US 3738337 A
An electrically operated hydraulically driven valve driven by internal combustion engine lubricating oil. A ported valve sleeve is positioned between inner and outer cylinders, the inner of which is the hydraulic valve operating cylinder. All concentric members have radial ports. The electrically operated sleeve member controls the porting controlling the inflow and outflow of hydraulic liquid. The control sleeve is moved electromagnetically by way of electromagnetic windings combined with a permanent magnet adapting the operation to pulse type of digital control adapting the valve to electronic digital control from multiple variable inputs.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 3,738,337 Massie 1 June 12, 1973  ELECTRICALLY OPERATED HYDRAULIC 1,944,177 3/1971 Germany 123/90.12 VALVE PARTICULARLY ADAPTED FOR 1,962,916 6/1971 Germany 123/9012 POLLUTION-FREE ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Primary ExaminerAl Lawrence Smith Att0rney Albert M. Herzig and Albert M. Herzig  Inventor: Philip E. Massie,42 Irving Place,
Culver City, Calif. 90230  Filed: Dec. 30, 1971 57 ABSTRACT  Appl. No.: 213,881
An electrically operated hydraulically driven valve driven by internal combustion engine lubricating oil. A 2% y' 'i i 52 33 fig ported valve sleeve is positioned between inner and 'l pg 2 9 0 outer cylinders, the inner of which is the hydraulic 1 0 earc 3/ valve operating cylinder. All concentric members have radial ports. The electrically operated sleeve member controls the porting controlling the inflow and outflow  References C'ted of hydraulic liquid. The control sleeve is moved elec- UNITED STATES PATENTS tromagnetically by way of electromagnetic windings 885,459 4/1908 Engler et a1. 123/9012 combined with a permanent magnet adapting the oper- 2,827,884 3/1958 Stivender 123/9012 ation to pulse type of digital control adapting the valve 3,209,737 196.5 Omotenara 123/90-l2 to electronic digital control from multiple variable in- 3,548,793 l2/1970 Richardson 123/9012 puts FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,916,167 10/1970 Germany 123/90.11 16 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures 55 55 29 l 5 2 Z6 Z6 B L X 2/ i. 5 1 4 a: z
2/ 7 9 0 :/04 ,2. //2 -//6 /20 5 "96 /06 /06 7 g 92 98 64 /00 /Z4 I 55 94 7 /3 /26 69 I 1 1 we ELECTRICALLY OPERATED HYDRAULIC VALVE PARTICULARLY ADAPTED FOR POLLUTION-FREE ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This valve is an electric/hydraulic Servo Valve designed to be installed as either the intake or exhaust valve on an internal combustion engine.
This valve is designed to enable the timing of the opening and closing of the intake and exhaust valves of an LC. engine to be operated and varied by a digital processor (computer). Such operation will permit changing the four significant valve operating points to match the operating conditions of the engine. It will serve as a replacement for full race cam, threefourths race cam, normal cam and low speed cam shaft. By varying the operating times of the four valve points (in conjunction with fuel injection and ignition) the LC. engine can be operated at the optimum (smogfree) timing, regardless of engine speed, torque, temperature or acceleration demand. It should enable a single LC. engine to idle at 300 to 500 rpm without excessive pollutants or at maximum engine speed, under low speed and high torque (drag race) or high speed acceleration (freeway passing).
The assembly opens and closes the valve to allow for fuel/exhaust between the intake/exhaust manifold in the engine cylinder head to the combustion chamber. Since I.C. engines may operate at rotational speed to 11,000 rpm, valve operation time must be in the fractions of millisecond time.
The particular, unique design of the valve described herein involves some further considerations. As stated above, the valve may be installed as either the intake or the exhaust valve on an internal combustion engine. All parts of the valve are cylindrical, positioned about a common axis which is the axis of the valve stem. These considerations are significant to the installation of the valve. Space considerations are another factor, the space required by the porting arrangement of the valve being such as to optimize it from the standpoint of space required. The valve is operated directly by the lubricating oil system of the internal combustion engine and its construction is such as to eliminate need for plumbing connections inasmuch as inlet ports to the oil operated valve and vent ports may in effect be built-in, having direct connection to the pressurized side of the lubricating system and back to the crankcase. Another factor is that all of the parts of the valve being cylindrical, their fabrication and that of the porting is simplified inasmuch as it can be accomplished by unsophisticated machine operations.
The primary object of the invention is to make available a valve which is adapted for hydraulic operation by lubricating oil of an internal combustion engine and which is electrically controlled, being adapted for pulse-type digital control. The particular construction of the valve is such as to realize a number of particular objects as follows.
An object is to provide a valve of appropriate size adapting it to be installed as either the intake or the exhaust valve of the internal combustion engine and characterized in that the valve is movable between fully opened and closed positions in response to a single electromagnetically operated control valve member in the form of a ported sleeve.
Another object is to realize a valve of the type operated by a hydraulic piston in a cylinder wherein the cylinder has side ports for admission and exhaust of hydraulic fluid which are controlled by a ported sleeve reciprocatable with respect to the cylinder.
Another object is to realize a valve of the type referred to in the previous object wherein the control sleeve is positioned between the inner cylinder and an outer cylinder and constitutes the armature of an electromagnetic system adapted to move it so as to produce valve operation between fully open and fully closed positions.
Another object is to realize a valve of the type referred to wherein all of the parts are cylindrical having a common axis thereby facilitating fabrication of its parts.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Further objects and additional advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description andannexed drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view of one form of the valve of the invention illustrating the fluid flows and magnetic flux flows;
FIG 2 is a cross sectional view of the valve of FIG. 1 showing the valve in a closed position;
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of another form of the valve of the invention using a different electromagnetic system, this figure showing the electromagnetic flux flow;
FIG. 4 is a cross sectional view of the form of the invention shown in FIG. 3 with the valve in closed position; and
FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic view of an internal combustion engine controlled by a digital processor.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT FIGS. 1 and 2 show one form of the invention, and these figures are schematic in order to clearly illustrate the structure and operation. The valve head is designated at I. The valve has a stem 2 and seat. The valve assembly comprises an upper body 4 having a bore 5 in it and a tapered counterbore 6 which forms the seat for the valve. Body 4 is fitted into the cylinder head by way of the upper cylindrical part 7 of the body 4 being fitted into conical bore or opening 8. Body 4 has an extending flange 11 and has downwardly or depending extending circular rib or flange 13 which is internally and externally threaded as shown at 14 and 15. Numeral 17 designates a ring member which has a bottom flange 19 formed as a hexagonal nut and which is externally threaded as shown at 21. Body 4 seals to bore 8. Ring 17 seals to 11 and 27. The valve is rotatable into position. Cylinder head 34 has an extending flange 27 which is internally threaded. Ring member 17 is threaded into the internal diameter of this flange. The upper cylindrical portion of the body member 4 has bores or channels 29 and 30 communicating with the axial bore 5. These channels communicate with channels 32 and 33 within head 34. These channels are for admission of combustible materials when the valve is installed as an inlet valve, or for products of combustion if the valve is installed as an exhaust valve.
Part 7 seals against surface 8. Flange l1 seals against nut 27. The valve itself must be free to rotate to the correct installation position. Member 17 is a nut, and
it creates the seal at these points. A high pressure seal is formed at conical surface 8. A clearance is provided at 35, this area being subjected to manifold pressure only, which is usually negative. To realize the wedging action seal between part 7 and 8, clearance 35 must be provided so that all of the pressure of the installation nut 17 will be at the joint between parts 7 and 8. This same pressure is exerted between parts 17 and 1 1. Sealing between nut 17 and cylinder head flange 27 is obtained by the same pressure exerted by nut 17 made possible by clearance 35. Installation clearance 13 is provided between flange l1 and nut 17. The assembled valve is inserted through the bore in the cylinder head and into the conical area 8. Nut 17 is tightened by means of hexangonal flange 19 to press part 7 against remaining surface 8. This forms one seal. The internal shoulder of nut 17 bears on the flange 11 to exert pressure and to form a seal at the internal annular shoulder of the nut. Clearance 35 is necessary to assure that all the pressure of nut 17 is exerted on flange 11 and the seal at 8. Threads between nut 17 and flange 27 form the other seal surface between head 34 and upper valve body 4 to seal the manifold against outside pressure. All O-ring seals are in annular grooves, as shown.
The valve is hydraulically operated as previously pointed out by the lubricating oil of the engine. On the end of the stem 2, is the piston member 36 which operates within cylinder 38. The upper end of it is externally threaded and threads into the inside threaded surface of the depending flange l3. Piston 36 is sealed to the interior of cylinder 38 by appropriate seals diagrammatically designated at 40. These seals may be of a conventional type.
Numeral 50 designates another cylinder which is coaxial with cylinder 38 and is spaced therefrom. Its upper end is internally threaded into depending flange 13. Numeral 52 designates a bottom wall. Numeral 54 designates a further cylinder having a bottom horizontal wall extending outwardly from the walls of cylinder 50 so that an annular chamber is formed between the cylinders 50 and 54. As will be pointed out, an electromagnetic operating coil 58 is received in this annular chamber, the top of which is formed by flange 56.
As stated, thevalve is hydraulically operated and porting is provided to admit oil under pressure to one side of the piston while releasing or venting it from the opposite side to drive the piston in one direction. On the other hand to drive the piston in the opposite direction, porting is provided to admit oil under pressure to that side of the piston and to release or vent it from the first side. The opening and closing of all ports for operation of the hydraulic valve is accomplished by a single valve member which is the cup-shaped member 60 which has a bottom wall 62, the side walls being identified by numeral 64.
The lower end of cylinder 38 is closed by a circular head 68 having an extending flange 69, the head being threaded and being threaded into the cylinder 38. The head is made of nonmagnetic material for reasons which will be explained presently. This head has a tapered or bevelled bore 70 as shown. The cup-shaped valve member 60 has a tapered circular boss 72 up standing from its bottom which forms a valve head cooperable with the tapered bore or port in the head 68, for controlling of admission of hydraulic fluid to the cylinder 38. The cup-shaped valve member 60 is biased by spring 74. Oil pressure can be admitted through the bottom member 52 through the port 80, this port having connection to the high pressure side of the lubricating oil system of the internal combustion engine, and through ports 82 and 82' in the bottom or end of cupshaped valve member 60.
The valve 1 is normally operated between a fully opened or fully closed position by means of the hydraulic piston 36. That is, this piston is moved through a complete stroke in either one direction or the other.
Porting is provided in the side walls of the cylinders 38 and 50 and the cup-shaped valve member which in cooperation with the ports 80, 82 and control admission of a hydraulic oil (lubricating oil) to the volume above the piston 36; for the release therefrom; to the volume below the piston 36; and the release therefrom. The cylinder 38 is provided with diametrically opposed side ports 90, 92 and 94; and 92 and 94' positioned at levels as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. The side walls of the cup-shaped valve member 60 are similarly provided with diametrically opposed ports as designated at 96, 98 and 100, and 96, 98' and 100 situated at levels cooperable with the ports in the cylinder 38. The cup-shaped valve member of course is movable axially to control flow through the ports. The cylinder 50 is provided with diametrically opposed radial ports 104 and 104' and 106 and 106' cooperable with the upper sets of ports in the valve member 60. As will be observed, the cup-shaped valve member 60 is positioned between the cylinders 38 and 50. Its axial movement controls the alignment and misalignment of ports to provide for the flows of hydraulic oil as described above. The figures, which are schematic, show an arrangement of seals to appropriately seal the porting. The seals may be in the form of O-rings situated in appropriate O-ring grooves. FIG. 2 shows the closed position of the valve. The upper radial ports are aligned admitting pressure above piston 36 as will be explained. Numeral 110 designates a seal between the cylinder 38 and valve member 60 and numeral 112 designates a similar seal between the valve member 60 and the cylinder 38. Numerals 114 and 116 designate similar O- ring seals situated on the opposite side of radial ports in the valve member 60. Numerals 120 and 122 designate another pair of O-ring seals positioned on opposite sides of the ports 92 and 92' between cylinder 38 and the valve member 60. Numerals 124 and 126 designate another pair of seals on opposite sides of the ports 94 and 94' in the cylinder 38, between this cylinder and the valve member 60 and an additional seal member 130 ,is positioned between the valve member 60 and cylinder 50 adjacent to the ports 100 and 100' in the valve member 60. All sealing rings are in annular grooves, as shown.
As previously stated, an electromagnetic winding as designated at 58 is positioned in the annular space between the cylinders 50 and 54. Numeral 136 designates an insert of nonmagnetic material forming the lower part of cylinder 50. Other parts are of magnetic material except for the head 68 which is nonmagnetic. FIGS. 1 and 2 show the open and closed positions of the valve respectively; and these figures by the arrows illustrate the oil flows for the opening and closing movements of the valve and other arrows also indicate the magnetic flux flow pattern. These flows are referred to hereinafter more in detail in connection with the description of the operation.
With electric power off, the sleeve valve 60 is held up by spring 74. Oil pressure is admitted through ports (aligned) 90, 90', 96, 96', 104, and 104 to apply pressure to the top of the piston 36 and hold the valve assembly down, seating head 1 firmly in seat 6. Oil vent ports 94, 100 and 94, 104' vent oil from below the piston 36 through circular vent grooves 101 and 101' and the oil vent flow space 144-144 between the sleeve valve 60 and cylinder 50 and ports 106 and 106. This relieves any residual pressure below piston 36 by venting the volume below it. Seals as described (of any type, not necessarily O-rings) direct the flow in the proper channels.
When electrical power is applied to coil 58, magnetic flux flows as shown by the arrows in FIG. 1 to create a magnetic flux in the working air gap 140. The nonmagnetic portions 68 and 136 (300 series stainless steel or brass) prevent flux flow from by-passing the working gap 140. Parasitic air gaps 150 and 142 are made long to reduce flux flow in these gaps. The magnetic flux in the working air gap 140 creates a force between the sleeve valve 60 and the cylinder body end cap 52. Since the end cap 52 is fixed, the sleeve valve 60 is moved against the force of the spring 74. This movement (FIG. 1) opens the valve 72 and admits oil pressure to the bottom of the piston 36 through port 80, ports 82, 82, past valve seat 70. Movement of the sleeve valve puts vent ports 98, 98 of the valve in alignment with vent ports 92, 92 in the operating cylinder and opening into vent space between valve 60 and cylinder 50 to the vent ports 106 and 106' and back to the engine oil system. This vents oil from above the piston to permit the piston to rise and open the valve by action of valve stem 2. Movement of the sleeve valve 60 cuts off pressure to the volume above piston 36 by moving ports 96, 96' in the sleeve valve 60 out of alignment between ports 90, 90 in the cylinder 38 and ports 104, 104' in the valve body or cylinder 50. The dead space in air gap 150, 150' is allowed to fill with oil (as the sleeve valve moves down) since seals 110, 112 move with the sleeve valve and exposes ports 90, 90' to the dead space. This space may be vented as shown at 151.
The upward movement of piston 36 and valve head 1 may be limited in several ways. One method is to let the piston seal 40 close the vent port 92, 92' trapping oil in the volume above piston 36 and preventing further movement of the valve. Mechanical means can also be used.
When electrical power is removed from the coil 58, the spring 74 moves the sleeve valve 60 up and vents the volume under the piston 36 and applies oil pressure to the volume above the piston, closing the valve 1. FIG. 2 shows the positions of the ports and the flows as described above.
The limiting factors on the operatimg time of the valve are:
The inertia of the valve assembly 1, 2 and the oil in volume above piston 36.
The inertia and friction of the sleeve valve assembly 60.
The force of the spring 74.
The time constant of the magnetic circuit.
The time constant of the magnetic circuit is kept small by keeping the inductance of the magnetic circuit small. This requires the use of long (relatively) length working air gap 140 at the expense of added electrical power required to operate the sleeve valve 60. The
magnitude of the spring force must be balanced between the magnetic force required to move the sleeve valves 60 and the mechanical force required to close the sleeve valve rapidly. The inertia and friction forces are subject to astute mechanical design.
A modest amount of oil leakage through the valve is probably desirable to minimize oil stagnation and silting" of the system. Further, some flow of oil will aid in cooling the valve and prolonging valve life.
The sealing area 8 and the mounting ring 17 provide a means of installing the valve and valve seat in the cylinder head 34. The threaded portions between the body 4, the cylinder 38 and the valve body cylinder 50 and between the piston 36 and the valve stem 2 provide means for assembly of the complete unit prior to installation in the cylinder head 34.
FIGS. 3 and 4 are a modification of the previous design of the valve that adapts it to pulse-type digital control.
The advantages of this design are:
1. Logical operation.
2. Faster operation.
Logical operation simply means that the valve has two stable states, a concept that fits in the pattern of logic design generally. The problem was to fit in the two state coil design to this package.
The design is adapted to use in an electronically controlled Internal Combustion engine operated by a digital processor. The concept is to vary intake valve open and close time. exhaust valve open and close time, fuel injection time and quantity, ignition time and possibly water injection quantity and time in response to the change in input functions of rpm, torque, manifold pressure, atmospheric pressure, water (and/or oil) temperature, air temperature, gear shift position, throttle position and wheel slip. Possible engine states under analysis include: cold start, cold idle; negative, idle, low, medium and high torque at low, medium and high engine rpm.
The ultimate goal is to provide optimum combustion efficiency at all engine operating conditions for maximum efficiency and minimum pollution. The design will eliminate completely: cam shaft, valve train, distributor, carburetor, breaker points and possibly one forward gear.
The embodiment described above has a basic operating characteristic of a solenoid valve, i.e., power on/open and power off/close. The modified version of the valve permits operation in a logic mode, i.e., pulse coil 166 to open, pulse 164 to close, with no power consumed between operations.
FIGS. 3 and 4 each show a cross section of the valve. The valve is identical to the previously described valve form (and numbered the same) down to the sleeve valve, valve seat, and operating coils. (Valve 1 is the intake/exhaust valve between manifold and cylinder.) This is driven by the double-acting piston 36 by pressuring the volume below the piston and venting volume above the piston to open the valve and a reverse process to close the valve. The operation of the valve ports in the sleeve valve 60 and operating cylinder 38 is like that of FIGS. 1 and 2 and need not be repeated. If sleeve valve 60 is moved down, valve 1 opens. If sleeve valve 60 is moved up, valve 1 closes.
The modified electrical operating means consists of permanent magnet 160, pole piece structure for said permanent magnet 162, operating coils 164 and 166,
and feedback coils 165 and 167. The sleeve valve 60' is now made of a nonmagnetic cylinder 64' and a magnetic armature 62 with a nonmagnetic valve poppet 72'. The hydraulic operating cylinder 38' is all magnetic material, including the element 68'. The magnetic circuit is divided into A and B sections by the nonmagnetic inserts 169 and 170. Two magnetic working gaps are used, closing gap 172A and opening gap 1728. Magnetic flux flows 174A and 1748 control the position of the valve. The permanent magnet, windings, pole piece structure, and nonmagnetic inserts as shown are all ring shaped. They may have other shapes.
The armature 62' has two stable positions with either gap 172A or 172B closed. The permeance of a closed gap is designed to be several times larger than the permeance of an open gap. Thus, the major portion of the flux from the permanent magnet will flow through the closed gap. Since force varies as the square of the flux, the force will be many times larger in the closed gap than in the open gap. The parasitic gap 176 between pole pieces 52 and magnet shoe 162 is made large to reduce flux leakage. Similarly gap 176' is made large.
Flux 174A flows up through part 54, cylinder wall 50 and down through cylinder wall 38' to the pole face 68' and through working gap 172A to armature 62, across radial gap 177' to pole shoe 162 and back to the permanent magnet. Flux 174B flows down through cylinder 54 to pole piece 52, through working gap 172A to armature 62', through radial gap 177 and pole shoe 162' to the permanent magnet 160. Since the length of the gap 172A is small relative to gap 172B, most of the flux will flow through this gap, thus holding the valve 1 closed. See FIG. 4.
To open engine valve 1, an electrical pulse is applied to operating coil 166. This applies a magnetomotive force to the magnet circuit B and increases the flux flow 1748. Since the total flux through the permanent magnet 160 is limited by the rapid decrease in permeance with increase of flux above the knee of the magnetization curve, flux increase in circuit B" will produce a flux decrease in circuit A". Since this is flux switching rather than flux increase, the time constant is smaller and flux buildup in circuit 3" can be more rapid than for a solenoid type valve. The increase of flux in circuit B causes an increase of flux in working gap 1728 and a decrease of flux in working gap 172A. The balance of flux shifts to working gap 1728 and causes the armature 62' and sleeve valve assembly 60 to move down. This opens valve poppet 72' and admits oil under pressure below piston 36. Ports 92, 98, 106 and 92, 98', 106 are aligned and vent the volume above piston 36. This combination produces a force on the piston that lifts the engine valve 1 and: (a) admits fuel/air mixture to the engine cylinder or (b) emits exhaust gas from the engine cylinder.
An electrical pulse applied to operating coil 164 reverses the flux flow and closes the engine valve 1. The coil is stable in either position and requires no sustaining electrical power due to the magnetomotive force of the permanent magnet 160 maintaining a flux in the working gap with the higher permeance, shorter air path.
Coils 165 and 167 are feed back coils that can be connected as such adapting the valve to control by way of a logic circuit. 7
One form of logic circuit that can be used to operate the valve is shown in U. S. Pat. Application Ser. No.
ll3,32l filed Feb. 8, l97l, of this inventor entitled SEALED PUMP AND DRIVE THEREFOR and it is hereby incorporated herein by reference.
FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic illustration of the operation of an eight cylinder engine under control of a digital processor with the valve of FIGS. 3 and 4 installed in the inlet to and exhaust from each of the eight cylinders. Six events should take place at each engine cylinder as a function of crankshaft angle which controls piston position; intake valve open, intake valve close, exhaust valve open, exhaust valve close, fuel injection (which may be a two stage process for minimum emission) and ignition.
The variables that determine the best piston position for each event are: rpm, torque, water temperature (fuel quantity for cold start), throttle position (demand), manifold pressure and transmission gear position. The continuous variable (clock) is the 720 of crankshaft rotation. All other variables are algebraically summed to provide a reference against which crankshaft position matches to command an event. The events number 6 X 8 (for an 8 cylinder engine) and each has an optimum time as a function of the variables.
Atmospheric pressure is a significant variable in high altitude operation. Air temperature may be required to supplement water temperature in cold weather starts. Wheel slip is being implemented on some cars now.
The CPU has the function of combining 6 variables, matching to crankshaft angle and commanding 48 events. Much of the work of the CPU is accomplished by making each of the seven input transducers provide a variable digital output. This eliminates the requirement for analog to digital conversion in the CPU.
The digital outputs of the transducers may be in Gray code and, the preferred transducers used may be like that of U. S. Pat. Application Ser. No. 64,029 filed on July 20, 1970, of the herein inventor and hereby incorporated herein by reference. As stated, these outputs are summed by the CPU which then controls the six events shown in FIG. 5 with reference to crankshaft angle. Each of the six events for each cylinder has a digital code number which is set into a register or comparator, that is, the number peculiar to that event for that cylinder. Currently, technology is readily available to implement the CPU in the manner described.
The fuel injector is preferably a type of device referred to in U. S. Pat. Application Ser. No. 113,321 filed on Feb. 8, 1971 alreadly referred to in the foregoing. With respect to ignition in the system described, preferably, a type of ignition is employed wherein a single small ignition coil is used for each cylinder using a closed iron magnetic circuit.
From the foregoing, those skilled in the art will readily understand the nature and the construction of the invention and the manner in which it achieves and realizes all of the objectives and advantages as set forth in the foregoing.
The foregoing disclosure is representative of the preferred form of the invention and is to be interpreted in an illustrative rather than a limiting sense, the invention to be accorded the full scope of the claims appended hereto.
What is claimed is:
1. In an hydraulically operated valve positioned to control flow of fluid with respect to an internal combustion engine cylinder in combination: a cylinder having a piston therein connected to a valve member and movable between open and closed positions of the valve member; means comprising a valve sleeve member cooperable with said cylinder, said valve sleeve member and cylinder having mutually cooperable porting providing for flow of hydraulic fluid to and from opposite sides of said piston for moving said valve member through its stroke in opposite directions, control means for controlling the position of opening and closing of the valve with respect to crankshaft angle comprising means responsive to crankshaft position and means responsive to at least one variable which is related to an engine operating condition.
2. A device as in claim 1, including means to reciprocate said sleeve member relative to said cylinder, to cause said piston to reciprocate.
3. A device as in claim 2, wherein said cylinder has ports for admitting hydraulic fluid to one side of said piston for moving it in one direction and ports for relieving pressure from one side of said piston, said cylinder having ports for admitting fluid to the opposite side of said piston and ports for withdrawing fluid from the opposite side of said piston, said sleeve member being operative to control all of said ports for causing said piston to reciprocate.
4. A device as in claim 3, wherein said sleeve member has ports positioned to be moved into alignment with ports in said cylinder and to moved out of alignment with ports in said cylinder for controlling the flows.
5. A device as in claim 3, wherein said ports include a port in an end wall of said cylinder and said sleeve member having a part cooperating with said end wall port.
6. A device as in claim 1, including an electromagnetic winding associated with said sleeve member for causing said sleeve member to reciprocate relative to said cylinder.
7. A device as in claim 6, including a further cylinder spaced outwardly from said sleeve member and adapted to accommodate a flux circuit for flux from said electro-magnetic winding.
8. A device as in claim 7, wherein said electromagnetic winding is of ring shape and is positioned around a part of said further cylinder.
9. A device as in claim 6, including spring means for urging said sleeve member in one direction.
10. A device as in claim 7, including a pair of electromagnetic windings and a permanent magnet associated with said sleeve whereby reciprocation of said sleeve may be produced by energization of said windings.
11. A device as in claim 10, including a second pair of electro-magnetic windings coupled with said first pair whereby said device is adapted to pulse type digital control from a driving circuit having connections to all four windings.
12. A device as in claim'6, wherein said sleeve member is constructed of material so as to constitute an armature.
13. A device as in claim 6, wherein said sleeve member has-an end closure which is constructed of material so as to constitute an armature.
14. A device as in claim 10, wherein said first pair of electro-magnetic windings are spaced axially from each other with a permanent magnet positioned between them.
15. A device as in claim 1 1, wherein said second pair of windings is positioned to surround the first pair of windings respectively to provie magnetic coupling therewith.
16. A valve as in claim 1, said valve being positioned and constructed to receive engine lubricating oil to drive the piston and to discharge lubricating oil into the engine crankcase.