appliance 3 in place upon iinger 29. It may be observed that the function served by adhesive bands 17, I9 and 27 is a most significant one in that in the absence of firm anchoring of appliance 3 to the digit, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to proceed with the pressure transfer step. This is .particularly so where, as is the common case, the user is herself applying the design to her own fingernail, and hence has only one hand available for work purposes.
With the appliance 3 thus anchored, it is only necessary to apply pressure, as at 33, to effect the desired transfer of design. A gentle rubbing action with a small applicator stick or the back of a fingernail may be conveniently used for such purposes.
While the description in connection with FIG. 3 has been in terms of application of the design 11 to a tingernail, it will be evident that the description is equally applicable to the case where a toe nailjs being thus ornamented. In this latter instance, however, the appliance 3 will have a somewhat more widened and foreshortened structure appropriate to the stubbier form of the toe.
In accordance with one mode of practicing the invention, it is possible to regard the transferprocess as completed upon removal of the appliance 3 from the digit.
In most instances, however, it is found that the transferred design, without additional treatment, is unduly subject to wear and abrasion. Water, such as is introduced by ordinary bathing, may rapidly remove the design. In order, accordingly, to provide a practical and long-lasting design, it is preferable to overcoat and encase the transferred design with a clear film. Typically, this is achieved by the users applying to the designbearing nail, as with a brush or the like, a composition including as solute a suitable film-former in a solvent of such constituency as will not substantially dissolve the material comprising the design.
In a typical instance the material utilized for forming design 11 is nitrocellulose. Such material also is an excellent film-former for the overcoating step; however,
it will be evident that a solvent useful in overcoating a nitrocellulose film would tend to dissolve and destroy the design itself, were the nitrocellulose of design and film identical. In accordance with a preferred mode'of practicing the invention this difficulty is avoided by utilizing as the design composition a nitrocellulose of relatively high nitration, such as the RS grade (12 percent nitrogen content) available from the Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington Del. The overcoating composition may then comprise a solution of the low nitration SS grade (ll percent nitrogen content) nitrocellulose in an ethanol solvent. The ethanol serves as a solvent for the SS grade film-former, but does not substantially dissolve the design RS grade material. In a typical example, the overcoating composition may include about 30 parts by weight of SS grade 1/4 second nitrocellulose in parts by weight ethanol, with an additional film modifying agent optionally added to increase the flexibility of the overcoated film. Such an agent may take the form of a soft plastic compatible with nitrocellulose. For example, about 5 parts by weight of polyvinyl butyral, a Union Carbide product, designated HYXL, may be so utilized. Liquid plasticizers in relatively larger proportions may also serve this function.
In FIG. 4 a cross-sectional schematic view depicts the transferred and overcoated design in place on a nail. The scale therein is highly magnified in order to clearly depict the various layers. The fingernail 31 is seen in this depiction to be provided with an initial primer coat 35 which is not essential to the present invention, but which is helpful in providing a smooth surface for application of the design 11 particularly where the nail surface is in poor condition. Primer coat 35 may result from application of the same composition as is used for the design overcoating step, as just discussed. Above the primer coat 35 are seen, in order, transfer adhesive layer 13, design 11 and overcoating film 39. FIG. 4 makes graphically clear the function served by film 39. In particular, it is seen that the overcoating film 39 encapsulates the design 11 and transfer adhesive 13 layers, thereby improving the durability and strength of the adhesive bond as well as providing a complete protective cover for the transferred design.
Still better results in the overcoating step previously described may be achieved by incorporating into the overcoating composition an agent for softening or tackifying" the film-contacted surface of design 11. By effecting such a result a superior bond is achieved at the interface 43 (FIG. 4) between film 39 and design 11, the tackified surface permitting the film to firmly bite" into the said design, with a resulting improvement in wear properties. In the RS nitrocellulose-SS nitrocellulose-ethanol system previously referred to, such a function may be performed by addition to the overcoating composition of carefully limited quantities of solvents for the RS type material such as quantities of diacetone alcohol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methanol, or various ethers. A representative overcoating composition of this type may thus include by weight: 30 parts SS grade nitrocellulose, 100 parts ethanol, approximately 5 parts of a film modifying agent such as the l-IYXL previously cited, and less than parts of diacetone alcohol. As indicated, the lastnamed component must be carefully limited; above the cited 20 parts the structural integrity of the design begins to be threatened by a degree of dissolution, and about 12 parts by weight are suitable.
The principle of tailoring the overcoating composition to include (1) a clear film-former in (2) a solvent for the film-former but not substantially for the design material, together with (3) an agent suitable for tackifying the surface of the design, is not limited to nitrocellulose systems as above exemplified. For example, the transfer design may also be formed from a chlorinated rubber composition such as the Parlon product of the aforementioned Hercules Powder Company. A suitable overcoating composition may in this instance be based upon use of RS grade nitrocellulose in a methyl cellosolve solvent. To such an admixture small quantities of ethyl acetate are added as the tackifying agent.
Similarly, and by way of further example, the transfer design may comprise cellulose acetate with the overcoating composition including as film-former an ethyl cellulose such as the N-22 product of Hercules Powder Company, in a cellosolve solvent. A suitable tackifying agent in this instance is represented by minor quantities of methyl cellosolve. Again the admonition is interposed that the quantities of tackifying agent must remain below the level at which the structure of the design begins to suffer impairment.
While the present invention has been particularly described in terms of specific embodiments thereof, it will be understood in view of the instant disclosure that numerous variations upon the invention are now enabled to those skilled in the art, which variations, in propriety, yet reside within the province of the present teaching. Accordingly, the invention is to be broadly construed, and limited only by the scope and spirit of the claims now appended hereto.
What is claimed as new is:
1. An ornamentation appliance for applying and transferring designs to human nails, comprising in combination:
a generally rectangular support strip of width approximately equal to a human digit, said strip being provided on the upper surface thereof with a shiny calendered surface;
a generally planar design in overlying weakly adherent contact with said shiny surface; and
a thin layer of transfer adhesive overcoating at least said design and adjacent points on said shiny surface and thereby constituting the uppermost layer on said appliance;
said strip upper surface being provided with bands of anchoring adhesive material spaced from said transfer adhesive overcoating, for anchoring said strip to the back of said digit with said design overlying said nail and said transfer adhesive contacting said nail, whereby subsequent pressure applied to the back side of said strip adheres said transfer adhesive and adherent design to said nail so that upon removal of said strip said design is retained by said transfer adhesive against said nail.
2. A device in accordance with claim 1 wherein said design is adjacent to one end of said strip and a pair of first and second adhesive bands are present at least along the lateral edges of said strip which flank said design, thereby assuring firm anchoring of said strip to the portions of said digit lateral to said nail.
3. A device in accordance with claim 2 further in cluding a third adhesive band longitudinally removed from the design bearing region of said strip for additionally anchoring said strip to the backside of said digit.
4. A device in accordance with claim 3 further including a plurality of said strips adjoined to one another at at least a portion of the lateral edges thereof by a weak perforate joint, said plurality of strips defining a sheet, a strip being separable from said sheet by manual tearing of said joint.
5. A device in accordance with claim 4 wherein the lateral edges of said strip are cut inwardly between said first and second adhesive bands and said third adhesive band whereby separation of a strip from said sheet of laterally and perforatedly joined strips is facilitated, and whereby said strip is rendered capable of being dis torted laterally for assisting the lateral alignment of said design with said nail.
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|U.S. Classification||132/73, D28/61|