|Publication number||US3739540 A|
|Publication date||Jun 19, 1973|
|Filing date||Sep 3, 1971|
|Priority date||Sep 3, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3739540 A, US 3739540A, US-A-3739540, US3739540 A, US3739540A|
|Original Assignee||Ennis C|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (4), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
a x Unite States Patent 11 1 1111 3,739,540 Ennis, Jr. 1 June 19, 1973 GARAGE CONSTRUCTION 2,659,109 11 1953 Burn 52 175  Inventor: Charles W. Ennis, Jr., PO. Box
16083, San Antonio, Tex. 78246 Primary Examiner-John E. Murtagh Attorney-John J. Byrne  Filed: Sept. 3, 1971  App]. No.: 177,792 ABSTRACT 52 U s. 01. 52/175 A mum-storied building M the Compact and efficient 51 Int Cl E04h 6/10 Wage Of auwmbiles having a plurality of ingress and 58 Field arses r111 52/174-176 egress areas level and Said ingress areas having I I direct access to below ground parking areas, to above ground parking areas and to a street level area. The in-  References Cited coming circulation flow pattern is such that vehicles UNITED STATES PATENTS will not interfere with the outgoing flow of vehicles. 1,782,997 11/1930 Muntz 52/176 9 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures PAIENIED u 1 9 SE! 1 U 7 mllml PATENIEUMH aim WHEN? mlllllml QM l||||| ALLA If NxM MQM) GARAGE CONSTRUCTION This invention relates to a parking garage construction having particular utility when used in conjunction with massive shopping center buildings, suburban offree building complexes, airports and the like. The invention is especially directed to increase the parking spaces available to service such complexes. The garage is adapted to be built with existing parking facilities but it should be understood that certain advantages can be obtained if the original ground level parking lot is dimensioned for the later construction of buildings of a type described herein.
It is an objective of this invention to provide an expandable building which is adapted for location so that the users thereof can walk under cover directly into the buildings to be serviced.
Another objective of this invention is to provide a multi-storied parking facility wherein column spacing is located to substantially eliminate between-column parking and in which the flow direction in aisles can be readily reversed.
It is a further objective of this invention to provide in a multi-storied parking building a circulation core wherein angle parking is accommodated on the circulation drive slopes between stories. I
A still further objective of this invention is to provide a building which eliminates floor-to-floor entrance and exit ramps running in opposite directions. In the garage construction described herein, the vehicles travel to the lower and upper levels through adjoining parallel aisles.
This pattern reverses at the upper level so that the aisle adjoining the parking area slopes upwardly to the roof level.
A more general objective of this invention is to pro vide a traffic and circulation pattern so that users can achieve their parking space without driving long distances and without waiting for accumulated stops due to over-capacity because of other drivers backing out of vehicle spaces ahead of them.
A still further objective of this invention is to provide a multi-level parking building which can conveniently be enlarged in stages. Only four levels of parking are contemplated but the system can be started with only a ground level and/or basement level with the third and fourth levels added at a later date. Likewise, a single wing can be completed with a second wing constructed on the other end of the circulation core section as the need arises.
Another objective of this invention is to provide a parking facility having angle parking and so dimensioned that the direction of flow in the aisles can be reversed to meet a variety of traffic flow requirements.
An important objective of this invention is to provide a parking garage in which vehicles enter the construction from feeder streets to opposite sides of a circulation core without danger of contact with vehicles entering from an opposite feeder street. Thus, vehicles coming in from a south feeder street can proceed to a lower level or to an upper level from the same general point of ingress while cars coming in from a north or opposite feeder lane can proceed to a lower level or to an upper level. In each case the vehicles can also enter the ground level parking area.
A still further objective of this invention is to provide a circulation arrangement wherein vehicle drivers'will be inclined to make the correct turns because of the difficulties encountered in making a wrong turn.
These and other objects of the invention will become more apparent to those skilled in the art by reference to the following detailed description when viewed in light of the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a basement level of a parking construction;
FIG. 2 is the ground level of FIG. 1 showing the adjacent feeders and exit lanes;
FIG. 3 is the first level of parking above ground level of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is the second level above the ground level;
FIG. 5 is a basement level of a second embodiment of the invention having a second wing;
FIG. 6 is the ground level of the second embodiment;
FIG. 7 is the second level of the second embodiment;
FIG. 8 is the roof level of the second embodiment;
FIG. 9 is a cross-section of the parking facility along the line 9--9 of FIG. 6;
FIG. 10 is a cross-section of the parking facility along the line 10-10 of FIG. 6;
FIG. 11 is a plan view of a parking facility having two circulation core areas; and
FIG. 12 is a diagrammatic layout of a parking complex which utilizes the principles of this invention.
Even the most sophisticated of building complexes has a tendency to inadequately plan for future parking. This invention sets forth afsolution wherein conventional ground level parking areas can be efficiently transfonned into desirable multi-level parking. The construction described herein will normally be utilized in a freeparking environment. In the drawings, FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 4 disclose a parking wing to which a second wing, such as that shown in FIG. 5, can be utilized with maximum efficiency. The wing 10' is substantially a reverse, mirror image of that indicated by the numeral 10 in FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Referring now to the drawings wherein like numerals indicate like elements of the construction, the numeral 10 refers generally to the garage construction of this invention. The ground level of the garage indicated by the numeral 12 is bounded by a south feeder lane 14,
- a west feeder lane 16 an a north feeder lane 18. The
feeder lanes have been designated as south, west, and north for ease of description, it being understood that the actual compass disposition of the building is immaterial.
Since this garage construction is frequently used in conjunction with massive shopping center buildings, suburban office building complexes, and the like, it is frequently desirable to build one side of the garage flush with the building that it services. In this manner, passangers can walk directly from their vehicles to the adjacent buildings without being exposed to the elements. The instant invention is designed so that the north side, including north feeder land 18, can be conveniently built contiguously to a building as shown in FIG. 1 1. By doing so, the north feeder land 18 becomes a covered feeder lane and the vehicle passengers may walk directly from one level of the garage to the same level on the adjacent building.
The ground level 12 is bordered on its east side by a circulation core system 13. The division line therebetween is indicated by the numeral 19. An apron area 20 leads from the feeder lane 14 to a downwardly inclined ramp 22. An apron area 20 also leads from the feeder land 14 to an upwardly inclined ramp 26. An opening parking area 12. The area 12 includes access lanes 1C, 1D, 1F, and 16. Cars entering through an opening 30 follow the path of travel as indicated by the arrows.
At the southwest comer of area 12 there is an apron 31 providing egress from a ramp 34 extending to a lower or basement parking area B12. Another exit to the south feeding lane 14 is provided by apron 35. The area 12 also has an entrance apron 37 through which cars enter from the north feeder lane 18. Vehicles can exit from the ramp area through the exit apron 38. The basement level B12 can also be reached via the downward ramp 42 and vehicles can reach the next level via the ramp 44. It should be noted that ramps 22, 26, 42 and 44 are all sufficiently wide to provide angled parking on either side of the traffic lanes thereof. An exit ramp 46 leading from the upper levels is not sufficiently wide to receive parked automobiles for reasons noted hereinafter.
The traffic lanes of the level B12 are designated BC, BD, BF and BG. Cars that exit from the basement level must use the exit ramp 34 which leads to the exit ramp 31. Cars reaching the basement level via ramps 22 and 42 enter the parking area B12 via openings B30 and B39 respectively. These openings are disposed below their counterparts on the ground level parking area 12. The traffic flow is again indicated by arrows. The limited column spacing shown in the core area is the same throughout the parking areas but not all columns are shown for purposes of simplicity.
The level of parking above the ground level 12 is indicated by the numeral 212. In level 212, the openings 230 and 239 are one-way. Also, there is an opening 231 between an upwardly sloped ramp 226 leading to the third level of parking 312. Vehicles moving upwardly on ramp 44 pass through a one-way opening 231. The traffic lanes in parking area 212 are indicated by the numerals 2B, 2C, 2F and 2G. The How of traffic is again indicated by the arrows. It should be noted that vehicles moving upwardly on ramp 26 turn left through the opening 239 into the parking area 212. Exit from the parking area 212 is restricted to opening 230. Vehicles moving upwardly to the roof level 312 from ramps 22 and 26 turn through opening 230, move into parking area 212 and outwardly through 230.
FIG. 4 discloses the roof level 312. All vehicles moving onto the roof area move upwardly on ramp 226 and turn left through opening 339. All vehicles exiting the roof area move downwardly on ramp 222 through the opening 330.
Referring again to FIG. 2, it can be noted that entrance to the parking building from the south feed lane I is through the opening 20. If entering through opening 20, one can select the basement area by entering ramp 22. A selectioncan also be made to enter the upper level 212 or the ground level B12. If a vehicle is traveling to the right on the north feeder lane 18 it has three entering options. First, it can enter directly to the ground level parking area 12 by way of apron 37; secondly, it can move to the basement level via opening 39 and ramp 42; or, thirdly, it can move to the upper level via the ramp 44. Exit from ground level 12 can take place via the exit aprons 36 and 38. If one enters the upper area via the ramp 26, a choice is available of parking on level 212 or proceeding to opening 230 where access can be had to the upwardly sloping ramp 226. If a vehicle enters from the north feeding lane 18 at apron 37 and moves upwardly on ramp 44, it can proceed directly upwardly on ramp 226. It should be noted that exit ramp 46 is narrow and does not permit parking thereon. Entering vehicles moving upwardly on ramp 26 will not mistakenly make a hairpin U-turn and move downwardly on the ramp. The turn is too tight for this. However, vehicles proceeding downwardly on ramp 222 can quite conveniently make a lefthand turn onto the ramp 46.
FIGS. 5 10 show a parking facility having a second wing 10. The elements of the second wing that have parts corresponding to the elements of the first wing are indicated by the same numerals and letters with the addition of prime marks. Basically, the wing 0 is the reverse mirror image of the wing 10.
It can be seen in FIG. 6 that automobiles can enter from the south lane through ramp areas 24, 20 or 24'. Again, there is a choice to go up, down, or stay at ground level. The arrows indicate the similarities of flow with the single wing design.
Note that in those areas where adjacent aisles have flow in the same direction a herringbone parking pattern is used. When the flow is opposite a parallel pattern is used. An example of the former is the area between aisles 2D and 2F and an example of the latter is the area between 2C and 2D.
On the drawings, small dotted lines are utilized to depict removable barriers to route traffic. These barriers can be planters or other attractive devices.
FIGS. 9 and 10 disclose ramp elevations. It is very difficult to make ramps appear attractive when they are disposed along an outer wall. A parking facility built in accordance with the teachings herein reduces the ramp areas exposed to the exterior to a minimum.
FIG. 11 shows a completed parking lot having the core areas for each disposed between the wings 10 and 10'. It can be seen from this drawing that vehicles can proceed through the covered north feeder and exit passengers prior to parking.
In a general manner, while there has been disclosed an effective and efficient embodiment of the invention, it should be well understood that the invention is not limited to such an embodiment as there might be changes made in the arrangements, disposition, and form of the parts without departing from the principle of the present invention as comprehended within the scope of the accompanying claims.
1. A garage construction for receiving vehicles comprising,
a parking building having a generally rectangular shape for housing a first set of parking floors including a basement level,
a ground level having first and second traffic entrances on opposite sides of said level, and an upper level,
a first UP ramp extending from said first entrance to said upper level,
a first DOWN ramp extending from said first entrance to said basement level,
a second UP ramp extending from said second entrance to said upper level,
a second DOWN ramp extending from said second entrance to said basement level,
said first and second UP ramps, said first and second DOWN ramps, and said basement level, ground level, and upper level all being adaptable to receive parked vehicles thereon,
a first exit ramp disposed at approximately right angles to said first and second UP ramps and said first and second DOWN ramps for communicating said basement level directly to said ground level,
an exit disposed on the same side of said garage construction as said first entrance for discharging vehi-' cles on said first exit ramp,
a second exit ramp parallel to said first UP ramp extending from said upper level to said first ground level, and
a second exit disposed on the same side of said garage as said first entrance for discharging the vehicles coming from said second exit ramp,
wherein the vehicles on said first basement level and said first upper level can be discharged to the ground level by said first and second exit ramps.
2. The invention of claim 1 wherein said ramps can accommodate angle parking.
3. The invention of claim 2 wherein said exit ramps are relatively narrow with respect to said first and second UP and DOWN ramps.
4. The invention of claim 1 wherein columns are regularly spaced through said basement and ground level areas.
5. The invention of claim 1 wherein said building includes a roof parking level, said roof parking level connected to said first upper level by a third UP ramp and a third DOWN ramp.
6. The invention of claim 1 wherein a second set of parking floors is disposed on the opposite side of said first and second UP and DOWN ramps from said first set of parking floors.
7. The invention of claim 1 wherein said first and second traffic entrances are serviced by first and second feeder lanes, respectively.
8. The invention of claim 1 wherein at least one of said feeder lanes is covered.
9. The invention of claim 5 wherein there is a third exit ramp between said third UP ramp and said third DOWN ramp and located intermediately thereon.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1782997 *||Dec 30, 1927||Nov 25, 1930||Muntz Eric P||Building|
|US2659109 *||Apr 13, 1946||Nov 17, 1953||Alexander Graham||All ramp garage|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7784228 *||Dec 15, 2003||Aug 31, 2010||Gustafson Thomas F||Mixed-use pedestrian-oriented parking structure|
|US20060272248 *||Dec 15, 2003||Dec 7, 2006||Gustafson Thomas F||Mixed-use pedestrian-oriented parking structure|
|US20070085067 *||Oct 18, 2006||Apr 19, 2007||Lewis John R||Gated parking corral|
|WO2004055644A2 *||Dec 15, 2003||Jul 1, 2004||Thomas F Gustafson||Mixed-use pedestrian-oriented parking structure|
|International Classification||E04H6/08, E04H6/10|