US 3740909 A
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United States Patent 1 1 3,740,909 Stinnes 5] June 26, 1973 PREFORMED BUILDING PANEL WITH Primary Examiner-John E. Murtagh WEATHER-PROOF SEAL Mathias Ludwig Stinnes, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Inventor:
Assignee: Du Pont of Canada, Limited,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada Filed: Feb. 25, 1971 Appl. No.: 118,852
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 10/1970 Hoff 52/503 Attorney-Wilkin E. Thomas, Jr.
[5 7] ABSTRACT A wall panel having front and rear surfaces and horizontal and vertical side surfaces which are adapted to mate with side surfaces of similar panels is provided. Each of the mating side surfaces contains an element of a groove and ridge joint extending throughout the side surface. The groove element of the joint is recessed beyond the extremity of the ridge element so that, when the panel is mated with a similar panel, the ridge and groove elements cooperate to form a cavity which acts as a capillary break and is connected to the front surface of the panel to permit drainage of any water that accumulates between the panels. A rectangular shaped preformed panel with a rigid foamed plastic core, an exterior face comprising staggered rows of brick veneer bonded to the core and an interior rigid backing is disclosed.
6 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures PATENTEDJUH 26 I975 INVENTOR Mathias Ludwig STINNES PAIENIEMuuasmn 3 740 909 sum 2 0r 4 INVFNTOR Mai hiaS Lud HI STNN ES PAIENTED JUN 28 I975 SHEEHN4 INVEN Mathias Ludwig STIN PREFORMED BUILDING PANEL WITH WEATHER-PROOF SEAL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates in general to preformed or prefabricated building panels and more particularly to building panels having special means to fasten one to the other to form a weather-proof seal.
Preformed and prefabricated building panels of various descriptions and manufactured of various materials have been known and utilized in the construction of buildings for some time. The majority of these panels have good heat and sound insulation properties. The use of foamed plastic as an insulating layer or as an element or laminate in wall structures with an exterior surface of brick, stone or marble is well known. One-such type of panel has a layer of rigid foamed plastic, preferably polyurethane, to one face of which is bonded durable facing materials such as that illustrated by U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 664,752 filed on Aug. 31, 1967 and U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 031,056 filed on Apr. 6, 1971, both by K.W. Pope. Such a panel can be used as a load-bearing or non-load-bearing wall panel. It can be fabricated in a factory, transported to and erected on a building site. The panels may be fabricated in sizes suitable for combining with similar panels into a wall, for mounting as individual independent units upon wall framing, and for exterior or interior use.
A problem which has for many years plagued the application of building panels in the construction of buildings occurs at the joint between the panels. One common form of joint between panels comprises the flat side of one panel mating with the flat side of an adjacent panel. There may be an adhesive or a caulking compound used in the joint, but in external walls where the range of temperature encountered may exceed 100 F., expansion and contraction takes place leading to cracks which may occur at one or more of the joints. Wind and rain may cause water to penetrate these cracks, and capillary action may occur which draws the water from the external surface of the panel to the inner surface. If freezing subsequently occurs, the crack in the joint expands, tending to further damage the joint.
Another problem that exists in the common form of joint having flat mating side surfaces, is the problem of alignment. To ensure that the exterior surfaces of the panels are in line, reasonable skill in assembly is required on the part of the builder.
The use of a cavity in traditional joints in building walls to stop the capillary action of water is disclosed by G. K. Garden in the Canadian Building Digest, CBD 97 published January, 1968.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a novel joint between preformed building panels to stop water passing from one side of the panel to the other. It is a further object to provide a joint which positively aligns the building panels. A still further object of the present invention is to provide building panels which may be assembled with unskilled labor.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION With these and other objects in mind, there is provided a wall panel having front and rear surfaces and horizontal and vertical side surfaces, at least two of the side surfaces being adapted to mate with the horizontal and vertical side surfaces of similar wall panels. Each of the mating side surfaces contains an element of. a ridge and groove joint extending throughout the length of the side surfaces and any groove element contained in the side surfaces being recessed beyond the extremities of the ridge element with which it is to be mated so that, when the wall panel is mated with a similar wall panel, the groove element and the ridge element cooperate to form a cavity, said cavity being connected to the front surface of the panel to permit drainage of any liquid accumulating between adjacent wall panels.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In drawings which illustrate the embodiments of the invention,v
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one type of building panel showing the mating surfaces of the sides of the panel which form one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an elevational view showing a wall formed from several of the panels of FIG. 1 and the joints between the panels.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken at the line 3,3 in FIG. 2 and represents a horizontal joint between two panels.
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken at the line 4,4 in FIG. 2 and represents a vertical joint.
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of another type of building panel showing the arrangement of the mating surfaces of the sides which form another embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is an elevational view showing a wall formed from several of the panels of FIG. 5 and the joints between the panels.
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view taken at the line 7,7 in FIG. 6 showing the horizontal joint.
FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view taken at the line 8,8 in FIG. 6 showing the horizontal section of the vertical joint.
FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view taken at the line 9,9 in FIG. 6 showing the vertical section of the vertical joint.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Referring now to the drawings, the panel shown in FIG. 1 has an exterior durable front surface or face 10, vertical side 11 and top side 12. Several such panels can be combined to form a wall such as that illustrated in FIG. 2. In the combination, as shown in cross-section in FIG. 3, the surface of the top side 12 of the center panel 13 of FIG. 2 mates with the surface of the bottom side 14 of the upper panel 15 of FIG. 2 to form a horizontal joint. The top side 12 has a surface 16 sloping towards the exterior face 10 of the panel 13, and a stepped shoulder 17 adjacent to the interior face 18 of the panel 13. A horizontal surface 19 extends from the shoulder 17 to the sloping surface 16. The profile of the surface of the bottom side 14 of the upper panel 15 mates with the surface of the top side 12 of the center panel 13, leaving a cavity 20 between the horizontal surface 19 on the center panel 13 and a horizontal surface 21 on the upper panel 15. Both of these surfaces, therefore, contain the elements of a joint which can be classified broadly as a ridge and groove joint. In this instance, the top surface is the ridge and the bottom surface is the groove.
A gap 22 remains between the surfaces of the sides of the center panel 13 and the upper panel 15. This gap varies as the panels expand and contract due to temperature changes. Water on the exterior face may work up the gap 22 by capillary action or may be forced up by wind. However, when the water reaches the cavity 20, capillary action ceases and any water that collects in the cavity drains at each end of the panel through the vertical joints to the exterior face 10.
A cross-section through a vertical joint is illustrated in FIG. 4. A ridge 23 on the surface of one side of a panel mates with a groove 24 on the surface of one side of an adjacent panel. The ridge 23 may have tapered sides or may have a rounded top surface to aid in assembling the panels. A cavity 25 is formed between the ridge 23 and the bottom of the groove 24. As may be seen in FIG. 1 the groove 24 is sloped such that it runs from the back of the shoulder 17 of the horizontal joint at the surface of the top side 12 of the panel to the sloping surface of the bottom side 14 of the panel. Although the groove 24 is shown sloped in the drawing, it may be vertical provided the lower end of the groove 24 ends on the sloping surface of the bottom side 14 of the panel. Provision is made in the panel for water which collects in the cavity 20 in the horizontal joint to drain into the cavity 25 in the vertical joint. Any water in the cavity 25 flows down to the sloping surface 16 and drains through the gap 22 to the exterior face 10 of the panel.
The construction of the panels may be from any one of a number of construction materials, such as concrete, masonry, synthetic materials, etc. Alternatively, the panels may be constructed from a foamed plastic material such as polystyrene or polyurethane with a hard-wearing exterior face.
In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 5, the panel 26 comprises a rigid foamed plastic core 27 of polyurethane with an exterior face consisting of staggered rows 28 of brick veneer bonded to the foamed core 27. A rigid backing 29 such as plywood, fiberboard, hard plastic, clipboard, etc. is located on the inside of the foamed plastic core 27. The vertical joint in each panel has vertical and horizontal segments to match the staggered rows 28 of brick veneer. In FIG. 6 the main horizontal joint 30 is shown formed between the upper panel 31 and lower panel 32. A cross-section through this horizontal joint 30 is illustrated in FIG. 7. The rigid backing 29 on the-lower panel 32 extends approximately ,4 to 3 inches above the horizontal joint to provide a nailing strip 33 for the panel. The panels may be fastened to the building frame by mechanical fasteners or adhesive with this nailing strip 33. To form the horizontal joint the surface of the top side of each panel is formed in the manufacturing process to contain a stepped shoulder 34 with a short horizontal surface 35 in the plastic core 36, followed by a sloping surface 37v which slopes towards the exterior face 38. The surface of the bottom side of the upper panel 31 has a boss 39 which slides between the shoulder 34 and the rigid backing 33 on the lower panel 32 when the two "panels are assembled to provide a positive location.,The surface of the bottom side of the upper panel 31 has a horizontal surface 40 and a sloping surface 41 in the plastic core 36 which corresponds to the horizontal surface 35 and sloping surface 37 in the lower panel 32 but which is designed to leave a cavity 42, preferably 4 inch or more in depth, to act as a capillary stop. The cavity 42 becomes smaller as the-upper sloping surface 41 and the lower sloping surface 37 taper to approximately 1/32 inch at the exterior face 38. A caulking or gasket material may be used between the nailing strip 33 of the lower panel 32 and the foamed core 36 of the upper panel 31 to act as a wind seal. This may also be accomplished by the use of building paper. Any water which forces its way into the cavity 42 drains to the exterior face 38 of the panels down the upper sloping surface 37 of the lower panel 32 or drains at each end of the pane] through the vertical joints to the exterior face 38.
The surfaces of the vertical sides of the panel as may be seen in FIG. 5 and FIG. 6 have both vertical and horizontal segments. FIG. 8 illustrates a cross-section through a horizontal segment of a joint between the center panel 32 andthe panel 43 adjacent and on the left of panel 32. The surfaces of the horizontal segment of both panels slope towards the exterior face 38. A cavity 44 is formed between the mating surfaces of panel 32 and the panel 43. The cavity 44 is preferably /8 inch or more in width to ensure capillary action does not occur from the exterior face 38 through the plastic core 36 to the rigid backing 29. This joint prevents water ingress and acts as a drain for water from other cavities in the joints between panels.
A cross-section through the vertical segment of the vertical joint shown in FIG. 9, is formed between the central panel 32 and the left hand panel 43. The joint consists of a groove 45 cut in the surface of the vertical segment of the plastic core 36 of the central panel 32. This groove 45 runs from the top to the bottom of the surface of the vertical segment which represents the height of one of the rows of brick veneer, and from the rigid backing 29 to the exterior face 38. Into this groove 45 fits a ridge 46 located in the surface of the vertical segment of the plastic core 36 of the left hand panel 43. The ridge 46 does not extend as high as the depth of the groove 45, thus a cavity 47 forms between the ridge 46 and the groove 45 which is preferably V8 inch or more in depth. The slope of the groove 45 in the outer vertical segment and the ridge 46 in the inner vertical segment of the vertical joint is shown in FIG. 5. The cavity 47 in the vertical segment of the joint acts as a drain for any water that may rest in the cavity 44 in the horizontal segment of the joint. The edge of the rigid backing 29 has one vertical joint without any horizontal segments located midway between the inner and outer vertical segments of the vertical joint between the two panels.
In assembling the panels shown in FIGS. 5 to 9, a panel is first located against the building frame and nailed or fastened by means of the nailing strip 33 to the frame. The second panel is then mated to the first panel. If the mate is a side by side one, then the ridges and grooves in the inner and outer vertical segments ensure a positive location and align the two panels one with the other. It has been found that the use of a standard grease or wax on the mating surfaces aids in the ease of assembling the panels, and also improves the seal of the joints between the panels. The assembly of one panel on top of another is similar to the side by side assembly. The boss 39 in the upper panel, slides into the slot provided in the lower panel between the nailing strip backing 33 and the shoulder 34 thereby aligning the upper panel with the lower panel. Once a panel has been located in the wall, it may be nailed or fastened to the frame on two sides by the nailing strips 33 on the rigid backing 29.
Manufacture of panels containing sides suitable for this joint configuration can be achieved by any of a number of processes which include but are not limited to: injection moulding, forming and casting of a variety of materials, especially plastic as wellas some more traditional methods utilizing mechanical work such as cutting and shaping.
Weathering tests conducted on building panels of the type shown in FIGS. 5 to 9 utilizing this joint configuration have produced very satisfactory results. Prolonged exposure to sun, rain, wind and extremes in temperature, including freezing and thawing, have not produced joint failure between panels. Furthermore, minor damage to the mating surfaces of the panels have not affected assembly of the panels or their service ability, nor do small dimensional changes in the panels themselves. Positive alignment of panels is insured even when unskilled labor is used for installation. The outside work consists solely of mating the panels together and fastening the nailing strip 33 to the substrate or building frame. This may be achieved by using automatic tools and unskilled labor. Because of the simplicity of the joint and the fastening system, panels utilizing this joint configuration may be installed under adverse weather conditions and extremes of temperature without a loss of joining efficiency.
What is claimed is:
1. In a rectangular shaped preformed wall panel having a rigid foamed plastic core with an exterior face comprising staggered rows of brick veneer bonded to the core, an interior rigid backing, and horizontal and vertical side surfaces adapted to mate with the horizontal and vertical side surfaces of similar wall panels to form a joint, the improvement wherein each of said side surfaces contains an element of a ridge and groove joint, said element extending throughout the length of said side surface, any groove element being recessed beyond the extremities of the ridge element with which it is to be mated so that, when said wall panel is mated with adjacent wall panels, horizontal and vertical cavities are formed, each cavity being connected to the front and rear surfaces of said wall panel by the cracks which form the remainder of the joints and acting as a capillary break to accumulate any liquid introduced into said joints, each upper horizontal cavity being further connected to the bottom side surface of said panel through said vertical cavities to permit drainage of any liquid accumulating in the joints between said wall panel and an adjacent wall panel.
2. The wall panel of claim 1 wherein a portion of said horizontal side surfaces slopes towards the face of said wall panel.
3. The wall panel of claim 1 wherein the element of said ridge and groove joint on the horizontal side surfaces comprises a stepped shoulder adjacent to said rigid backing; a sloping portion adjacent to said face and a horizontal portion extending from the stepped shoulder to the. sloping portion.
4. The wall panel of claim 3 wherein the vertical side surfaces have vertical and horizontal segments conforming to the staggered rows of brick veneer on the exterior face.
5. The wall panel of claim 1 wherein the depth of the groove recessed from the extremity of the ridge to the bottom of the groove is at least '74; inch.
6. The wall panel of claim 1 wherein the interior rigid backing extends beyond the upper horizontal surface of said wall panel to form a nailing strip.
I UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3 'Z IO,909 Dated June 26, 1973 I fi) Mathias Ludwi sti nnes It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
I I On the cover page, after ' Appl. No. 118,852"
insert March 3, 1979 Foreign Application Priority Data Canada1-'.- '-....-.'O76,265
Column 1, 'line 22, after the words "both by K. W. Pope insert -and both assigned to the assignee of the present invention-w. V
Signed and sealed this 6th day of August 1974.
McCOY M. GIBSON, JR. C. MARSHALL DANN Commissioner of Patents Attesting Ofiicer