US 3739588 A
A marine retaining wall and the like comprised of a series of hingedly interconnected corrugated metal sheets anchored in place by adjustable earth anchors, whereby adjacent corrugated sheets can move relative to each other in response to the normal movement of water, wave and soil without becoming disengaged from each other, fracturing, or losing their effectiveness in sealing the land off from the water.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 Schroter et a1.
1111 3,739,588 1 1 June 19, 1973 RESILIENT RETAINING WALL  lnventors: Richard C. Schroter, Orinda;
David C. Thomas, Moraga, both of Calif.
 Assignee: Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation, Oakland, Calif.
 Filed: June 30, 1971 21 App]. No.: 158,188
 US. Cl 61/49, 61/39, 61/62  Int. Cl E02d 5/06  Field of Search 61/39, 47, 49, 61,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,166,563 1/1916 \Vemlinger 61/60 2,332,812 10/1943 Rieger at al. 61/62 2,405,289 8/1946 Cardwell 61/39 1,084,120 1/1914 Wemllnger.... 61/60 1,689,678 10/1928 Mauterer 61/62 1,937,758 12/1933 Harris 61/62 2,355,102 8/1944 Odman 61/62 Primary Examiner-David J. Willjiamowsky Assistant ExaminerPhilip C. Kannan Att0rneyPaul E. Calrow  ABSTRACT 2 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures Pmammwmms 3.139.588
' INVENTORS RICHARD C. SCHROTER BY DAVID C.THOMAS m4 KW ATTORNEY I I I ,I
RESILIEN'I RETAINING WALL BACKGROUND This invention relates to a retaining wall. More particularly, it relates to a retaining wall suitable for use as a canal or marina bulkhead and the like. In areas where bodies of water, such as canals and marinas, are provided for various commercial, residential or recreational purposes, it is standard practice to erect retaining walls to minimize shoreline erosion, etc. In addition to environmental suitability, e.g., durability and weathering characteristics of the materials used, labor and materials costs are prime considerations in the construction of such retaining walls.
Specially formed and reinforced corrugated metal, plastic and fibrous composition sheets have been used in the past in the construction of retaining walls in an effort to provide efficient seals at the various joints between the sheets or panels. These have not been completely satisfactory for various reasons. Panels of plastic and fibrous composition materials, although inexpensive and resistant to rot, water, fungi, etc., are still relatively brittle and any severe stress or shearing action can cause fracture and breaking of the panels in the panel joint areas and a destruction of the wall or barrier made up of such panels. The metal panels proposed or used for such purposes in the past have not been provided with satisfactory soil or sand-proof interlocking joint elements which permit flexing or shifting of the installed panels under various loading conditions while at the same time inhibiting the sifting of soil or sand therethrough and without becoming disengaged from each other, distorting or failing. Typical examples of such prior art walls having the aforesaid deficiencies are illustrated in US. Pat. Nos. 1,084,120, granted Jan. 13, 1914, and 3,229,468, granted Jan. 18, 1966.
Accordingly, it is a primary purpose of the present invention to provide an improved marina retaining wall or the like made up of resiliently orhingedly connected links that overcomes the above-mentioned difi'lculties, and has a relatively long life expectancy.
Another object is to provide an improved bulkhead utilizing structural corrugated panels that can, if desired, be prepunched and provided with improved means for hingedly connecting a pair of panels together along the entire lengths of the various panels.
A further object is to effect an improved interlock between a pair of corrugated panels or sheets forming a sheet metal piling, which will provide a permanent joint therebetween similar to a ball and socket in design. This joint arrangement allows the individual wall sheets once emplaced to flex under normal external loadings without fracture, or becoming disengaged from the total wall structure formed of such sheets, while at the same time permitting the building of walls that can have bends or curves that follow the natural and sometimes quite irregular curvature of the terrain, where the sheets are emplaced.
Still another object is to provide a marina wall equipped with an improved adjustable land anchor means to compensate for any shifting or loosening of the sheets or panels forming pilings due to wind, weather and/or wave action.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly stated, the invention is directed to a resilient retaining wall of straight and/or curvilinear configuration comprised of a series of corrugated metal sheets arranged adjacent to each other and hingedly joined together in an improved fashion.
The various panels making up the wall are further held in place against the usual earthen backfill by means of a plurality of improved adjustable metal anchors connected thereto by means of tie rods embedded in the earth fill.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a fragmentary and partly broken away plan view of a retaining wall showing joined together corrugated metal sections incorporating the novel concepts of the instant invention;
FIG. 2 is a partly broken side elevational view taken substantially along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1 and illustrat ing a typical installation of the wall of the instant invention with parts added;
FIG. 3 is a view of a typical disc type anchor device that can be used in the installation of the wall, when taken along the line 3-3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a top plan view, on an. enlarged scale of the hinged ball and socket type joint between a pair of panels when generally taken within the circumscribing line 4 of FIG. I; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a cap element that fits over the top of a wall panel, and illustrates the manner in which the cap element is installed.
It will be understood that the embodiments shown in the drawings and described hereafter are merely illustrative of preferred embodiments of the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring now to the drawings and particularly FIGS. 1 and 2, the retaining wall or sheet metal piling 5 of the instant'invention is generally comprised of a series of rectangular bulkhead sheets 10,, formed of standard corrugated metal sheet or plate of the appropriate gauge, temper, etc., such as those made of a corrosion resistant aluminum alloy and vertically disposed along a shoreline or other embankment by the usual jetting, trenching or driving techniques.
Each corrugated sheet 10 is usually prepared for installation by first attaching, such as by welding, to one side edge of the sheet an elongated sinuous fitting 11 which combines with the sheet edge to form a hinge pocket 12. The opposing side edge of the sheet has an elongated and roughly J-shaped tongue element 13 similarly welded or riveted thereto. The bulbous end 14 of the tongue element 13 of one sheet 10 fits loosely yet firmly within the pocket 12 formed by the fitting 11 attached to an adjacent sheet element 10 to form a hinged ball and socket type joint J. The opening or mouth 15 leading into pocket 12 is slightly larger in width'than the thickness of the web portion 13 of tongue element 13.
The bulbous element 14 is fitted in a pocket 12 by raising the bottom of the sheet edge provided with a tongue element 13 above the top of the edge of the adjacent sheet provided with pocket 12, telescopingly fitting or inserting the tongue 13 of the one sheet 10 into pocket 12 of the other sheet and then sliding the two sheets lengthwise in opposite directions until the entire tongue 13, which preferably runs the entire length of a sheet, has its bulbous element 14 fully enclosed within the joint pocket 12 of the other sheet. Pocket l2 preferably extends for the full length of the sheet with which it is associated. If a water-proof grease is previously applied to bulbous element 14, insertion of the element into and along a pocket 12 will be facilitated.
The aforesaid interlocking arrangement of parts results in a hinge-like connection or joint J between adjacent sheets whereby individual sheets can bend, flex or bow relative to another sheet without becoming disengaged from each other and without any significant loss in the sand-tight integrity of the joint between adjacent sheets. In this connection, it is to be observed that the sealing characteristics of the joint J of the instant invention are important and particularly useful in keeping back sandy soils on beach-front property and even the fine'so-called sugar sands of many inland waterways and lakeshores. In instances where fine sandy or silty soil is present along with tide water, the fluctuating water line at high and low tides results in a tendency for the backfill to be sucked or sifted through the joints between adjacent panels or sheets unless the joint is relatively impermeable as in the instant case.
The generous rounded curvature of bulbous element 14 permits substantial pivoting or hinge movement of one sheet 10 relative to its adjacent sheet without their becoming disengaged from each other. Mouth 15 of pocket 12 is sufficiently large to prevent binding of the tongue 13 in the pocket 12. The unique hinged connection of sheets 10 enables the wall or pilings made up of such sheets to have substantial or severe installation curvatures, etc., whereby the sheets 10 do not have to be arranged linearly and allows a wide range of adjustment of the sheets to the terrain during installation. The hinged joint comprised of tongue and pocket acts to provide an efficient seal against the erosion of sand or earth fill from the landward side of the wall toward the water side.
In most installations, it will be advantageous to provide a top reinforcing metal cap 16 for the wall S'attached by suitable means to the upper edges of the corrugated sheets 10. Cap 16 enhances the structural rigidity of the overall wall and can be bent or curved longitudinally within limits during manufacture. It acts to restrict vertical movement and shifting of sheets 10 relative to each other and at the same time is somewhat decorative. This cap as indicated in FIG. 5 can be roughly T-shaped and provided with 'apertured sidewalls 17 and 18 and when a cap 16 bridges the joint J between sheets, it acts as a unique splice for the sheets and also can have the advantageous characteristics of a load transfer bar as noted hereinafter.
In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the threaded ends 19 of the ground anchor tie rods 20 fit in the aligned openings 21 in walls 17 and 18 of cap 16 and in matching holes 22 in sheets 10 at various spaced points along the tops of the sheets 10. Holes 22 are preferably offset somewhat from a joint J. The threaded anchor end of each rod 20 is adjustably connected to anchor plate or disc 25 by a standard double lock nut assembly 26 and reinforced by angle irons 27. Anchor'disc 25 can be buried in the earth fill or the like behind the retaining wall and acts to stabilize the wall. The ground anchor is preferably attached to the wall in the area of a cap 16 because of the rigidity afforded to this area of the wall by cap 16. When the ground anchor is attached to cap 16 and the cap bridges a joint J and in effect is secured to two panels, connection of a ground anchor to such a cap in turn means a ground anchor connection with a plurality of panels and not just one panel. This type of connection also tends to relieve undue stresses on the joint J by distributing and transferring a given load to several panels, which are spliced together by cap 16.
Any slack in this anchoring system resulting from the shifting of the wall and/or earth adjacent the wall can be readily compensated for by tightening up in a wellknown manner the individual nuts of double lock nut assembly 26 attached to the land anchors as well as the wall ends of the appropriate tie rods 20 in order to stabilize the wall panels in their fully erected positions.
An advantageous embodiment of the invention has been disclosed and described. It is obvious various changes and modifications can be made therein.
What is claimed is:
1. A marine wall and the like comprised of corrugated metal sheets connected by ball and socket type joint assemblies, a joint assembly for a pair of adjacent sheets comprising an elongated sinuous fitting affixed to one of the sheets adjacent to and extending for substantially the entire length of the marginal edge thereof and forming in conjunction with and at the said marginal edge of the said one sheet of the joint assembly an elongated tongue receiving hinge pocket, an elongated and roughly J-shaped tongue element projecting from and extending for substantially the entire length of the marginal edge of the other sheet of the joint assembly, said tongue element being provided with a generously rounded bulbous end, the bulbous end of the tongue element being snugly yet loosely and telescopingly inserted in said hinge pocket, a generally T-shaped reinforcing and load transferring cap element overlying and attached to the tops of the sheets and bridging the joint assembly, the lower stern portion of the T-shaped cap element being split so as to have side walls which encompass both sides of a sheet to which the T-shaped cap element is attached and which the T-shaped cap element overlies, an adjustable ground anchor means and adjustable bolt and tie rod means affixing said anchor means to the tops of said sheets as well as to the cap element in areas offset from said joint assembly whereby said anchor means can stabilize the sheets in the ground in an upstanding position.
2. A wall as set forth in claim 1 wherein said ground anchor means includes a ground anchor disc.