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Publication numberUS3739702 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 19, 1973
Filing dateMar 9, 1972
Priority dateMar 9, 1972
Publication numberUS 3739702 A, US 3739702A, US-A-3739702, US3739702 A, US3739702A
InventorsJeong T, Wender D
Original AssigneeInt Holographics Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Instant stable film processing method
US 3739702 A
Abstract
In accordance with a stable, almost instantaneous film processing method, film is preconditioned in a chemically inert but compatible conditioning fluid. Thereafter, the preconditioned film is advanced into an exposure chamber in which it is sealed in the presence of conditioning fluid and maintained under pressure so as to spatially stabilize the film. The film is then exposed, and thereafter developing fluid is metered into the exposure chamber under pressure in order to develop the film in place while maintaining the spatial stability thereof. The speed of the development step may be enhanced further through the use of heated developing fluids or special developing agents.
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United States Patent 1 1 Wender et al.

INSTANT STABLE FILM PROCESSING METHOD UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,200,724. 8/196'5 Stamm 9s/14x l,45i,0 65 4/1923 Dye ..95/90.5

ECC

[4 1 June 19, 1973 Attorney-Ronald L. Engel, Daniel W. Vittum, Jr.

and Gomer W.-Walters et-al. [5 7 ABSTRACT In accordance with a stable, almost instantaneous film processing method, film is preconditioned in a chemically inert but compatible conditioning fluid. Thereafter, the preconditioned film is advanced into an exposure chamber in which it is sealed in the presence of conditioning fluid and maintained under pressure so as to spatially stabilize the film. The film is then-exposed, and thereafter developing fluid is metered into the exposure chamber under pressure in order to develop the film in place while maintaining the spatial stability thereof. The speed of the development step may be enhanced further through the use of heated developing fluids or special developing agents.

6 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure ECB Patented June 19, 1973 3,739,702

,3 cc 1! cos (L ccc F ccc INSTANT STABLE FILM PROCESSING METHOD BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to the film processing arts and more particularly to a high speed method for development of film in place while maintaining the spatial stability thereof.

2. Description of the Prior Art Devices designed to accomplish in-place processing of exposed photographic films have long been known. However, certain applications of such devices additionally require that a high degree of spatial stability be maintained during exposure and processing. For example, in real time interferometeric holography, where a comparison is made between an object and its holographically reconstructed image, almost instantaneous in-place development with an extremely high level of spatial stability is absolutely essential. Such requirements are not, however, peculiar to holography, since many photographic techniques have the same requirements (e.g., aerial photographs where a high image resolution is required.)

Existing devices and methods for achieving the foregoing objectives have not been entirely satisfactory. Systems now in use are relatively cumbersome in that they generally involve the use of emulsion-coated, individual glass plates which must be manually positioned before exposure and processing. Moreover, because such emulsions are ordinarily dry" when placed in position, they undergo physical changes when contacted with developing and other treatment solutions such that small changes in the physical position of the emulsion can occur. Such spatial instability is highly undesirable because it limits the utility of such a system for its intended-purpose. Further, the advantages of ease of handling and rapid sequential exposure which can be achieved with roll film are highly desirable alternatives to the expense and inconvenience of using glass photographic plates. However, present roll film processors lack the stability required for real time interferometry and for high image resolution photography. This lack of stability occurs due to a physical change in the emulsion between the exposed and processed conditions.

Accordingly, a prime objective of this invention is to provide a method for processing emulsion-coated film under interferometrically stable conditions (i.e., under conditions providing positional accuracies within ten millionths of an inch).

A further objective is to provide shortening of processing time for such stable film processing method.

Yet another objective is to provide a method of handling an emulsion-coated film such that it is maintained in a precise plane of registration such as would be defined by the focal plane of a high resolution lens.

A still further objective is to provide a process of the foregoing type which may be adapted to any of a variety of film emulsions and development techniques.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The foregoing and other objectives, advantages, and features of this invention may be achieved with a process for rapidly developing exposed emulsion-coated film in place comprising the steps of passing the film through a conditioning chamber in which the emulsion side of the film is contacted with chemically inert but compatible conditioning fluid. Thereafter, the condiutilized in the exposure chamber, and this fixative is likewise metered into the chamber under pressure so as not to alter the spatial stability of the film. Since the process may be used with roll-type film,the film may be sequentially advanced under automatic control from a cassette or magazine supply through the conditioning chamber wherein it is conditioned and thereafter into the exposure chamber wherein it is exposed and treated. Thereafter, the film may be advanced into a dryer and take-up spool if desired.

If it is desired further to speed the treatment process, heated treatment fluid may be used, resulting in an almost instantaneous treatment of the exposed film in place. A highly desirable method of heating the treatment fluid involves focusing infrared radiation on the film plane in the exposure chamber with an infrared absorbing dye or other material being provided in the treatment fluid, thereby heating the treatment fluid and the emulsion it contacts in a highly efficient and selective manner.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING The FIGURE is a schematic flow sheet illustrating an exemplary embodiment of the process of this invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The instant, stable film processing method of this invention is designed to permit almost instantaneous inplace development of exposed film, especially roll-type film, such that, within a matter of seconds after exposure, there is obtained a processed film located in the identical position in which it was positioned during exposure. For purposes of this invention, an identical position is considered to be one located within ten millionths of an inch of the reference position.

The method comprises the steps of passing emulsioncoated film, especially a strip of film from a roll preferably provided in cassette or magazine form, through a conditioning chamber in which at least the emulsion side of the film is contacted with a chemically inert but compatible conditioning fluid. This conditioning allows the emulsion to expand to a given thickness which is thereafter maintained throughout processing. Thereafter, the conditioned film is advanced from the conditioning chamber to an exposure chamber in which it is sealed, with conditioning fluid being introduced into the exposure chamber under pressure in order to both stabilize the spatial (i.e., physical) position of the entire film and to maintain a constant emulsion thickness. As used herein, the term stable" means a film that is both spatially stable and which has an emulsion of constant thickness. The film may then be exposed, with the conditioning fluid thereafter being removed from the exposure chamber and treatment (i.e., development) fluid being introduced therein under pressure in place of the conditioning fluid so as to permit treatment (i.e., development) of the film to occur in place without any changes occurring in the stability (i.e., physical size and position) of the film emulsion.

After treatment is completed, treatment fluid is removed from the exposure chamber, and conditioning fluid is re-introduced under pressure in order to continue maintenance of the spatial stability of the exposed, developed film emulsion. If desired, chemical fixative may also be utilized in the exposure chamber as a part of the treatment step. Where this is the case, the fixative solution is likewise metered into the chamber under pressure so as not to alter the spatial stability of the exposed developed film emulsion as the developing fluid is exhausted therefrom.

Since the process is intended for use with roll-type film, especially such film that may be provided in cassette or magazine form, the entire apparatus for carrying out the process may be sequenced in an automated fashion, such that film advancement, conditioning, exposure, and treatment are all cycled to occur at predetermined intervals upon initiation of one signal from an operator.

By employing heated developers or special heating methods, the chemical action thereof in treating the exposed film can be enhanced, thereby further speeding the treatment aspect of the process. A preferred method of utilizing heat to enhance treatment speed involves the provision in the treatment fluid of a chemically inert but compatible infrared absorbing material such as dye. A lamp emitting infrared radiation is focused on the film plane in the exposure chamber immediately after treatment fluid is introduced into the chamber. As a result, the small volume of treatment fluid in the chamber is rapidly heated, with the heat thereby being transferred to the emulsions. However, a minimum of heat is transferred to the other components of the arrangement. Upon completion of the treatment step, reintroduction of conditioning fluid into the chamber rapidly returns the developed film to ambient temperature.

The spectral emission of the lamp is filtered, thus permitting only infrared radiation to reach the film exposure chamber. The film used is optically insensitive to the infrared radiation and is thus not additionally exposed. By incorporating a dye (e.g., aluminum phthalocyanine chloride), enhanced absorption of the infrared radiation takes place within the treatment fluid. This heat is transferred by fluid convection and conduction to the film emulsion. The choice of dye is thus determined by its efficiency in absorbing infrared radiation.

With particular reference to the drawings, which represents in schematic form one arrangement by which the film processing method of this invention may be carried out, there is shown a film magazine M in which is provided a roll of film FR from which a strip of film F may be drawn by passing over various idler rollers R. The film is advanced by suitable means such as a pair of opposed friction drive rollers DR.

The film F first passes through a conditioning chamber CC formed by a base CCB and a cover CCC. The conditioning chamber cover CCC is moveable between a first position (shown in broken lines in the drawing), wherein it is disposed away from the base CCB so as to permit advancement of the film F, and a second position (shown in solid lines in the drawing), in which it clamps the base CCB in order to define an enclosed chamber. By means of an inlet CCI, chemically inert,

but compatible conditioning fluid can be introduced into the conditioning chamber SC. Inlet CCI is suitably valved to control the passage of conditioning fluid into the chamber CC. Similarly, a valved outlet CCO is provided in communication with the chamber CC in order to permit conditioning fluid to be withdrawn from the chamber prior to the advancement of the film F. Preferably, a source of compressed air or other gas is provided in communication with inlet CCI in order to blow the conditioning fluid out of the chamber CC upon completion of the conditioning step.

From the conditioning chamber CC, the film F passes to an exposure chamber EC. Exposure chamber EC, which is configured in the same manner as soaking chamber SC, comprises a base ECB that is fixed in position and a cover ECC which is movable between a first position (shown in broken lines in the drawing), in which the cover is disposed away from the film F in order to permit the advancement thereof, and a second position (shown in full lines in the drawing) in which the film F is clamped against the base ECB in order to define the exposure chamber EC. A valved fluid inlet EC[ is provided in order to permit the introduction of conditioning fluid and treatment (i.e., development) fluid, and there is also provided a valved outlet ECO which permits such solutions to be withdrawn from the exposure chamber EC. As in the case of the conditioning chamber, the exposure chamber inlet ECI communicates with a source of compressed air or other gas used for exhausting fluid from the chamber after treatment is completed and before the chamber is opened.

The film F passes from the exposure chamber EC between the drive rollers DR and may be wound, cut, and thereafter handled in any desired manner.

At least part of the exposure chamber cover ECB is transparent in order to permit light to pass therethrough and impinge upon the emulsion of film F, and similarly, the exposure chamber base 'ECB will normally at least in part be fully transparent in order to permit the exposed, developed film and, in some cases, the object to be photographed or holographed to be observed while the film is positioned in the exposure chamber ECB. Moreover, the use of a transparent base ECB permit infrared radiation from a lamp L to be focused on the film plane in the exposure chamber to facilitate a heated treatment step as described above.

In general, the entire arrangement shown in the drawing would (by means not shown) be excluded from light except when it is desired that the film be exposed. If holographic techniques are to be employed, no lens need of course be provided in order to focus an image on the film, but rather a source of coherent light and means for causing an interference pattern between an object and reference beams falling on the film F should be provided, as is well known in the art. Alternatively, if photographic techniques are to be employed, a lens will normally be provided in order to focus an image of the object to be photographed on the film F.

The steps of the process will now be described in detail with reference to the schematic arrangement shown in the drawing. With the film and apparatus arranged as shown in the drawing (i.e., with the conditioning chamber cover and the exposure cover in their full line closed positions), a cycle of operation in accordance with the process of this invention may be initiated by opening the valved outlets, CCC and ECO, so as to exhaust all residual treatment, conditioning or other fluid from the chambers SC and ECC. Emptying of the chambers is preferably facilitated by introducing compressed air or other gas through inlets CCI and ECI at the same time. Thereafter, the covers CCC and ECC are opened to their broken line positions as shown in the drawing. At that point, operation of the drive rollers DR may be initiated so as to cause the film F to advance one frame from the roll FR. The drive rollers DR are only actuated after the covers CCC and ECC have been opened so as to release the pressure on the film. The film frame that has been disposed in the closed conditioning chamber CC has been pre-conditioned by a chemically inert, but compatible, conditioning fluid which was exhausted from the conditioning chamber CC through outlet CCO just prior to film advancement. By subjecting the emulsion side of the film F to the inert conditioning solution, any spatial or other dimensional changes that the fluid causes in the emulsion of the film will have occurred prior to the final positioning of the film F in the exposure chamber EC. As will be described in greater detail hereinafter, the conditioning fluid is chemically inert with reference to the film, and it is also compatible with the subsequently employed treatment fluids. The chemical composition of the soaking fluid will normally be substantially the same as that of the treatment fluid except for the absence of the active developing agents. Thus, since most film developing fluids are aqueous in nature, the soaking fluid normally used in accordance with the preferred practice of the process of this invention will be water. For emulsions in which silver halide particles are suspended in a gelataneous medium, maintaining a constant level of acidity or pH is important since changes in the pH cause the emulsion to swell and shrink at varying rates. Thus, by closely matching pH in the conditioning fluid with the treatment fluid, minimal variations in emulsion thickness occur. By re-introducing conditioning fluid after development, the pH of the emulsion is then substantially identical to the original pl-l. Thus, the film emulsion is prefectly stabilized during the exposure and treatment steps in chamber EC as a result of the conditioning which occurs in chamber CC.

When the film is advanced with the covers ECC and CCC in their open positions, the pre-conditioned emulsion on film F is quickly advanced from the conditioning chamber CC to the exposure chamber EC whereupon the cover ECC is closed in order to provide the defined exposure chamber and to clamp the film in position against the base ECB. v

At the same time, the next frame on the film F is advanced into the conditioning chamber CC and, when the conditioning chamber cover CCC is closed, conditioning fluid once again is introduced through inlet CCl so as to accomplish the conditioning of the next frame on the film F while an already conditioned frame is in position for exposure in the exposure chamber EC. In general, a conditioning period of at least 15 seconds is usually necessary to swell a gelataneous emulsion at the maximum extent provided the emulsion thickness is less than about five ten thousandths of an inch.

As soon as the exposure chamber cover ECC closes over the conditioned film frame, additional compatible conditioning fluid (water in most instances) is introduced through the inlet EC! into the exposure chamber EC under pressure. As will be described in greater detail hereinafter, the conditioning fluid is introduced into the chamber immediately so as to maintain the film emulsion in its conditioned dimensionally stable state,

and in addition, pressure is applied to assure that the film is pressed tightly and uniformly against the base ECB. Since fluid is maintained throughout the exposure and treatment steps in the exposure chamber EC under constant pressure, the physical position of the film and the spatial condition of the emulsion of the film are maintained substantially constant.

The film may then be exposed in a known manner (i.e., by action of a shutter controlling passage of light through the lens which focuses a photographic image onto the film emulsion or by initiation of the laser light used in recording holograms). The exposure initiation can be accomplished automatically by microswitch de vices built into the processor. After exposure is completed, pressurized treatment fluid (i.e., developer) is introduced into the chamber through inlet ECI as the valved outlet ECO is opened so as to permit the conditioning fluid to be removed at the same time. The treatment fluid may be introduced at elevated temperatures so as to speed the development process, or, preferably, as described above, an infrared absorbing dye or other material is present in the treatment solution and infrared radiation is focused on the film plane in the exposure chamber in order to heat the treatment fluid. The spatial position of the film remains the same in the exposure chamber due to the constant pressure exerted by the fluids, and the emulsion thickness is also held constant due to the action of the conditioning fluid. After the treatment is completed, inert conditioning fluid is reintroduced so as to wash the treatment fluid away, and if desired, fixative solution and/or photographic bleaches may be introduced and thereafter flushed away by conditioning fluid, while maintaining the desired pressure conditions.

The normal photographic cycle is completed at this point but the cycle may be repeated by emptying the chambers SC and EC through valves CCC and ECO, opening the covers CCC and ECC and once again advancing the film.

As noted above, the process of this invention may be used with a variety of photographic and holographic processing chemicals. The spirit and scope of the invention is such that, while any sequence and number of fluid chemicals may be incorporated, the film emulsion is maintained in an interferometrically stable condition. For example, suitable conditioning fluids which may be employed to treat the film as it is positioned in the conditioning chamber CC include water and aqueous solutions of additives such as triethanolamine and KO- DAK Photoflow.

Suitable developers include aqueous solutions of sodium sulfite, hydroquinone, sodium hydroxide, and potassium bromide; Elon, sodium sulfite, hydroquinone, monobasic sodium carbonate, and potassium bromide; and KODAK Viscomat, Type 5. In addition, the treatment or development solution preferably comprises an infrared sensitive dye such as aluminum phthalocyanine chloride.

If desired, a fixer comprising an aqueous solution of sodium thiosulphate, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, acetic acid, boric acid, and potassium alum may be employed. If desired, a photographic bleach comprising an aqueous solution of potassium dichromate and hydrochloric acid or an aqueous solution of potassium bromide and mercuric chloride may be used.

As noted, the particular chemical systems employed in the treatment of films processed in accordance with this invention are not critical and any of a variety of processing chemicals may be used in accordance with this invention.

The variety of film-emulsion types with which this process may be used are generally denoted as silverhalide gelatin base types which are coated on polyester or other polymer type material. Specific film types which may be employed include Agfa Gevaert E56; KODAK 649F; and KODAK AHU 5460.

Because of the position of the film F does not change once it is fixed in position in the exposure chamber EC and because the conditioning, development, fixing and other fluids are all introduced into and withdrawn from the exposure chamber EC under constant pressure, high dimensional stability is maintained. This stability is generally of the order of magnitude of ten millionths of an inch using the specific values of pressurization hereinafter described. Furthermore, because the emulsion of the film F is subjected to the pre-conditioning step in the chamber CC, any slight alterations in thickness of the emulsion due to the action of the solvent of the treatment system (i.e., water normally) on the relatively dry emulsion has already occurred. Thus, the spatial orientation of the film remains constant throughout the exposure and development stages of the process.

As previously indicated, one of the prime features of the process of this invention is the fact that the fluids employed within the conditioning chamber CC and the exposure chamber EC (i.e., the conditioning, treatment, fixative, etc.) are maintained under constant pressure so as to spatially stabilize the film F and hold it tightly against the base of the exposure chamber ECB when in position for exposure and treatment.

While any increase in pressure relative to ambient conditions will tend to produce satisfactory results, it

has been empirically found that pressures ranging in the order of magnitude of about 1 to about 2 pounds per square inch in excess of ambient pressure, permit the objectives of this invention to be achieved. It is especially important that the pressure selected be uniform throughout the process of this invention so that the film F in the closed exposure chamber EC is maintained under constant pressure irrespective of the fluid present.

The practice of the process of this invention will now be illustrated by the following specific examples.

EXAMPLE I Utilizing the process of this invention, Agfa Gevaert 10E56 film is pre-conditioned and treated (i.e. developed, fixed and bleached) utilizing the following chem- 8 Boric Acid-Crystals 7.5 grams Potassium Alum l5 grams Photographic Bleach:

Potassium Dichromate grams Hydrochloric Acid (con.) 64 cc Water I000 cc The times for the respective steps are as follows. The preconditioning step is at least 15 seconds in length. After the film is advanced into the exposure chamber, the conditioning fluid is introduced therein and the film is exposed. After the pre-conditioned film is exposed in the exposure chamber, the treatment fluid is introduced into the exposure chamber and is illuminated with infrared light for a period of 10 seconds in order to accomplish development of the film. The speed of development is enhanced by the heating which occurs when the aluminum phthalocyanine chloride dye absorbs the infrared radiation.

Thereafter, the photographic fixer is introduced into the exposure chamber and permitted to remain in the chamber for a period of about 30 seconds. The photographic bleach is then introduced into the chamber and permitted to remain there for a period of about 1 minute, at which point it is washed out of the chamber by additional conditioning fluid. All of the fluids are introduced into the exposure chamber at a pressure of about 1.5 pounds per square inch in excess of ambient conditions. The entire process of pre-conditioning, exposure, treatment, including fixing and bleaching, takes less than 2 minutes.

EXAMPLE II The process of this invention may be carried out with Eastman Kodak No. 649F film utilizing the following chemical agents:

Conditioning Fluid: Water I000 cc Trietlgnglamige 50 cc Treatment Solution: Water 1500 CC Elon 2.0 grams Sodium Sulfite 90 grams Hydroquinone 8 grams Sodium Carbonate (Mono.) 53 grams Potassium Bromide 5 grams Photographic Bleach:

Water I000 cc Potassium Bromide 23 grams Mercuric Chloride 23 grams After pre-conditioning, the film was positioned in the exposure chamber and conditioning fluid is admitted into the chamber. Following exposure of the film in the exposure chamber, the treatment solution is introduced into the exposure chamber and permitted to remain there for a period of about 3 minutes. Thereafter, the photographic bleach is introduced into the chamber as the treatment solution is exhausted therefrom. After the bleach contacts the developed film for about 10 seconds, it is washed away by conditioning fluid. All fluids are supplied to the chamber at a pressure of about 2.0 pounds per square inch in excess of ambient pressure.

EXAMPLE Ill The following example illustrates the use of the process of this invention in the treatment of Eastman Kodak No. AHU 5460 film. The conditioning fluid is a 5 percent aqueous solution of Kodak Photoflow and the treatment solution comprises Kodak" Viscomat 5 containing 0.01 percent aluminum phthalocyanine chloride as an infrared absorbing dye.

After pre-conditioning, the film is positioned in the exposure chamber and conditioning fluid is introduced therein to at a pressure of about 1.0 pound/per square inch in excess of ambient pressure. After exposure, the treatment solution is introduced into the exposure chamber while infrared illumination is directed into the exposure chamber for a period of about seconds. Thereafter, the treatment solution is washed from the exposure chamber with additional conditioning fluid.

As previously noted, the process described by this invention may be used where almost instantaneously processed stable film is required. Among such uses are real time interferometric holography in which it is desired tocompare an object (which may be changing in condition) with a three dimensional image of the object (obtained by reconstruction of the hologram). For these purposes, it is necessary to obtain an almost instantaneously developed, spatially stable hologram in order to permit the three diminsional reference image to be reconstructed at accuracies inside several millions of an inch.

Similarly, conventional photographic applications may make use of the process of this invention. For example, the process may be used in high resolution aerial photography in which it may be desired to have an almost instantaneously developed, spatially stable aerial photography of terrain for meteorological, military, cartographic, or other purposes.

While the foregoing uses should readily demonstrate the wide utility and application for the process of this invention, the scope of this invention should not be understood to be limited to any particular use, but rather should be considered to extend to all possible uses in which it is desired to obtain a rapidly processed, spatially stable, in-place exposed and developed film.

We claim:

1. A method for processing emulsion coated film comprising the steps of:

conditioning the film in a chemically inert, but compatible conditioning fluid such that at least the emulsion side of the film is contacted with the conditioning fluid;

placing the conditioned film in an exposure chamber with the film supported by one side of the exposure chamber on the side of the film opposite the emulsion;

sealing the exposure chamber;

introducing chemically inert, but compatible conditioning fluid into the exposure chamber under pressure so as to provide spatial stability to the film; exposing the film; thereafter introducing treatment fluid into the exposure chamber in order to develop the exposed film, the said treatment fluid being introduced under substantially the same pressure as the soaking fluid so as to maintain the spatial stability of the film, with the treatment fluid comprising a chemically inert, but compatible dye having high infrared spectroscopic absorption; applying heat to the treatment solution in the exposure chamber by focusing infrared radiation of a type absorbed by the dye on the plane of the film in the exposure chamber, whereby the treatment fluid and the film emulsion are heated in order to speed the development of the exposed film; and

thereafter removing the treatment fluid from the exposure chamber and re-introducing conditioning fluid under substantially the same pressure in order to further maintain the spatial stability of the exposed, developed film.

2. A method, as claimed in claim 1, wherein fixative is introduced under substantially the same pressure into the exposure chamber at the same time the treatment fluid is removed therefrom but prior to re-introduction of the conditioning fluid thereinto.

3. A method, as claimed in claim 1, wherein the conditioning fluid, treatment fluid, and other liquids introduced into the exposure chamber are introduced at a pressure in the range of about 1.0 to 2.0 pounds per square inch in excess of ambient pressure.

4. A method, as claimed in claim I, wherein the film to be processed is in roll form.

5. In a process for rapid treatment of emulsion coated film exposed in an exposure chamber, the improvement comprising introducing treatment fluid comprising a dye having high infrared spectroscopic absorption into the chamber while focusing infrared radiation of the type readily absorbed by the dye on the plane of the film in the chamber, thereby to heat the treatment fluid.

6. An improvement, as claimed in claim 5 wherein the film is first exposed in the chamber and is thereafter treated in place in the chamber.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4462668 *Jul 20, 1981Jul 31, 1984Laser Technology, Inc.Hologram apparatus for detecting flaws with developing chamber
US6201594 *Sep 8, 1998Mar 13, 2001Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Image recording apparatus and application device thereof
US8746168Sep 28, 2010Jun 10, 2014Covalon Technologies, Inc.System and method for coating medical devices
US8920886Sep 28, 2010Dec 30, 2014Covalon Technologies, Inc.System and method for coating medical devices
US8967077 *Sep 28, 2010Mar 3, 2015Covalon Technologies, Inc.System and method for coating medical devices
US20110100293 *Sep 28, 2010May 5, 2011Covalon Technologies Inc.System and method for coating medical devices
US20110100294 *Sep 28, 2010May 5, 2011Covalon Technologies Inc.System and method for coating medical devices
USRE37709Jun 5, 1996May 21, 2002Ultrak, Inc.System for recording and modifying behavior of passenger in passenger vehicles
USRE38967Nov 7, 1995Feb 7, 2006K & F Manufacturing, Ltd.Video monitor and housing assembly
DE3138056A1 *Sep 24, 1981May 13, 1982John W NewmanHologrammvorrichtung zum feststellen von materialfehlern
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Classifications
U.S. Classification430/355, 430/494, 396/30, 430/422, 396/440
International ClassificationG03H1/02, G03B17/50, G03B3/00, G03B17/48, G03D5/00
Cooperative ClassificationG03H1/182, G03H1/181, G03H1/02, G03H2227/04, G03D5/003, G03H2270/20, G03H2260/16, G03H2260/30, G03B17/50, G03B3/00
European ClassificationG03H1/02, G03B17/50, G03B3/00, G03D5/00B