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Publication numberUS3740884 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 26, 1973
Filing dateMar 23, 1971
Priority dateMar 23, 1971
Publication numberUS 3740884 A, US 3740884A, US-A-3740884, US3740884 A, US3740884A
InventorsWilhelm G
Original AssigneeWilhelm G
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Firearm
US 3740884 A
Images(5)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [1 1 Wilhelm FIREARM [76] Inventor: Gary Wilhelm, 55 Kelly Road,

Hamden, Conn. 06518 [22] Filed: Mar. 23, 1971 [21] Appl. No.: 127,324

[52] 11.8. CI. 42/17, 42/49 A [51] Int. Cl. F4lc 13/00 [58] Field of Search 42/17, 49 R, 49 A; 89/191 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1 428,813 5/1890 Leineweber 42/17 2,146,941 2/1939 Crockett 42/17 2,719,375 10/1955 Crittendon et al.... 42/17 2,887,808 5/1959 Jansen et a1. 42/17 1,900,818 3/1933 Jagcr 42/17 2,127,838 8/1938 Browning 42/49 R FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 702,383 2/1941 Germany 42/17 Primary Examiner-Benjamin A. Borchelt Assistant Examiner-C. T. Jordan Attorney-Beveridge & De Grandi 11] 3,740,884 June 26, 1973 [57] ABSTRACT A rifle has a cartridge-elevating mechanism located within a housing which is detachable from the rifle. The cartridge elevating mechanism may be a lifter mechanism for receiving cartridges from a tubular magazine and elevating them into the path of a sliding bolt for eventual movement into the firing chamber. Such a lifter mechanism and its housing may be interchangeable with a box magazine type of cartridge elevating mechanism. The housing of either type of cartridge elevating mechanism is biased rearwardly into firm engagement with a stationary abutment surface so as to position the cartridge elevating mechanism.

Flat action bars are connected to the bolt and have their forward 'ends pivotally connected to an axially slidable member. The lower edges of the action bars are provided with downwardly open cutaway portions which provide cam surfaces for operating the lifter mechanism. On the upper edge of the action bars, there is a forwardly facing inclined abutment surface which is engagable with a latch means having a corresponding rearwardly-facing surface to hold the action bars and the bolt in a rearward breech-open position.

6 Claims, 15 Drawing Figures PATENTEDauuzs 192s SHEET 1 0F 5 INVENTOR GARY WiLHELM PATENTEUJUHZB I973 3. 740.884

SHEET 3 0F 5 FIGS PATENTEU JUN 26 \973 sum 5 or 5 FIGB FIREARM This invention relates to firearms and includes a number of features which are most suitable for utilization in a 22 caliber rifle which has a sliding bolt.

Conventional semi-automatic .22 caliber rifles have used either tubular magazines or box magazines for holding a supply of cartridges. Neither gun manufacturers nor purchasers have been able to readily make conversions between tubular magazine rifles and box magazine rifles. As is well known, a tubular magazine usually lies parallel to and under the barrel and is provided with an internal spring for urging the axially aligned cartridges therewithin in a rearward direction. At the rear terminus of the tubular magazine, there is a lifter mechanism which includes a pivotally mounted device for receiving cartridges from the tubular magazine and elevating them into the path of the rifles axially slidable bolt. Forward movement of the bolt brings it into engagement with the cartridge and produces forward movement of the cartridge into the firing chamber.

Another type of cartridge-elevating mechanism used in rifles are box magazines which are adapted to hold a number of vertically stacked cartridges. A spring within the magazine housing biases the cartridges upwardly into the path of the forwardly moving bolt. Once in the path of the bolt, the cartridge is forced by the bolt into the firing chamber, substantially in the same manner as was described in connection with the tubular magazine rifles mentioned above. It is then fired, extracted from the firing chamber with rearward movement of the bolt and then ejected from the bolt.

Prior art rifles have conventionally had a number of other features which are susceptible to improvement by adoption of the construction disclosed in this specification. Such prior features have involved the provision of an actuator for the breech hold-open latch at a relatively inconvenient position on the receiver; a somewhat complicated method of connecting the lifteroperating elements to the bolt; the availability of only a single pivot location for the trigger lever so as to prevent convenient adjustment of trigger sensitivity without changing the spring tension in the trigger mechanism; the construction of safety mechanisms for disabling the hammer, with the actuating button for the safety being operable from only one side of the rifle to move it to or from its hammer-disabling position; the particular type of elevation adjustment provided in prior sights; and, the manner in which the forearm is connected to the rifle, usually requiring two or more threaded fasteners.

According to one aspect of the present'invention, a lifter mechanism is mounted in a housing which is detachably connected to the firearm to permit its removal for cleaning, replacement with another lifter mechanism or replacement with a box magazine.

The invention also pertains to the manner of holding any type of cartridge elevating mechanism to the rifle by utilizing a resilient member which biases the housing for the cartridge-elevating mechanism in a rearward direction against a stationary abutment surface which is fixed with respectto the firing chamber and the boltsupporting elements. This results in positive positioning of the cartridge-elevating mechanism, reduces the criticality of tolerances required and minimizes the possibility that the mechanism will become jammed during operations.

Another phase of the invention, specific to embodiments where lifter mechanisms are used, is the provision of action bars which are connected to the bolt and extend forwardly on the opposite sides of the lifter mechanism. The undersurfaces of the action bars are cutaway to provide cam surfaces which engage a camfollower on the lifter mechanism. Preferably, the action bars are pivotally connected to a guided axially-slidable member at their forward end and have upwardly extending projections at their rear ends which are received within corresponding recesses in the bolt.

The action bars also may be provided with upper surfaces which are shaped to provide abutments for a breech hold-open latch. The breech hold-open mechanism includes an actuator which lies centrally above the barrel where it may conveniently be operated, and a pair of depending latch portions which are movable into the path of the abutment surfaces where they will hold the bolt in its rearward or breech-open position.

Another inventive feature of the disclosed firearm involves the construction of the trigger lever and the housing which supports it. Different sets of openings are provided for receiving the trigger pivot pin so that the trigger pivot pin may be changed from one set of openings to another set in order to change the fulcrum point of the trigger lever and provide sensitivity adjustment for the mechanism.

Still another feature of the disclosed firearm is the provision of a hammer-disabling safety mechanism which includes actuators located on both sides of the firearm, preferably in the vicinity of the trigger. The sportsman may shift the safety mechanism back-andforth between its engaged and disengaged positions from either side of the firearm, thereby permitting convenient operation by either left-handed or right-handed users.

Another feature relates to the construction of the rear sight which includes an axially elongated support member pivotally connected to the barrel assembly. The portion of the support member which lies rearwardly of the sight pivot axis carries a sighting marking and bears downwardly against a spacer which is axially movable between a series of transverse spacerreceiving notches. A resilient portion of the support member lies forwardly of the pivot axis and bears downwardly against the barrel in order to cause the rear portion of the support member to bear against and retain the spacer member.

Still another feature of the invention relates to the connection between the forearm and the remainder of the firearm, whereby an axially oriented pin and recess provide the positioning between the receiver and the forearm, and a single threaded fastener connects the axial mid-portion of the forearm to the barrel assembly to hold it in proper position.

A preferred form of the invention is described in the following portions of the specification and in the accompanying drawings wherein FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a .22 caliber rifle constructed according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the mid-portion of the rifle, with the forearm being cutaway to illustrate its supporting structure and mechanisms enclosed thereby;

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of the midportion of the rifle showing the bolt in its forward position;

FIG. 4 is similar to FIG. 3 but shows the bolt in its rearward position and the buttstock removed therefrom;

FIG. 5 is a view, partially in section, showing the firing mechanism and the manner in which a cartridge elevating mechanism is retained;

FIG. 6 is an exploded view of the elements enclosed within the receiver, including the bolt assembly and the cartridge-elevating mechanism;

FIG. 7 is a side elevation of the cartridge-elevating lifter mechanism, showing it in a position where the cartridge-supporting surface thereof holds the cartridge in its upper position in the path of a forwardly moving bolt;

FIG. 8 is a sectional view through the lifter mechanism of FIG. 7 showing it in a lower position where it receives cartridges from the tubular magazine;

FIG. 9 shows a modified type of cartridge-elevating assembly suitable for use within the housing shown in FIGS. 7 and 8;

FIG. 10 is a partially sectional view through the bolt, showing the firing pin and extractor construction enclosed therewithin;

FIG. 11 is a sectional view taken along the line 1 1 11 in FIG. 1, showing the actuator and latching element for the breech hold-open mechanism;

FIG. 12 is a transverse sectional view seen along the line 12-12 in FIG. 1 showing the pivotal connection of the side element to the barrel and the connection of the forearm to the barrel assembly;

FIG. 13 shows a box magazine which has the same external dimensions as the lifter mechanism shown in FIGS. 7 and 8;

FIG. 14 is the view seen along the line l4-14 in FIG. 2, showing the particular connection between the elements of the rear sight; and

FIG. 15 is a view seen along the line l515 in FIG. 5 to illustrate the relationship between the sear bar and the sear of the firing mechanism.

Many types of firearms may utilize the principles of this invention; however, for purposes of this specification, the invention will be described with respect to a 0.22 caliber rifle which is a preferred form thereof.

The disclosed firearm operates in a conventional fashion, in the sense that the bolt is spring biased to its forward breech-closed position where it holds a cartridge in the firing chamber. Firing of a cartridge creates a reaction force, delivered through the cartridge case against the bolt, to drive the bolt rearwardly. Such rearward movement drives the bolt against the firing hammer and moves the hammer to a cocked position. Rearward movement of the bolt also actuates an ejector mechanism which expells the spent case from the cartridge-receiving counterbore of the bolt and, in the case of semi-automatic firearms, this rearward movement strikes a sear bar in the trigger linkage to disconnect automatically the trigger from the hammerreleasing portions of the trigger mechanism. In rifles which utilize a tubular magazine, rearward movement of the bolt also operates a cartridge feeding mechanism termed a lifter mechanism. In response to rearward movement of the bolt, the lifter mechanism moves a cartridge-supporting body from a lower position where it is in cartridge-receiving alignment with the tubular magazine to an upper position where it is in cartridgedischarging alignment with the firing chamber. This cartridge-discharging alignment involves the positioning of a cartridge so that an upper edge of its rim lies in the path of the bolt so that forward movement of the bolt will drive the cartridge forwardly and upwardly into the firing chamber. Forward movement of the bolt also produces downward movement of the cartridge supporting body of the lifter mechanism to its lower position where it is in cartridge-receiving alignment with the tubular magazine.

The external appearance of the firearm is illustrated in FIG. 1 where it will be seen that an axially extending barrel 2 is connected at its rear firing chamber end to a receiver 4 which, in turn, is connected to a conventional butt-stock 6. A foresight 8 is located at the forward end of the barrel 2 and a novel rear sight assembly 10 is attached to the barrel immediately above the wooden forearm 12. A tubular magazine 14 is maintained in a position parallel to the barrel 2 by spacers members such as the one depicted at 16 in FIG. 1.

The buttstock 6 is connected to the receiver 4 by an elongated axially extending bolt 7 which is shown in broken lines in FIG. 1 and is illustrated in greater detail in FIG. 3. A conventional slotted screw head is exposed at the rear end of the buttstock 6 for convenient access when disassembling the firearm.

Referring to FIG. 3, it will be seen that the barrel 2 is received in a counterbore 9 of the receiver 4 and it is retained in position by a transverse lock pin 11 located at the rear or firing chamber end of the barrel 2. An axially extending passage 13 is located in the rear portion of the receiver in axial alignment with the barre] 2 so that a cleaning rod may easily be inserted into the rear end of the barrel when the bolt assembly and buttstock are removed from the firearm.

The particular manner in which the forearm 12 is connected to the firearm constitutes one of the novel aspects of the invention and is best illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 12. The forearm 12 has a horizontal base portion 15 and vertical side portions 17 which form a U-shaped transverse cross section. The vertical side portions thereof extend rearwardly of the horizontal base portion as shown by the broken line 21 in FIG. 2. At the rear edge of the horizontal base portion 15, there is a single axially oriented recess 19 for receiving an axially oriented pin 23 which extends from and is attached to the receiver 4. The vertical movement of the rear portion of the forearm 12 is prevented by the engagement between pin 23 and recess 19. Rotational movement of the forearm about the pin 23 is prevented by the close engagement between the exterior surfaces of the receiver 4 and the vertical sidewalls at the rear end of the forearm. Such rotational movement is also prevented by the screw 25 which extends upwardly through a forward portion of the forestock as shown in FIGS. 2 and 12. The screw 25 is threadedly connected to the spacer member 186 in order to hold the forearm securely to the barrel assembly.

Below the receiver 4, a trigger 20 is enclosed within a conventional trigger guard 18. A manually operated safety actuator 22 disables the hammer mechanism in a manner described in detail later in this specification.

A bolt handle 26 projects through an ejection port 24 in the receiver 4 to permit manual retraction of the bolt to its rearward breech-open position. A latching structure for holding the bolt in the breech-open position is located at 28, above the barrel and forwardly of the receiver 4 where it may conveniently be operated by the same hand which holds the forearm 12.

As previously mentioned, the disclosed firearm is a semi-automatic firearm which utilizes an axially slidable bolt. Referring to FIGS. 3 and 6, it will be understood that the bolt 30 is supported for sliding movement by the upper edges 32 and 34 of plates 36 and 38 which also serve as the housing sidewalls for the hammer mechanism. The bolt has depending guide portions 40 and 42 which lie laterally outside of and confront the exterior surfaces of the plates 36 and 38 to constrain the bolt for its axial sliding movement. The bolt handle 26 which extends from the receiver housing is located within a transverse groove 44 on the upper surface of the bolt 30 and is connected thereto by a pin 46 which is received by aligned apertures in the bolt handle member 26 and the bolt 30. The upper surface of the bolt handle mates with corresponding grooves in the upper interior surface of the receiver 4 in order to ensure that the bolt handle maintains its desired position with respect to the bolt.

The lifter mechanism in the firearm disclosed herein is generally designated 50 in FIG. 6. It is actuated by action bars 52 and 54 which are connected to the bolt 30 for axial movement therewith. As shown in FIG. 2, a pin 55 pivotally connects the forward ends of both action bars to a slider 57 which is axially movable over the exterior surface of the tubular magazine 14. A helical compression spring 59 encircles the tubular magazine 14 and bears against the slider 57 to bias the action bars 52 and 54 and the bolt 30 forwardly to a breechclosed position. Since the action bars 52 and 54 are identical in construction and operation, only the action bar 54 will be described in detail.

The action bar 54 rides between the plate 38 and the interior of the right sidewall of the receiver 4. The rear end of the action bar 54 has an upwardly extending portion 56 which includes a rearwardly directed axial extension 58. A similarly configured slot or recess 60 is located on the depending guide portions 40 and 42 of the bolt 30. This, of course, results in a locked-in relationship between the action bars and the bolt 30 when these elements are maintained at their normal orientation within the receiver 4.

Actuation of the lifter mechanism 50 by the action bars is performed by an inclined cam surface 62 which engages a cam follower pin 64 of the lifter mechanism. The cam follower pin 64 is normally biased to an upward position and is urged downwardly by cam surface 62 in response to forward movement of the bolt 30 to the breech-closed position. Similarly, rearward movement of the action bar 54 actuates the lifter movement to elevate the cartridge-supporting body as the cam follower pin 64 rides upwardly on the cam surface 62. In the event of possible sticking of the lifter mechanism, a second cam surface 66 is provided on the action bar to produce the cartridge-elevating movement in the lifter mechanism.

As seen in FIG. 6, the lifter assembly 50 includes a plastic forward wall element 68 and a unitary piece of metal bent to form a rear wall 70 and sidewalls 72 and 74. A bottom wall 76 completes the housing. The upper edge of the housing is notched at 78 and 80, with the spaced apart edges 82 and 84 being dimensioned to prevent the rim of a cartridge from passing therebetween. Rearwardly of the notches 78 and 80, there are inturned lips which are spaced so that the rear flange portion of a cartridge, when urged upwardly thereagainst, will project above the lips and lie in the path of the forwardly moving bolt 30. Axial notches seen on the undersurface of the bolt 30 in FIG. 6 serve to prevent the bolt from striking the cartridge-holding lips.

As best shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, the lifter mechanism within the housing includes a pair of pivotally interconnected members which permit the lifter mechanism to occupy a relatively small axial dimension and also minimize the relative inclination of the cartridge-supporting body between its lower and upper position.

The first lever in the linkage between the cam follower pin 64 and a cartridge is the thin planar lifter member 86 which is pivotally connected to the lifter housing by a pin 88. The member 86 lies laterally midway between the sidewalls 72 and 74. The cam follower pin 64 extends laterally beyond the sidewalls of the lifter housing and is connected to and movable with the lifter member 86. The lifter member 86 is biased for upward pivotal movement about the pin 88 by a spring 90 which is retained in position by a pin 92 passing through the sidewalls of the lifter housing.

The second lever in the lifter mechanism is the cartridge support body itself which is designated 94 in the drawings. This body 94 has transverse dimensions which are slightly less than the interior spacing between the housing sidewalls 72 and 74, and it has a deep vertical groove in its undersurface to accommodate the lifter member 86. The cartridge support body 94 is pivotally connected to the lifter member 86 by a pin 98. A compression spring acts to produce clockwise movement of the cartridge support body 94 about pin 98. The spring 100 has its upper end received in a downwardly facing recess in the cartridge support body 94 and has its lower end bearing on the upper edge 102 of the lifter member 86. The extent of such clockwise movement is limited by means of a rearward extension 104 on the cartridge support body 94 which normally abuts the pin 88 when the cartridge support body is in its lower position as shown in FIG. 8.

The tubular magazine 14 is conventional in the sense that it has a pair of telescopically related tubular members, the interior one of which carries a compression coil spring with a follower which urges the cartridges into the lifter mechanism. A J-slot bayonet joint interconnects the forward ends of the tubular bodies to maintain the coil spring under compression so that it will exert a rearward force against the enclosed cartridges, tending to drive them into the lifter mechanism.

When the lifter mechanism assumes its lower position which is illustrated in FIG. 8, the rearwardmost cartridge is forced under spring pressure onto the cartridge supporting surface 96 of the cartridge support body 94 as shown in FIG. 8. Rearward movement of the cartridge is arrested by the upwardly extending stop portion 108 of the lifter member 86. Throughout this operation, the bolt 30 is in its forward or breech-closed position and the lifter element 86 is held downwardly against the biasing force of spring 90 by the undersurface of the action bars 52 and 54. When the bolt 30 moves rearwardly, either under the influence of the reactive force of firing or manual retraction of the bolt handle 26, the cam follower pin 64 is permitted to move upwardly, thereby swinging the lifter member 86 and the cartridge support body 94 upwardly about the pivot pin 88. During such upward swinging movement, the cartridge rim first strikes the intum lips at the upper edge of the lifter housing. Further movement about the pin 88 presses the rear portion of the surface 96 downwardly, compresses the spring 100 and rotates the cartridge support body 94 about the pin 98. This rotation is relative to the lifter element 86 and it is counterclockwise as viewed in FIGS. 7 and 8. When the cartridge finally arrives at its uppermost position as shown in FIG. 7, the upper surfaces thereof contact the housing lips at 110 and 112 as shown in FIG. 7. The lower surfaces of the cartridge rests on the upper surface 96 of cartridge support body 94 at the areas 114 and 116.

In its upper position, the uppermost portion of the cartridge rim extends above the lips and lies in the path of the bolt 30 moving to its forward or breech-closed position. Such movement of the bolt engages the cartridge rim and drives the nose of the cartridge up an inclined ramp surface 101. The rim is wider than the cartridge housing where it strikes the surface 120 and therefore it is elevated into substantial parallelism with the bore and into the firing chamber. When the bolt arrives at its breech-closed position, the cartridge rim is seated in a counterbore 120 of the bolt which is best shown in FIG. 10.

A modified form of lifter mechanisms is illustrated in FIG. 9. In this arrangement, the lifter element 86 is identical to the lifter element 86 in FIGS. 7 and 8, except for the presence of a vertically elongated aperture 109 which receives the retaining pin 111 of the cartridge support body 94'. The lifter element 86' is connected to the lifter housing by a pivot pin 88' and its movement between the lower cartridge-receiving position and the upper cartridge-discharging position is affected by the cam surface on the action bars which contact the cam follower pin 64. When the mechanism is in its lower or cartridge-receiving orientation, the pin 111 is located at the uppermost end of the elongated slot 109 due to the upward resilient biasing force exerted upon the cartridge support body 94' by the springs 113 and 115. The upward movement of the rear end of the body 94 is limited by the pin 88 which lies in the path of the extension 104.

When the lifter mechanism of FIG. 9 is raised to its cartridge-discharging position, the member 94 is subjected to forces created by the contact between the cartridge and the upper edges of the lifter mechanism housing. These forces produce compression of the springs 113 and 115 and cause the member 94 to assume an orientation wherein the cartridge is properly positioned in the lips of the lifter mechanism much in the same manner as was described in connection with FIG. 7. In both embodiments, the disclosed lifter mechanisms serve to minimize the relative inclinations of a cartridge between its lower and upper positions so that the relative inclination is less than the angular movement of the lifter elements 86 or 86'. This, of course, permits the foreshortening of the lifter mechanism so that it may occupy the same axial space as the box magazine illustrated in FIG. 13.

One important feature of the disclosed firearm involves the removability of the lifter mechanism for cleaning or for replacement with another lifter mechanism or a box magazine. Such removability is convenient to a firearm manufacturer, a retailer or the ultimate user since it gives considerable versatility to the firearm. As illustrated in FIG. 5, there are two elements which hold the lifter mechanism in position. Once such element is the latch 174 which is pivotally mounted on a pin 176 and biased for forward movement by a compression spring 178. The latch has an upwardly facing abutment shoulder which underlies the rear edge of the bottom plate 76 of the lifter mechanism to hold the rear portion of the lifter mechanism at a correct elevation with respect to the path of the bolt.

The correct axial position of the lifter housing is established by the abutment of its rear wall with a stationary abutment surface and by rearward resilient forces created thereagainst by a retainer means which preferably but not essentially is the rear end portion of the tubular magazine 14 which is received within a mating counterbore in the forward wall of the lifter housing. The rearward biasing of the tubular magazine is produced by the structure shown in FIG. 2 where a helical coil spring 184 is concentric with and surrounds the tubular magazine. The spring 184 bears forwardly against a member 186 attached to the barrel and rearwardly against a member 188 attached to the tubular magazine. The member 188 is U-shaped in transverse cross section and is held at a fixed axial position on the tubular magazine by a pin 190 which extends through both legs of member 188 and partially into the wall of the tubular magazine. An important advantage which is attributable to the rearwardly acting retaining means for the lifter mechanism housing is that it reduces the dimensional criticality normally required to ensure that a cartridge-elevating device is properly positioned, in that it drives the cartridge-elevating device rearwardly against the stationary surface which is fixed with respect to the firing chamber and the path of the bolt. This, of course, not only simplifies the manufacturing techniques but reduces the possibility that a gum will jam due to misalignment of the various elements.

One desirable aspect of the removable lifter mechanism is that it permits the lifter mechanism to be interchanged with a box magazine of the type shown in FIG. 13. The upper lips of the box magazine are identical to those of the lifter mechanism, as are the exterior dimensions of their housings. The principal difference between these two types of cartridge-elevating mechanisms is that the box magazine elevates a vertical stack of parallel cartridges under the influence of a spring and a cartridge-follower rather than by the pivoted lifter mechanism of the type shown in FIGS. 7 and 8.

The box magazine of FIG. 13 has the same exterior dimensions as the lifter mechanism and may be provided with a forwardly facing socket portion 119 which receives the rearwardly biased rear end portion of the tubular magazine 14. This holds the forward end of the housing for the cartridge elevating mechanism in proper lateral and vertical position. Its rear end is maintained in proper axial position by abutment against a stationary wall and in proper vertical position by the retaining means 174 precisely in the same manner as was shown in FIG. 5 in connection with the lifter mechanism.

The versatility which is provided by interchangeable box magazines and lifter mechanisms will be apparent. Gun manufacturers, distributors and retailers may sell substantially the same rifle to customers who prefer either tubular magazine loading or box magazine loading. Total differences in design between such firearms is not necessary but has been conventional practice in the past. The invention also makes it possible for an individual sportsman to use the tubular magazine or the lifter mechanism as his preferences change. In either event, the rearward biasing of the cartridge-elevating device promotes accurate alignment of the various elements and reduces the possibility of jamming.

Another important aspect of the disclosed apparatus pertains to the mechanism for holding the bolt in its retracted or breech-open position. This mechanism will be understood from FIGS. 2-4 and 11. The action bars 52 and 54 serve as forward extension members of the bolt 30. Both action bars are provided with a configured upper edge which provides a forwardly and upwardly inclined abutment surface 191.

Normally, the bolt 30 and the action bars 52 and 54 are held forwardly under the influence of spring 59. In certain instances, however, it is desirable to hold the bolt 30 in its rearward position so that the breech will be open. In the disclosed firearm, the breech is held open by means of a latching member 28 which is shown in FIG. 11 to have an inverted U-shaped member with the upper horizontal portion 193 thereof serving as a manually engageable actuator and the vertical legs 192 and 194 thereof extending downwardly along opposite sides of the barrel 2. Both legs 192 and 194 terminate in lower rearwardly facing latch surfaces 196. These surfaces are also upwardly and forwardly inclined and are movable into the path of the abutment surfaces 191 on the action bars. Such movement is accomplished by pressing downwardly on the surface 193 to compress the compression spring 198 and lower the latch surface 196 into the path of the forwardly biased abutment surface 191. The latch member is maintained in constant axial position with respect to the barrel by means of a pin 20] which extends through vertically elongated holes 203 and 205 in the vertical legs of the latch member. The relative strengths of the springs 59 and 198 are such that the abutment surface 191 will hold the latch surface 196 in its downward position until the bolt is manually retracted.

Referring to FIG. 10, it will be seen that the bolt carries an extractor mechanism for engaging the cartridge rim to permit pulling of the spent cartridge case from the firing chamber. This extractor mechanism includes an extractor member 122 with a claw portion 124 which normally lies forwardly of an edge of the rim-receiving counterbore 120. The extractor member 122 is rockably mounted and is abutted at its rear surface by an extractor plunger 126 which is under the influence of a compression spring 128 which serves to retain the member 122 and bias it to the position shown in FIG. 10.

The bolt as shown in FIG. also includes a member 130 which serves as a firing pin and an ejector. It is axially slidable relative to the bolt, with its rearward position being limited by an abutment pin 132 which strikes a shoulder 134 on the firing pin member 130. The firing pin member 130 is biased toward its rearwardmost position by a compression spring 136. When in this position, the rim-striking portion 138 is spaced slightly rearwardly of the base of the rim-receiving counterbore 120, and the rear surface 140 of the firing pin member 130 extends slightly rearwardly of the bolt 30. The hammer of the firing mechanism strikes the surface 140 and drives the firing pin member 130 forwardly so that the rim striking portion 138 thereof will detonate a cartridge in the firing chamber. Such detonation produces the reactive rearward movement of the bolt 30 and the spent case which is held in the counterbore 120 by the claw 124. As the bolt moves further in a rearward direction, the rear extension 142 of the member 130 has its surface 144 strike the rear interior wall of the receiver 4, thereby moving the member 130 forwardly relative to the bolt 30 to cant the cartridge rim in the counterbore and release it from the claw 124. In this manner, the firing pin member acts as an ejector since it releases the spent cartridge case from the retracting bolt and causes expulsion of the case through the ejection port 24.

The hammer-actuating mechanism is shown in FIGS. 5 and 15 and includes a trigger lever 146 which is linked by a sear bar 148 to the sear 150. The sear 150 is pivoted about a stationary pin 151 and has an upper edge 152 which engages the firing notch in the hammer 154 in a conventional manner to retain the hammer in its retracted or cocked position. The hammer 154 is pivotally mounted about the pin 156 which is stationary and supported by the plates 36 and 38 shown in FIG. 6. A compression spring 158 exerts an upward biasing force through rod 160 and a pivotal connection 162 to the hammer element 154, thereby biasing the hammer to its forward or firing pin striking position. In a conventional manner, movement of the sear about pivot pin 151 will release the hammer and permit it to strike the surface 140 of the firing pin. Adjustments in the sensitivity of the trigger mechanism are readily made simply by changing the location of the pivot pin 164. This pivot pin may selectively be placed in any of the sets of transversely aligned openings 165 in the sidewalls 36 and 38 (see FIG. 3) and through an associated aligned aperture 167 in the trigger lever.

When the hammer actuating mechanism is in the position illustrated in FIG. 5, the hammer is released by pulling rearwardly on the finger-engaged portion 20 of the trigger lever 146, thereby pivoting the trigger lever about the stationary pin 164 and driving the sear forwardly due to its pivotal connection with the trigger lever at 166. The nose 168 of the sear bar then pushes the upper lateral extension 170 of the sear forwardly, thereby rotating the sear in a counterclockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 5 to release the surface 152 from the trigger notch of the hammer 154. This, of course, permits the hammer to drive forwardly under the influence of springs 158, striking the firing pin 140 to detonate a cartridge in the firing chamber.

Rearward movement of the bolt causes disengagement between the trigger 146 and the sear 150. As will be seen from FIG. 15, this occurs because the nose 168 of the sear bar is lowered below the upper lateral extension 170 of the sear. Even when the bolt 30 returns to its forward position, such disengagement will persist until the trigger is released since the nose 168 will underlie the lateral extension 170 of the sear due to the forward movement of the sear bar. When the trigger is released and after the bolt has returned to its forward position shown in FIG. 5, the sear bar is moved upwardly and rearwardly under the influence of a spring (not shown) so that the guide portion 172 of the sear bar will restore the nose portion 168 thereof to its position immediately behind the lateral sear extension 170. Depression of the trigger at this point will again release the hammer.

One of the novel features of the disclosed firearm is the safety mechanism which is constructed so as to be operable from either side of the firearm, thereby facilitating its convenient use by left handed or right handed sportsmen. This safety mechanism is best illustrated in FIG. 5 where solid lines show it in its disengaged position and broken lines show it in its engaged position where it disables the hammer releasing mechanism.

The safety is formed of a single piece of sheet material which is generally U-shaped in a horizontal plane and has rearwardly extending legs which are pivotally connected to the trigger housing by a transverse pin 232. Each of the legs of the safety member has a downward and outward extension which constitute the two manually operable actuators which are shown at 22 and 27 in FIGS. 2 and 5, respectively. The forward extension 234 of the safety member is best shown in FIG. 5 and is movable into abutment with the rear surface of a lower extension of the sear 150. When there is such engagement, it will be evident that the sear is prevented from making the hammer-releasing movement; however, when the safety member is moved to its downward or disengaged position, the forward extension 234 is clear of the sear and movement of the sear is permitted to release the hammer. Positive retention of the safety in either of its positions may be ensured by providing a stationary projection which will releasably engage in either of two small spaced apart holes in each of the slightly resilient legs of the safety member. This particular safety mechanism is desirable both due to its uncomplicated nature and due to the convenience of operation which it provides either left handed or right handed sportsmen since the safety may be either engaged or disengaged from either side of the firearm.

The novel rear sight assembly is best illustrated in FIGS. 1, 2, l2 and 14. This sight structure includes a flat, axially elongated sight support member 200 which has a pair of downturned ears 202 and 204 which are connected to the gun barrel 2 by means of a transverse pivot pin 206 as shown in FIG. 12. Forwardly of the pivot pin 206, a resilient portion 208 bears against the barrel and tends to bias the sight support member 200 for movement in a counterclockwise direction as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 2. The sight element 210 is located at the rear end of the support member 200 and is provided with a notch 212 or other sighting marking which is adapted to be centrally aligned with the barrel of the firearm. Threaded fasteners 214 and 216 are connected to a member 218 to retain the sight element 210 in position on the sight support member 200.

As seen in FIG. 14, the fasteners 214 and 216 pass through transversely elongated open-ended slots in the member 210 so that the transverse position of the notch 212 may be shifted to provide a windage correction. The mutually engaging surfaces of the members 200 and 210 have a plurality of small, axially extending V-shaped grooves or notches to provide a positive engagement and prevent undesired lateral shifting of the sight element 210 when the fasteners 214 and 216 are tightened.

Changes in the elevation of the sight element 210 are made by changing the axial position of a spacer member 220 which is positionable in any of a plurality of transverse notches 222 on the barrel. The undersurface of the sight support member 200 bears downwardly on the spacer 220 under the influence of the biasing force created by the resilient forward portion 208 of the sight support member 200. It will be apparent that forward movement of the spacer 220 will change its distance from the pivot 206 to elevate the sight element 210. Rearward movement of spacer 220 will lower the elevation of the rear sight. Transverse shifting of the spacer 220 is prevented by enlarged end portions on the spacer 220 which confront the lateral edges of the sight support member 200.

In order to permit easy conversion of the gun from a repeating rifle to a single shot rifle, the cam-follower pin 64 may be removed from the opening in member 86 which slidably retains it. This is useful, for example, when a father teaches his child to shoot. Absence of the lifter-operating cam follower pin provides positive assurance that the chamber will empty after the child has fired, even if cartridges are inadvertently left in the tubular magazine. Preparatory to the next shot, the lifter mechanism is removed, a cartridge is placed therein and the lifter mechanism is replaced.

Persons skilled in this particular art will readily appreciate that the inventive concepts disclosed hereinabove may take many different forms which are different in structure but not in principle to the preferred embodiment discussed hereinabove. These principles are suited to many different types of firearms and I therefore wish to stress that the invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiment but encompasses those modifications thereof which fall within the spirit of the claims which follow.

I claim:

1. A firearm comprising,

a barrel having a bore and a firing chamber at the rear end thereof,

an axially movable bolt lying rearwardly of the bore,

a tubular magazine located below and parallel to the barrel for containing a plurality of axially aligned cartridges,

a lifter mechanism housing located rearwardly of the magazine,

a cartridge support body movably supported on the lifter mechanism housing, said cartridge support body being movable from a lower position where it is in cartridge-receiving alignment with the magazine to an upper position where it is in cartridgedischarging alignment with the firing chamber,

actuator means responsive to axial movement of the bolt to move the cartridge support body from its lower position to its upper position in response to rearward movement of the bolt and to move the cartridge support body from its upper position to its lower position in response to forward movement of the bolt,

retainer means being movable from a first position where it retains the housing on the firearm to a second position where it releases the housing and permits its removal from the firearm,

a box magazine for supporting a plurality of vertically aligned cartridges, said box magazine being interchangeable with the lifter mechanism and having dimensions permitting it to occupy the same space as the lifter mechanism when the lifter mechanism is removed from the firearm, said retainer means being on the firearm and engageable with the box magazine.

2. A firearm comprising,

a barrel having a bore and a firing chamber at the rear end thereof,

an axially movable bolt lying rearwardly of the bore,

a tubular magazine located below and parallel to the barrel for containing a plurality of axially aligned cartridges,

a lifter mechanism housing located rearwardly of the magazine,

a cartridge support body movably supported on the lifter mechanism housing, said cartridge support body being movable from a lower position where it is in cartridge-receiving alignment'with the magazine to an upper position where it is in cartridgedischarging alignment with the firing chamber,

actuator means responsive to axial movement of the bolt to move the cartridge support body from its lower position to its upper position in response to rearward movement of the bolt and to move the cartridge support body from its upper position to its lower position in response to forward movement of the bolt,

said tubular magazine being axially movable and having a rear portion forming a retainer means which is movable from a first position where it engages and retains the housing on the firearm to a second position where it releases the housing and permits its removal from the firearm, and resilient means biasing the tubular magazine to urge the rear portion against the housing.

3. The firearm of claim 2 wherein the resilient means is a helical compression spring which encircles and is concentric with the tubular magazine.

4. A firearm comprising,

a barrel having a bore and a firing chamber at the rear end thereof,

an axially movable bolt lying rearwardly of the bore,

a tubular magazine located below and parallel to the barrel for containing a plurality of axially aligned cartridges,

a lifter mechanism housing located rearwardly of the magazine,

a cartridge support body movably supported on the lifter mechanism housing, said cartridge support body being movable from a lower position where it is in cartridge-receiving alignment with the magazine to an upper position where it is in cartridgedischarging alignment with the firing chamber,

actuator means responsive to axial movement of the bolt to move the cartridge support body from its lower position to its upper position in response to rearward movement of the bolt and to move the cartridge support body from its upper position to its lower position in response to forward movement of the bolt,

said actuator means for the lifter mechanism including axially movable action bars having their forward ends pivotally connected to an axially movable slider member, said action bars also being connected to the bolt for axial movement therewith, said action bars being located on opposite sides of the lifter mechanism housing and having cam surfaces, and a cam follower projecting laterally from the lifter mechanism housing and engageable by the cam surfaces to operatively connect the action bars to the cartridge support body, and

retainer means being movable from a first position where it retains the housing on the firearm to a second position where it releases the housing and permits its removal from the firearm.

5. A firearm comprising,

a barrel having a bore and a firing chamber at the rear end thereof,

an axially movable bolt lying rearwardly of the bore,

a tubular magazine located below and parallel to the barrel for containing a plurality of axially aligned cartridges,

a lifter mechanism housing located rearwardly of the magazine,

a cartridge support body movably supported on the lifter mechanism housing, said cartridge support body being movable from a lower position where it is in cartridge-receiving alignment with the magazine to an upper position where it is in cartridgedischarging alignment with the firing chamber,

actuator means responsive to axial movement of the bolt to move the cartridge support body from its lower position to its upper position in response to rearward movement of the bolt and to move the cartridge support body from its upper position to its lower position in response to forward movement of the bolt,

said actuator means for the lifter mechanism including axially movable action bars connected to the bolt for axial movement therewith, said action bars being located on opposite sides of the lifter mechanism housing and having cam surfaces, and a cam follower projecting laterally from the lifter mechanism housing and engageable by the cam surfaces to operatively connect the action bars to the cartridge support body,

said action bars have their upper edges configured to provide forwardly facing abutment surfaces, and movable latch means having latch surfaces which are movable to an extended position where they engage the abutment surfaces and hold the action bars and the bolt in a rearward breech-open position, and

retainer means being movable from a first position where it retains the housing on the firearm to a second position where it releases the housing and permits its removal from the firearm.

6. A firearm comprising,

a barrel having a bore and a firing chamber at the rear end thereof,

an axially movable bolt lying rearwardly of the bore,

a housing located rearwardly of and lower than the firing chamber, a lifter mechanism means in said housing for elevating cartridges into the path of the bolt, said lifter mechanism means having a cartridge support body, and actuator means responsive to axial movement of the bolt to move the cartridge support body from its lower position to its upper position in response to rearward movement of the bolt, and to move the cartridge support body from its upper position to its lower position in response to forward movement of the bolt,

an elongated tubular magazine engaging a forward portion of the housing and extending parallel to the barrel, said housing having a forwardly-facing counterbore for receiving the tubular magazine to position the housing in a transverse plane,

and resilient means biasing the retainer member rearwardly against the housing to maintain the housing in proper alignment with the firing chamber.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6389947 *Feb 10, 1999May 21, 2002Heckler & Koch GmbhCartridge feed device for a repeating firearm
US6397721 *Nov 16, 2001Jun 4, 2002Heckler & Koch GmbhCartridge feed device for a repeating firearm
US6671989 *Jun 13, 2002Jan 6, 2004Chester VanekMulti-shot ring airfoil projectile launcher
US6871437 *Oct 24, 2001Mar 29, 2005O.F. Mossberg & Sons, Inc.Apparatus and method for locking firearm in an open position by blocking action
US6898888 *May 23, 2002May 31, 2005Paul M. GreenhutCartridge chambering system for firearms
US7007424Dec 3, 2003Mar 7, 2006Chester VanekMulti-shot ring airfoil projectile launcher
US7127845 *Jan 15, 2003Oct 31, 2006Npf LimitedPaintball marker
US7430825Mar 6, 2006Oct 7, 2008Flatau & Vanek, LlcMulti-shot ring airfoil projectile launcher
US8371280Apr 26, 2010Feb 12, 2013Chester VanekBreechloading toy/sporting ring airfoil launcher and projectile therefor
Classifications
U.S. Classification42/17, 42/70.1, 42/49.2
International ClassificationF41A17/56, F41A17/00, F41A9/18, F41G1/16, F41G1/00, F41A15/14, F41A9/00, F41A15/00
Cooperative ClassificationF41G1/16, F41A15/14, F41A17/56, F41A9/18
European ClassificationF41G1/16, F41A9/18, F41A15/14, F41A17/56