US 3739436 A
A process for the continuous treatment of webs of material having an upright nap consisting at least partially of thermoplastic fibers, and in particular for restoring the upright nap of velvet, velours, plush and the like, which comprises subjecting the web of material to a temperature above the softening point of the thermoplastic fibers and moving the webs substantially vertically with respect to the direction of travel of the web, and subsequently cooling it to a temperature below the softening point of the fibers before exposing the web to any mechanical or hydrodynamic pressure. Apparatus for carrying out the treatment is also described.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [1 1 Naujoks et al.
[ PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS TREATMENT OF PILE FABRICS  Inventors: Erich Naujolrs, Jesteburg; Heinz Rommel, Maschen, both of Germany  Assignee: Artos ljti-Ing. Meier-Windhorst Kommanditgesellschaft, Hamburg, Germany  Filed: Apr. 22, 1971  Appl. No.: 136,463
 Foreign Application Priority Data Apr. 25, 1970 Germany P 20 20 365.0
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS LeGrand 68/13 R X June 19, 1973 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,069 1872 Great Britain 26/2 R 1,085,058 9/1967 Great Britain 28/72 P Primary Examiner-Robert R. Mackey Att0meyAllison C. Collard  ABSTRACT A process for the continuous treatment of webs of material having an upright nap consisting at least partially of thermoplastic fibers, and in particular for restoring the upright nap of velvet, velours, plush and the like, which comprises subjecting the web of material to a temperature above the softening point of the thermoplastic fibers and moving the webs substantially vertically with respect to the direction of travel of the web, and subsequently cooling it to a temperature below the softening point of the fibers before exposing the web to any mechanical or hydrodynamic pressure. Apparatus for carrying out the treatment is also described.
3 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures PATENIED JUNI 9 I975 3 (39,435
mi 1 U 2 INVENTORS. ERICH NAUJOKS HEINZ RO MEL ATTORNEY.
PATENTED JUN I 9 I973 SIIEHZN INVENTORS. ERICH NAUJOKS HEINZ ROMMEL MQ W ATTORNEY.
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS TREATMENT OF FILE FABRICS The present invention relates to a process for the continuous treatment of webs of material which consist either partially or entirely of thermoplastic fibers, and which have an upright nap or pile, and in particular, to a process for improving the position of the nap on rugs, carpets and fabrics, such as velours, velvet, or plush, after the Webs have undergone hot wet treatment.
Up to the present, it was not possible to subject flat textile materials having an upright nap to wetprocessing, such as dyeing, at elevated temperatures since textiles consisting of thermoplastic fibers or yarns suffer irreparable damage during the application of mechanical and hydrodynamic pressures at high temperatures, and become permanently deformed.
Thus, none of the known processes are suitable for dyeing flat velour or plush textile materials consisting of polyacrylic yarns, since at the process operating temperatures, the fibers are in their thermoplastic state, and the slightest mechanical or hydrodynamic pressure will cause nap deformation which renders the material useless.
Accordingly, the present invention provides a process, whereby such deformations in the abovedescribed materials are completely reversible and the original even nap or pile structure is recovered by subjecting the textile materials to a special after treatment.
In order to restore the original nap structure, the web of material is subjected to a substantially vertical movement with respect to the direction of travel of the web at a temperature above the softening point of the thermoplastic fibers. Subsequently, cooling of the material to a temperature below the softening point of the thermoplastic fibers takes place. This is done before any mechanical or hydrodynamic pressure is applied. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the webs of textile material horizontally move through a treatment bath while simultaneously being moved vertically. After completing this heat treatment, the textile is guided through a treatment agent, preferably water, which has approximately the same temperature as the preceding heat treatment. The web is oscillated vertically as it moves through the water. In this manner, all napdisplacernents caused by the preceding treatment are evened out and the nap regains its original configuration. After the oscillation, it is preferable to subject the material to a special smoothing treatment.
An apparatus for causing vertical movement of the material with respect to the travel direction of the web may be designed so as to have conventional polygonal rollers, vibrating plates, or ultrasound units. It is preferable to provide, in series with such oscillation-causing elements, a spreading device, such as a doctor roller.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a process for treating webs of textile materials which prevents permanent damage to the naps of velour or plush materials and the like.
It is also an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for carrying out such treatment which is simple in design, easy to manufacture, and efficient and reliable in opieration.
Other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent when taken in conjunction with the following detailed description considered in connection with the accompanying drawings which disclose several embodiments of the present invention.
In the drawings, wherein similar reference characters denote similar elements throughout the several views:
FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of an apparatus for restoring the nap of a web of textile material constructed in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 illustrates the apparatus of FIG. I in use with a rug-dyeing apparatus; and I FIG. 3 illustrates the apparatus of FIG. 1 in combina tion with another heat-treatment device.
Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown an elongated flat container 4 which is filled with a treatment liquid. Web 1 is fed into the treatment liquid from a source (not shown) over guide roller 8 to the zone indicated by the encircled area A where the restoration of the nap is effected. Polygon rollerl2 dips into the treatment liquid, and is rotatably mounted about axis 18. When it rotates, roller 12 causes the web to oscillate vertically. Oscillating the material causes the nap deformed by passage over guide roller 8 or by other mechanical or hydrodynamic pressure to recover its original configuration. Other oscillation-causing devices, for example, rollers of a different configuration, vibrating plates or ultrasonic units, may be used instead. A doctor roller 13 is provided directly in series with roller 12, and has a blade-like member 16 which gently engages the surface of the nap and urges it upward. The blade angle may be adjusted in the directions of arrows 9 and 10.
During the oscillation treatment of the web, the treatment liquid through which the web passes, should be maintained at a temperature at which the fibers form ing the nap are in a thermoplastic state. After the oscillation treatment, the web is cooled down to a temperature below the softening point of the fibers before it contacts any roller or otherwise undergoes mechanical or hydrodynamic pressure. In other words, the nap of the web should be fixed in an upright position before the web undergoes further stress. A weir 14 is also provided for supplying cold liquid which cools the treatment liquid. After the position of the nap is fixed, the web is withdrawn from container 4 over a discharge roller 11. Since the web has a low temperature at the discharge end, the nap of the web is fixed and the web may contact roller 11 without permanently deforming the nap.
In FIG. 2, another embodiment of the invention is shown for the continuous dyeing of rugs and other heavy textiles having pressure-sensitive pile. Flat container 20 is provided in which the web 21 is treated in hot liquid. A plurality of rollers 25 are positioned to hold the web below the surface of the liquid. Container 20 is mounted on support members 22. At the discharge end of container 20, guide roller 30 is mounted. Web 21 passes over roller 30 to guide rollers 31 and 32 respectively, into upper container 24 where it is washed. While moving over rollers 30, 31 and 32 into container 24, the web is protected by housing 23. The enclosed areas A, and A, indicate the location of the pile-restoring apparatus described in FIG. 1. Oscillation-causing member 26, doctor roller 27 and adjustable blade 28 correspond in design and function to members 12, 113 and 16 of FIG. 1. These members may be positioned within housing 23, as indicated by A, or outside, as indicated by A,.-
Weir 34 is provided near the discharge end of container 24 for admitting cold water to allow the temperature to be adjusted for fixing the nap in an upright position after it has undergone the oscillation treatment. Windows W in the wall of housing 23 are provided for purposes of observation.
FIG. 3 shows the nap-restoring apparatus in combination with another apparatus for continuous heattreatment of webs of textile materials. Web 41 passes over guide roller 42 to direction-changing roller 43 and the heat-treatment device. A container is provided for holding the treatment liquid consisting of cup-shaped members 45 into which the liquid flows from pipe 48. A heating medium is admitted by pipe 50 into jacketforming duct 51 which surrounds each cup and heats the liquid to the necessary treatment temperature. Rollers 46 are fitted into cups 45 and guide web 41 through the treatment liquid. Upper direction-changing rollers 49 pass the web from one roller to another. Discharge pipes 54 and 55 are provided for discharging the heating medium and the treatment liquid, respectively. As web 41 leaves roller 49, it enters flat container 56 filled with washing liquid, positioned in zone A which corresponds to zone A in FIG. 1. Oscillation-causing member 57, doctor roller 58 and blade 59 are provided. When the web is withdrawn from container 56, it is cooled to fix the nap in an upright position by means similar to that illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2. The upper part of the apparatus is covered by housing 53.
While specific embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be obvious that many changes and modifications may be made thereunto without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A process for the continuous treatment of webs of material having upright naps and composed at least partially of fibers having thermoplastic properties, wherein the nap of the web has been displaced during a wet-treatment at elevated temperatures, comprising:
subjecting the web of material to a treatment bath having a temperature above the softening point of the thermoplastic fibers thereof;
oscillating the web of material in the treatment bath so as to restore the nap to an upright position;
raising the nap in the bath to a substantially vertical position by engaging the nap with a doctor blade; and
cooling the web of material to a temperature below the softening point of the thermoplastic fibers before exposing the web to mechanical or hydrodynamic pressure by injecting cooling liquid into the treatment bath adjacent the web of material.
2. An apparatus for the continuous treatment of webs of material having upright nap and composed at least partially of fibers having thermoplastic properties, wherein the nap of the web has been displaced during a wet-treatment at elevated temperatures, comprising:
a container for receiving liquid having a temperature above the softening point of the thermoplastic fibers of the web of material;
conveyor means for passing the web of material through said liquid in said container;
a rotatable, polygonal-shaped roller, mounted on said container adjacent said web of material, for oscillating said liquid and the web of material disposed therein;
a vertically disposed doctor blade, mounted on said container adjacent said roller, for engaging the nap of the web of material and restoring the nap to an upright position; and
means, mounted on said container, for injecting cooling liquid into the treatment bath adjacent the web of material, for cooling the web to a temperature below the softening point of the thermoplastic fibers of the web, for fixing the nap in said restored upright position.
3. The apparatus as recited in claim 2, wherein said means for injecting cooling liquid into the treatment bath comprises a weir mounted on said container.