|Publication number||US3739155 A|
|Publication date||Jun 12, 1973|
|Filing date||Mar 23, 1972|
|Priority date||Mar 23, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3739155 A, US 3739155A, US-A-3739155, US3739155 A, US3739155A|
|Original Assignee||Larte F O|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [1 1 OLarte June 12, 1973 AIRCRAFT INSURANCE CALCULATOR  Inventor: Fermin M. OLarte, 301 West 114 Street, Kansas City, Mo. 64114  Filed: Mar. 23, 1972  Appl. No.: 237,461
 US. Cl. 235/89  Int. Cl. G05d 23/00  Field of Search 235/85-89 5 6] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,495,435 5/1924 Pike 235/89 1,686,843 10/1928 Burke 235/85 2,794,597 6/1957 Maloof 235/89 3,005,586 10/1961 Stevenson 235/89 3,352,487 11/1967 Olson et al 235/89 Primary ExaminerRichard B. Wilkinson Assistant Examiner-Lawrence R. Franklin Att0rney-John A. Hamilton  ABSTRACT An aircraft insurance calculator consisting of a base card having insurance rates printed thereon in horizontal rows graduated as to pilot experience and in vertical columns graduated as to value of the aircraft, a slide card movably overlying the base card and having a slot fonned therein for viewing any one of said vertical columns selectively by horizontal movement of the slide card, and having an aircraft value scale imprinted thereon adjacent the slot, the slide card also being vertically movable relative to the base card according to another factor of pilot experience, and a special holder for the cards.
6 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures TlME 500- 2 mp 400 +av:
AIRCRAFT INSURANCE CALCULATOR This invention relates to new and useful improvements in calculators, and has particular reference to a calculator useful in the computation of premiums in aircraft insurance.
Aircraft insurance is normally of three main types, insurance against damage to the craft while in flight, normally called in-flight hull insurance, insurance against damage to the craft while on the ground, normally called hull insurance excluding flight, and liability insurance. The premium rates, particularly those for in-flight hull insurance and liability insurance, are heavily affected by pilot experience, while the rates for hull insurance excluding flight are not, the latter being affected primarily only by the value of the hull. Pilot experience normally includes such factors as the pilots logged time in planes of makes and models similar to that being insured, his logged time in planes of the same make and model as that being insured, and his total logged flight time regardless of the make and model of the planes. The liability rates, on the other hand, while affected by pilot experience, are not ordinarily affected by hull value. It will thus be apparent that of the various types of insurance discussed, and insofar as the presently discussed factors affecting rates are concerned, rate computation for in-flight hull insurance is the most complicated, involving as it does all of the pilot experience factors as well as the hull value. The possible combinations of all of these factors extend into many thousands, so that listing all of them in ordinary rate tables or rate books would render these usual aids quite voluminous, bulky and complicated.
Accordingly, the principal object of the present invention is the provision of a calculator which provides means for calculating in-flight hull premiums in a simple, economical and convenient manner, accurately correlating all of the pilot experience factors as well as the hull value. It involves only two cards, the larger of which need be no larger than an ordinary sheet of letter paper, said cards overlying each other and having a compound relative sliding movement.
Another object is the provision of a calculator of the character described which is of great assistance in the computation of liability insurance. That is, while liability insurance rates are based partially on such factors the number of seats in the airplane, and the amount of coverage desired for each seat as to general liability, bodily injury, and medical payments, and while the present calculator does not correlate all of these factors it does provide a multiplier factor based on a correlation of all the facets of pilot experience, which may be applied to base figures for each type of liability insurance coverage desired.
A further object is the provision of a special holder for the two calculator cards, whereby said cards may be accurately controlled and guided in their relative movements, and whereby said cards may be easily replaced when made necessary by changes in the applicable rates or other factors.
Other objects are simplicity and economy of construction, efficiency and dependability of operation, and adaptability for use as a calculator for other purposes.
With these objects in view, as well as other objects which will appear in the course of the specification, reference will be had to the accompanying drawing, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a front face view of an aircraft insurance calculator embodying the present invention,
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken on line llll of FIG.
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken on line IIIIII of FIG.
FIG. 4 is a face view of the base card, and
FIG. 5 is a face view of the slide card.
Like reference numerals apply to similar parts throughout the several views, and the numeral 2 applies to a transparent envelope which is flat and rectangular, being closed at its upper and lower edges 4 and 6 and open at one or both of its vertical side edges 8. It may be formed of a transparent plastic. Inserted into said envelope, and coextensive therewith, is a base card 10 which constitutes a rectangular sheet of cardboard, paper or the like. Imprinted on the front face of said base card, as best shown in FIG. 4, are three areas or blocks of digits, said areas being designated generally by the numerals 12, 14, and 16. Area 12 consists of a single horizontal line of digits 18 arranged across the top edge of card 10, and representing, in ascending order, the number of flight hours logged by the pilot of the plane to be insured in planes of make and model similar to those of the plane to be insured. Area 14 is centered beneath area 12, and has digits 20 imprinted thereon arranged in horizontal rows 22 and vertical columns 24. Digits 20 represent percentage factors to be applied to the hull value of the aircraft in computing annual premiums for in-flight hull insurance. In horizontal rows 22, digits 20 are arranged in order of descending magnitude from left to right, representing reductions in premium rates as the pilot acquires additional flight hours. In vertical columns 24, digits 20 are arranged in order of descending magnitude, from top to bottom, representing reductions in premium rates, percentagewise, as the value of the aircraft increases. In area 16, digits 26 are also arranged in horizontal rows 28 and vertical columns 30, these digits representing liability factors to be more fully described hereinbelow.
Encircling envelope 2 from top to bottom, and horizontally slidable thereon, is a flat sleeve 32 of opaque material. The front wall of said sleeve, is provided at its upper edge with a small window 34 through which the digits 18 of area 12 of card 10 may be read, depending on the side-to-side positioning of sleeve 32 on envelope 2, and a much larger window 36 spaced below window 34 and through which digits 20 of area 14 of card 10 may be viewed, as will appear. Window 36 spans the entire vertical height of area 14.
Inserted for horizontal sliding movement, between envelope 2 and the front wall of sleeve 32, is a card case 38. Said card case is rectangular, and formed of a sheet of transparent plastic with its top and bottom edges folded inwardly as indicated at 40 in FIG. 3, and its vertical side edge portions folded inwardly as indicated at 42 in FIG. 2. Said card case engages the top and bottom edges 44 and 46 of sleeve 32 so as to be movable only horizontally.
Slidable vertically in card case 38 is a slide card 48, best shown in FIG. 5. Said slide card is generally rectangular, being opaque and having a horizontal width equal to that of slide case 38, and a vertical height less than that of the slide case so as to be vertically slidable in said case.,Formed in said slide card is a narrow, vertically extending window 50 through which one of the vertical columns 24 of digits 20 of base card may be viewed. Imprinted on the front face of slide card 48, at either side of window 50, is a series of digits S2 representing, in ascending order from top to bottom, the hull values of aircraft. Also, slide card 48 is laterally extended to form a horizontal tab 54. Said tab extends through an interruption 56 in one of the side folds of case 38, and further outwardly through one vertical side edge of sleeve 32, as shown. Said tab serves as a finger gripping device by means of which slide card 48 and its case 38 may be manipulated, and also has a small window 58 formed therein which, as will appear, will be centered over and permit viewing of one of the digits 26 of area 16 of base card 10.
In use, sleeve 32 is first moved along envelope 2 until the digit 18 of area 12 of card 10 which corresponds to the aircraft pilots number of logged flight hours in planes of a similar make and model to that being insured appears in window 34 of the sleeve. More specifi-' cally, the digit selected should be the largest number not actually exceeded by the number of flight hours. The number appearing in window 34 is identified by appropriate indicia 60 imprinted on the face of the sleeve. Second, by grasping tab 54, slide 38 is moved horizontally in sleeve 32, without moving said sleeve relative to envelope 2, until an index mark 62 imprinted on slide card 48 above window 50 thereof is aligned with the mark of a scale 64 imprinted on slide 32, just above window 36 thereof, which corresponds to the number of flight hours the aircraft pilot has logged in planes of the same make and model as that being insured. The divisions of scale 64 are identified by suitable indicia 66 imprinted on the face of sleeve 32. Window 50 of slide card 48 will then be aligned with, and expose to view, a vertical column 24 of digits 20 of area 14 of base card 10. The exposed digits 22 represent percentage figures to be applied to aircraft of various hull values as indicated by digits 52 imprinted on the slide card adjacent window 50. The annual insurance premium may then be very simply determined by first locating the line of area 14 of card 10 in which the digits 52 bracket the actual hull value of the plane being insured, and then multiplying the actual hull valve by the percentage figure 20 appearing opposite that line within window 50. This computation gives the annual premium for in-flight hull insurance, and is automatically adjusted to reflect any reduction of premium to which the insured is entitled by reason of pilot experience in planes of the same or similar make and model.
However, the calculator is also adapted to include the additional pilot experience factor of total flight time logged by the pilot, even if it has not been performed in planes of the same or similar make and model. This is done by moving slide card 48 vertically in case 38, again by grasping tab 54, until an index mark 68 imprinted on said slide card is brought into alignment with the appropriate mark of a scale 70 imprinted on the face of sleeve 32, and the divisions of which are identified by indicia 72 imprinted on the slide. The divisions represent total flight hours logged by the pilot, regardless of the make and model of the planes. The effect of this adjustment, as the pilot becomes more experienced in any type of plane, is to move the hull valve of the plane being insured, as it appears on card 48, lower on the scale of rate digits 20 appearing in window 50, thus in effect giving the insured the benefit of a lower rate which would otherwise have applied only to planes of greater hull values if the pilot had less total experience.
It will be noted that for each different possible relative position of base card 10 and slide card 48, window 58 of tab 54 will be disposed over and will display one of the digits 26 of area 16 of base card 10. Digits 26 represent percentage figures, weighted as to all three of the pilot experience factors already discussed, which may be applied to base rates applicable to various types of liability insurance. Tables of these base liability rates may be printed on portions of base card 10 not already in use, but form no part of the present calculator per se and are not shown. Liability rates are, however, affected by all of the pilot experience factors discussed, though not by hull value, and the calculator correlates all of the pilot experience factors to provide a factor, the selected digit 26 of card area 16, which may be applied to base liability rates, and is therefore very useful in connection with liability rates. Hull rates excluding flight are not affected by pilot experience factors, but only by hull value, and the calculator is therefore not of utility in connection with these rates. Tables which .tabulate hull rates excluding flight against various hull values may be printed on portions of base card 10 not already in use, but form no part of the calculator per se and are not shown.
In one sense, the calculator may be said to consist merely of the two printed cards 10 and 48, and a holder for said cards'permitting compound horizontal and vertical relative movement between said cards. The holder consists of transparent envelope 2, transparent case 38 for the slide card, and sleeve 32. Of these holder members, only sleeve 32 is imprinted, and this only with basic indicating scales 66 and 70 which presumably will remain constant despite constantly recurring changes in actual insurance rates. Thus the calculator may be kept up to date simply by removing and replacing cards 10 and 48 with new cards whenever dictated by changes in the rate factors imprinted thereon, with the holder being reusable indefinitely. The cards are easily removed, card 10 simply by sliding it out of envelope 2, and card 48 by sliding case 38 out of sleeve 32, and unfolding one or more of the edge portions 40 or 42 thereof. The calculator need be no larger than an ordinary sheet of letter paper, despite the wealth of information obtained by its use. The thickness of its various layers is greatly exaggerated in FIGS. 2 and 3 for purposes of clarity, but actually it may be quite thin and flexible, and can easily be mounted in a loose-leaf hinder or the like.
While I have shown and described a specific embodiment of my invention, it will be readily apparent that many minor changes of structure and operation could be made without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What I claim as new and desire to protect by Letters Patent is:
1. An aircraft insurance calculator comprising:
a. a base card having a table of insurance rate factors imprinted thereon in horizontal rows graduated according to a first factor of pilot experience, and in vertical columns graduated according to hull value of the aircraft to be insured, said base card further having a horizontal scale graduated according to said first factor of pilot experience imprinted thereon,
b. an opaque slide card overlying said base card and movable horizontally thereon, said slide card having a window formed therein through which the vertical columns of rate factors imprinted on said base card may be viewed selectively depending on the horizontal position of said slide card, and having a vertically divided hull value scale imprinted thereon adjacent said window, said slide card further having a horizontal movement index imprinted thereon, and
c. a sleeve member enclosing said card and being movable horizontally with respect to both of said cards, said sleeve member having an index thereon for locating said sleeve member relative to said base card by alignment with a selected graduation of said base card horizontal scale, said sleeve member further having a horizontal scale graduated according to a second factor of pilot experience imprinted thereon in such a position as to cooperate with said horizontal movement index to locate said slide card relative to said sleeve member and therethrough to said base card.
2. An aircraft insurance calculator as recited in claim 1 wherein said slide card is also vertically movable relative to said base card whereby to change the horizontal alignment between the hull values printed on the former with the rate factors printed on the latter, the vertical movement of said slide card being gauged by cooperating third index and scale indicia carried respectively by said slide card and said sleeve member, said third scale being vertically calibrated according to a third factor of pilot experience.
3. An aircraft insurance calculator as recited in claim 1 wherein said slide card is also vertically movable relative to said base card and wherein said sleeve member has a window formed therein through which said slide card, and the window of the latter, may be viewed, vertical movement of said slide card being operable to change the horizontal alignment between the hull values printed on said slide card with the rate factors printed on said base card, the vertical movement means of said slide card being gauged by a cooperating index means and a vertical scale carried respectively by said slide card and said sleeve, said third scale being calibrated according to a third factor of pilot experience. 4. An aircraft insurance calculator as recited in claim 3 wherein said slide card is provided with an extending tab overlying a portion of said base card not occupied by said first named rate factors, said tab overlying digits imprinted on said base card and arranged in horizontal rows and vertical columns, and having a window formed therein which exposes one of said digits for each different possible relative position of said cards, said digits representing factors, determined by all three of said pilot experience factors, to be applied to base insurance rates on types of insurance affected by pilot experience but not by hull value.
5. An aircraft insurance calculator as recited in claim 4 with the addition of a holder for said base and slide cards, said holder comprising:
a. a transparent flat envelope adapted to contain said base card removably therein, and b. said sleeve, which encircles said envelope with its windowed side overlying the surface of said base card on which said first named rate factors are printed, and is horizontally slidable on said envelope.
6. An aircraft insurance calculator as recited in claim 5 wherein said holder includes additionally a transparent case for said slide card, said case being disposed between said envelope and the windowed wall of said sleeve, and being horizontally but not vertically slidable relative to said sleeve, said case containing said slide card removably therein, said slide card being vertically but not horizontally slidable relative to said case.
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