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Publication numberUS3740871 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 26, 1973
Filing dateJun 2, 1972
Priority dateJun 2, 1972
Publication numberUS 3740871 A, US 3740871A, US-A-3740871, US3740871 A, US3740871A
InventorsBerton R, Daniel R, Reuter C
Original AssigneeFord Motor Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Crash dummy viscous neck
US 3740871 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 Berton et al.

CRASH DUMMY VISCOUS NECK Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Mich.

Filed: June 2, 1972 Appl. No.: 259,093

Assignee:

US. Cl. 35/17 Int. Cl A6311 9/00 Field of Search 35/17 References Cited UNITED STATES'PATENTS 1/1971 Payne 35/17 June 26, 1973 Primary Examiner-Harland S. Skogquist A tt0rney Keith L. Zerschling and John J. Roethel [5 7] ABSTRACT A simulated neck construction and arrangement is provided for coupling the head structure to the torso structure of an anthropomorphic dummy of the type used in vehicular crash testing. The simulated neck comprises a hydraulic mechanism or control utilizing a hydraulic housing attached to one of the structures and a plate means attached to the other of the structures. A pivot means between the housing means and plate means couples the two for relative tilting movements. A dampening means carried by the housing means and engaged with the plate means controls the tilt or wobble movement of the housing means relative to the plate means and thereby of the head structure relative to the torso structure.

16 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures PAIENIEuJun2s ms 3 740 871 sum 1 or 3 CRASH DUMMY VISCOUS NECK BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION During crash testing of vehicles, anthropomorphic dummies, as disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,557,471, issued Jan. 26, 1971 to P. R. Payne et al. are utilized in an attempt to analyze what might happen to a human occupant of the vehicle under similar conditions. The anthropomorphic dummies are articulated structures which provide for movement of the head and limbs relative to the torso. The neck structures currently available on crash test dummies for supporting the head structure on the torso structure are so constructed and arranged that under crash conditions the head structure snaps violently backward or forward, creating excessive head decelerations not found in human biomechanic testing.

It is an object of the present invention to add a hydraulic mechanism or control to the neck structure so that the crash test effects will more nearly approximate the results obtained from human biomechanic testing.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a neck simulation means for coupling the head structure to the torso structure of an anthropomorphic dummy. The neck simulation means comprises a hydraulic mechanism or control interposed between the torso structure and the head structure for controlling tilting movements of the head structure under excessive deceleration conditions. The hydraulic mechanism or control includes a housing means attached to one of the structures and a plate means attached to the other of the structures. A pivot means between the housing means and the plate means couples the two for relative tilting movements therebetween. A dampening means carried by the housing means and engaged with the plate means controls the tilting movement of the one relative to the other and thereby of the head structure relative to the torso structure.

The dampening means preferably comprises a plurality of piston chambers in the housing means, the piston chambers being spaced in a circle around the pivot means. A corresponding plurality of spring loaded pistons are carried in the piston chambers in plate means engagement. The pistons are under the influence of dampening fluid flowable through passageways communicating with selective piston chambers to provide controlled resistance to movement.

In order to provide for adjustment of the degree of resistance to movement, variable orifice means project into the passageways to permit adjustment of the flow rate of the dampening fluid.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Further features and advantages of the present invention will be made more apparent as this description proceeds, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a front view of an anthropomorphic dummy with a portion of the neck area surface removed in order to illustrate the environment in which the present invention is utilized;

FIG. 2 is a side elevational view also with a portion removed for clarity of illustration;

FIG. 3 is a vertical section through the hydraulic mechanism or control supporting the head structure on the torso structure;

FIG. 4 is a section view on the line 44 of FIG. 3; and

FIG. 5 is a view in part similar to FIG. 3 but with the components of the hydraulic mechanism or control unit inverted to provide a longer neck bend radius for the head structure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring now to the drawings, FIGS. 1 and 2 represent front and side views of an anthropomorphic dummy ll of a type used in vehicle crash testing. The present invention is concerned with the interconnection between the head structure 12 and the upper torso structure 13 of the dummy. This interconnection takes the form of a hydraulic mechanism or control unit, generally designated 14, and shown in greatest detail in FIGS. 3 and 4.

The hydraulic mechanism or control unit 14 comprises a cylindrical housing 15, preferably made of aluminum or equivalent light weight material. As shown in FIG. 3, the base 16 of the housing 15 is supported on a platform 17 adapted in turn to be supported on the upper end of the structure 18 forming the spine and rib cage of the dummy. The upper end of the housing 15 has a centrally located threaded aperture 19 which receives the stud 21 having a ball element 22 projecting upwardly therefrom.

The ball element 22 is received in a socket 23 in a head mounting plate means 24. This mounting plate means 24 is adapted to be attached to a head shape forming or framing member 25 within the dummy head structure 12, see FIGS. 1 and 2.

The mounting plate 24 is preferably a base plate 26 separated from an upper plate 27, to which the head frame 25 is directly attached, by a butyl rubber isolation cushion 28. This eliminates any direct metal to metal contact between the head structure 12 and the upper torso structure 13.

The base plate 26, which may also be known as the socket plate, is provided with a large set screw 29 for applying frictional pressure on the ball element 22. The pressure applied would, of itself, be sufficient to control tilting movement of the head structure 12 relative to the torso structure 13. During a crash test, the head structure 12, however, would snap violently backward or forward creating excessive head decelerations not found in human biomechanics testing.

The present invention utilizes the mounting plate means 24 as a wobble plate means hydraulically controlled by a multiple piston arrangement, in the present case by four pistons 31. The cylindrical housing 15 has a plurality of piston chambers 32, corresponding in number to the pistons. The piston chambers 32 are positioned in the circle about the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical housing 15 and thus about the pivot means 22-23 coupling the mounting plate means 24 to the housing 15.

Each piston 31 has a conical tip portion 33 terminating in a wear tip 34 adapted to about a highly polished circular area 35 of the base or socket plate 26. The pistons 31 are urged into contact with the wobble plate means 24 by springs 36, the springs 36 being used to keep all parts tight and to provide some centering action.

The main dampening action of the head structure movements is achieved through the controlled flow of hydraulic fluid between the piston chambers. As best seen in FIG. 4, each alternate pair of piston chambers 32 is connected by a passageway or conduit 37. Each piston chamber 32 is filled beneath the piston 31 with a viscous fluid. Each communicating passageway is intercepted by an adjustable orifice pin 38. The orifice pin 38 has a threaded body portion 39 through which the depth of the orifice pin projection across the communicating passageway may be adjusted.

Necessary O-rings 41 are provided to act as seals between the pistons 31 and walls of the piston chambers 32. Filling screws 42 at the base of each chamber 32 provides for rapid refill of the chambers if necessary.

In operation, depending upon the direction of application of the deceleration forces to the head structure 12, the wobble plate means 24 will tilt or swivel around the ball element 22. Such movements will be resisted or dampened by compression of the pistons on the down side of the wobble plate. As the pistons 31 are driven toward the bottom of the respective piston chambers 32, hydraulic fluid will be transferred through the metering passageways 37 to the piston chambers on the up side of the wobble plate means 24 thereby causing these pistons to be maintained in constant contact with the wobble plate means 24. With a hydraulic mechanism or control unit disclosed, the head motion may be allowed that is plus or minus 30, or any combination thereof.

The embodiment of the hydraulic mechanism or control unit shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, inclusive, is considered the normal version. FIG. discloses a second embodiment which is considered as an inverted version which provides a longer neck bend radius. It will be noted in this embodiment that the cylindrical housing and piston assmbly is inverted relative to the position shown in FIG. 3. Except for the inversion, this portion of the structure is identical and like reference numerals are used.

In the present or inverted version, the plate 43 against which the piston ends 34 have bearing engagement is a fixed plate means rather than a wobble plate means. The plate 43 is mounted on a platform 44 corresponding to the platform 17 of the previous embodiment. The base 16 of the cylindrical housing now forms a platform receiving the mounting plate means, herein designated 45 The mounting plate means 45 comprises a plate 46 having an upstanding ring 47 welded to its upper surface. Spaced in the plate 46 is a plate 48, corresponding to the plate 27 of FIG. 3, and providing the support to which the head structure 12 is directly bolted. The plate 48 has a depending ring 49 welded to its lower surface. The plates 46 and 48 are bonded to each other by a butyl rubber isolation cushion.

In the present embodiment the cylindrical housing 15 and piston assembly functions as the wobble member. This inverted embodiment provides a convenient way of obtaining a longer neck radius, if desired.

It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the exact construction illustrated and described above, but that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following claims:

We claim:

1. A neck simulation means for coupling the head structure to the torso structure of an anthropomorphic dummy, comprising:

LII

a hydraulic mechanism interposed between the torso structure and the head structure for controlling tilting movements of the head structure under excessive decelerations,

the hydraulic mechanism including a housing means attached to one of the structures and a plate means attached to the other of the structures,

a pivot means between the housing means and the plate means coupling the two for relative tilting movements therebetween,

and dampening means carried by the housing means and engaged with the plate means to control the tilting movements of the one relative to the other and thereby of the head structure relative to the torso structure.

2. A neck simulation means according to claim 1, in

which:

the dampening means comprises a plurality of piston chambers in the housing means,

the piston chambers being spaced in a circle around the pivot means,

a corresponding plurality of spring-loaded pistons in the piston chambers in plate means engagement, and dampening fluid flowable through passage-ways communicating with selective piston chambers to provide controlled resistance to movement.

3. A neck simulation means corresponding to claim 2, in which:

variable orifice means project into the passageways to permit adjustment of the flow rate of the dampening fluid.

4. A neck simulation means for coupling the head structure to the torso structure of an anthropomorphic dummy, comprising:

a hydraulic mechanism interposed between the torso structure and the head structure for controlling tilting movements of the head structure under excessive decelerations,

the hydraulic mechanism including a hydraulic fluid housing attached at one end to one of the structures,

wobble plate means attached to the other of the structures,

pivot means coupling the wobble plate means to the housing,

and viscous dampening means carried by the housing and engaged with the wobble plate means to control tilting movement of the latter about the pivot means and thereby of the head structure relative to the torso structure.

5. A neck simulation means according to claim 4, in

which:

the wobble plate means is attached to the head structure and comprises a socket plate receiving a ball element to form the pivot means and a mounting plate to which the head structure is attached,

the two plates being isolated from metal to metal contact with each other by a rubber isolation section.

6. A neck simulation means according to claim 5, in

which:

the viscous dampening means comprises a plurality of piston chambers in the housing,

the piston chambers being spaced in a circle around the pivot means,

a corresponding plurality of spring-loaded pistons in the piston chambers in wobble plate engagement,

6 and dampening fluid flowable through passageways the pivot means comprises a ball and socket conneccommunicating with alternate piston chambers to tion between the housing means and the support provide controlled resistance to movement of the plate means. pistons against spring means providing the spring 12. A neck simulation means according to claim 11, loading. 5 in which: 7. A neck simulation means according to claim 6, in the mounting plate means comprises two parallel which: spaced plates,

adjustable orifice means in the piston chamber comthe two plates being isolated from metal to metal municating passageways controls the rate of fluid contact with each other by a rubber isolation secflow, 10 tion thereby isolating the head structure from the 8. A neck simulation means according to claim 4, in torso structure. a which: 13. A neck simulation means according to claim 12, the viscous dampening means comprises a plurality in which:

of piston chambers in the housing, the dampening means comprises a plurality of piston the piston chambers being spaced in a circle around chambers in the inverted housing means,

the pivot means, the piston chambers receiving a corresponding plua corresponding plurality of spring-loaded pistons in rality of spring-loaded pistons, i

the piston chambers in wobble plate engagement, the pistons being in abutting relation to the support and dampening fluid flowable through passageways plate means,

communicating with alternate piston chambers to and viscous fluid flowable through passageways comprovide controlled resistance to movement of the municating with alternate piston receiving champistons against spring means providing the springbers to provide controlled resistance to movement loading. of the pistons and thereby of the head structure rel- 9. A neck simulation means according to claim 8, in ative to the torso structure. which: 14. A neck simulation means according to claim 13,

adjustable orifice means in the piston chamber comin which:

municating passageways controls the rate of fluid variable orifice means project into the respective pasflow. sageways to permit adjustment of the flow rate of 10. A neck simulation means for coupling the head the dampening fluid. structure to the torso structure of an anthropomorphic 15. A neck simulation means according to claim 11, dummy, comprising: in which:

a hydraulic mechanism interposed between the torso the dampening means comprises a plurality of piston structure and the head structure for controlling tiltchambers in the inverted housing means, ing movements of the head structure under excesthe piston chambers receiving a corresponding plusive decelerations, rality of spring-loaded pistons, the hydraulic mechanism including an inverted housthe pistons being in abutting relation to the support ing means, plate means, a mounting means attaching the head structure to the and viscous fluid flowable through passageways combase of the inverted housing means, municating with alternate piston receiving chama support plate means attached to the torso structure, bers to provide controlled resistance to movement pivot means coupling the inverted housing means to of the pistons and thereby of the head structure relthe plate means, ative to the torso structure. and dampening means carried by the housing means 16. A neck simulation means according to claim 15,

and engaged with the plate means yieldably conin which: trolling tilting movement of the head structure relavariable orifice means project into the respective pastive to the torso structure. sageways to permit adjustment of the flow rate of 11. A neck simulation means according to claim 10, the dampening fluid. in which:

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3841163 *Jun 8, 1973Oct 15, 1974Ford Motor CoTest dummy submarining indicator system
US3877156 *Apr 29, 1974Apr 15, 1975Itoh KazuNeck component in anthropomorphic test dummy
US4395235 *Feb 2, 1982Jul 26, 1983The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyFour pivot linkage to simulate head/neck kinematics
US4580985 *Feb 20, 1985Apr 8, 1986Dave RedenbaughSimulator device for demonstrating the benefits of wearing a seat belt
US4850877 *Jan 20, 1987Jul 25, 1989Donjoy, Inc.Method of determining stress effects in components of the human knee and anthropomorphic leg device therefor
US5018977 *Apr 21, 1989May 28, 1991Dynamic Research, Inc.Motorcycle accident simulating test dummy
US6089873 *May 5, 1999Jul 18, 2000Baby Think It Over, Inc.Method for training a person to properly support the head of a young infant
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US6997718Jun 18, 2003Feb 14, 2006Realityworks, Inc.Infant simulator with floppy neck assembly having a full range of motion
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US8197259Dec 8, 2009Jun 12, 2012Birth Injury Prevention, LlcObstructed delivery simulation system
US8419438Aug 31, 2011Apr 16, 2013Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc.Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US8678832Apr 6, 2012Mar 25, 2014Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc.Interactive education system for teaching patient care
US8696362Dec 7, 2007Apr 15, 2014Gaumard Scientific Company, Inc.Interactive education system for teaching patient care
CN1039882C *Oct 30, 1992Sep 23, 1998索雷马特克有限公司A jointed plaything, for example in the form of a small animal or doll
EP0539911A1 *Oct 27, 1992May 5, 1993Soremartec S.A.A jointed plaything, for example in the form of a small animal or doll
EP2072991A1 *Dec 21, 2007Jun 24, 2009Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast- natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek TNODummy for simulating human physical behaviour, method for simulating human physical behaviour.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification434/267
International ClassificationA63H3/46, A63H3/00
Cooperative ClassificationA63H3/46, A63H3/003
European ClassificationA63H3/46, A63H3/00C