US 3741153 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Sears et al.
[ APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF LINEAR ELEMENTS  Inventors: James H. Sears, Anderson; Bernard H. Jones, Pendleton, both of S.C.
 Assignee: Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, Toledo, Ohio 221 Filed: Dec. 9, 1911 21 Appl. No.: 206,447
 US. Cl. 118/405, 118/420  Int. Cl. B05c 3/12  Field of Search 118/DIG. l8, DIG. 19,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,033,912 7/1912 Lendi 118/405 X 1,211,341 l/l9l7 Peaks 118/407 X 1,361,932 12/1920 Van Avermate.... 118/419 X 1,968,687 7/1934 Johnson 118/429 X June 26, 1973 2,565,319 8/1951 Newman 118/419 2,581,938 1/1952 Swanson et al ll8/DIG. 19 2,867,891 l/1959 Horton et al. 118/DIG. 18 2,943,598 7/1960 Newton 118/420 X 3,507,250 4/1970 Dew, Jr 118/420 X FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 213,616 11/1924 Great Britain ll8/DIG. 19
Primary ExaminerMo r ris Kaplan Attorney Carl G. Staelin, John W. Overman et al.
 ABSTRACT Coating receptacle means is defined by vertically extending walls and an open bottom. Scraper means operatively associated with the open bottom and a moving surface carrying coating liquid effects transfer of the liquid from said moving surface and upwardly through the receptacle. Means pass linear elements through an upper portion of said receptacle and thereby through the coating liquid.
12 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures PATENIEU JUN 26 I915 will! APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF LINEAR ELEMENTS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION For various purposes it has been common practice to treat, e.g., coat and impregnate, linear elements with a variety of substances. In carrying out these practices conventional methods liquid was usually applied either by turning linear elements such as glass strands to pass through a bath of liquid or pumping liquid directly to traveling linear elements.
These prior practices have severe limitations.
Linear elements must be turned on guides or rollers to travel through a bath of liquid. Hence, there are several contact zones between the linear elements and the turning surfaces. This contact is damaging to linear elements such as bundles of glass filaments. Some of the glass filaments tend to break during contact with turning surfaces. An inferior product is the result.
Pumping coating liquid directly to linear elements has tended to degrade the liquid. Pumps shear work liquids and tend to increase the temperature of the liquids. An inferior product ensues.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the invention is improved apparatus for applying liquid to linear elements such as glass strands and yarns.
Another object of the invention is improved apparatus for applying controlled viscosity liquid coating to linear elements such as glass strands and yarns.
Yet another object of the invention is apparatus for uniformly applying liquid to a plurality of linear elements. I
Still another object of the invention is improved apparatus for coating linear elements such as glass strands and yarns.
These and other objects are attained by apparatus operating to supply liquid to linear elements along their paths of travel. Ina more specific sense apparatus according to the principles of the invention provides a passageway having a longitudinal transverse dimension and pairs of opposing apertures distributed along the transverse length of the passageway. Each pair of apertures is aligned for passage of a linear element. The passageway has an elongated inlet extending along the transverse length of the passageway. Moreover, the apparatus includes means for feeding liquid to the passageway at a uniform rate over the entire length of the inlet.
In another sense the objects are attained by apparatus providing an enclosed space or passageway for containing liquid where the passage has a pair of opposing apertures aligned for passage of a linear element therethrough and has an inlet for supply of liquid. A moving surface immediately adjacent the inlet carries liquid to the inlet; means for transferring liquid from the surface to the passageway insures a supply of liquid to the linear element during its travel through the apertures (and hence the passageway).
Other objects and advantages will become more apparent as the invention is more fully explained with reference made to the accompanying drawings.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a side elevation view of production line apparatus applying a coating liquid to glass yarns according to the principles of the invention.
FIG. 2 is a side elevation view of an extension of the production line apparatus shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a somewhat enlarged plan view of the coating station shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a side elevation of the coating station shown in FIGS. 1 and 3.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged side elevation view, partly in section of the coating station shown in FIG. 4.
FIG. 6 is a still further enlarged side elevation view of one of the applicators for applying liquid comprising the apparatus of the coating station shown in FIGS. 1 and 35.
FIG. 7 is a front elevation view, partly in section of a cylindrical roll of the apparatus shown in FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is a view in perspective of a portion of the applicator shown in FIG. 6. The dashed lines indicate the cylindrical roll forming part of the applicator arrangement.
FIG. 9 is an enlarged plan view of part of the applicator shown in FIGS. 5, 6 and 8. The arrows indicate the movement of the coating liquid in the applicator.
FIG. 10 is a front elevation view of a portion of the applicator portion shown in FIG. 9 further indicating movement of liquid in the applicator.
. FIG. 11 is a view in perspective of another embodiment of liquid applying apparatus according to the principles of the invention.
FIG. 12 is a view in perspective of yet another embodiment of apparatus for applying liquid to linear elements according to the principles of the invention.
FIG. '13 is a side elevation view of still another embodiment of apparatus for applying liquid to linear material according to the principles of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS While apparatus and method of the invention normally treat multifilament 'linear elements, including bundles of continuous filaments such as continuous filament glass strand, they can also treat other linear elements such as monofilaments or linear elements including discontinuous filaments. Further, the invention may treat twisted linear elements such as continuous filaments glass yarn, cord, etc. Moreover, one may use apparatus and method of the invention to treat linear elements made of a variety of materials such as nylon, polyester and the like. The use of glass strand to explain the invention is only an example.
FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate apparatus according to the principles of the invention that produces vinyl coated glass strands 10. The apparatus embodies a horizontal coating process and includes a coating station 12, an oven 14 and winding apparatus 16.
lndividualuncoated glass strands 20 travel from separate wound serving packages 22 to the coating station 12 through guides 24. A creel 26 holds the serving packages 20.
The strands 20 travel in a common horizontal plane I across the apparatus of the coating station 12.
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 the coating station 12 includes a tank 30 holding a vinyl plastisol coating liquid and supported on legs 32, applicators 34 and 36 and associated coating or wiping dies 38 and 40 respectfully. The applicators and dies are shown held on the tank 30. In the embodiment shown the applicator34 and the dies 38 are identical to he applicator 36 and the dies 40. But it is possible to use dies having different-size openings. For example the openings through dies 40 might be larger than the openings through dies 38.
At each of the applicators the advancing strands 20 travel as a horizontal sheet of parallel strands through a body of coating liquid contained in an elongated confined region or passageway. From each of the coating applicators 34 and 36 the strands 20 advance through the associated coating dies 38 and 40 respectfully.
The coating liquid can be any useful coating material. In practice the apparatus is normally used with coating liquids that are normally fairly viscous. Examples of useful coating liquids are dispersions, such as latices and plastisols, and polymericvmaterial in solvents. It is believed that at times it would be useful to use other treating liquids such as conventional liquid textile sizings or liquid finishes.
In practice the amount of coating liquid applied to the strands 20 at the applicators 34 and 36 is normally greater than required to form the coated strands 10. So the strands 20 traveling to the dies 38 and 40 usually have an excess or superfluous amount of coating liquid on them.
The coating or wiping dies 38 and 40 remove unwanted or superfluous coating liquid from the advancing strands 20. Hence, the dies 38 and 40 control the amount of vinyl coating on the coated strands 10.
The strands 20, with a predetermined amount of vinyl plastisol coating liquid on them, are shown traveling from the coating station 12 through a heating means in the form of the oven 14. While the oven 14 can heat treat coated linear elements variously depending on the type of coating material and the intended use of the coated elements, the oven 14 is normally a thermal oven that dries or cures the coating liquid. As shown the oven 14 fuses the vinyl plastisol on the traveling strands 20. In certain situations, treatment of the coated elements or strands by a heating means may be unnecessary or even undesirable.
The winding apparatus 16 collects the coated strands 10 into individual wound packages 50. In the embodiment shown the winding apparatus 16 is commercially available apparatus including a variable speed drive 52 for rotating individual spools 54, a reciprocating strand traverse guide 56 for each of the spools 54, a pair of constant speed cooperating feeding rolls 58 and 60 for each of the spools 54 and a pivotally mounted control arm 62 for each of the variable speed drives 52. As each of the spools 54 advances acoated glass strand l0, variations in strand speed raises or lowers the associated control arm 62. The movement of the arm 62 controls the angular speed of the spool through the associated variable speed drive 52 to maintain a substantially constant linear strand collection speed.
FIGS. 3 through 6 more clearly show the apparatus of the coating station 12.
As illustrated the apparatus of the coating station 12 surrounds the strands 20 with liquid as the strands travel through a confined space along an essentially straight horizontal path. The station 12 as shown provides spaced apart surfaces forming a passageway for containing liquid where the passageway has a longitudinal transverse dimension. The passageway has opposing pairs of apertures distributed along the transverse length of the passageway each for passage of a glass strand 20. The passageway further includes an elongated inlet for supply of liquid disposed with its length along the transverse length of the passageway. The apparatus includes means for feeding liquid at a uniform rate over the entire length of the passageway (inlet).
In one sense the apparatus of the coating station 12 uses a moving surface supply device to move a band of coating liquid at a uniform rate through an elongated openinginto the confined zone.
In FIGS. 1 and 2 the applicators 34 and 36 are longitudinal spaced apart assemblies each disposed across the width of the tank 30. Each of the applicators 34 and 36 includes a hollow cylindrical roll for transporting coating liquid, wall portions forming a confined region or passageway 72 and means for transferring coating liquid-from the circumferential surface of the hollow cylindrical rolls 70 into the passageway 72.
Referring to FIGS. 5, 6,7 and 8, one can see that each of the cylindrical rolls 70 includes a hollow central cylindrical portion 74 and tubular end shafts 76 and 78 each communicating with the interior of the cylindrical portion 74. The shafts 76 and 78 extend coaxially from the ends of the hollow cylindrical portions 74. And the cylindrical central portion 74 of each of the rolls 70 extendsacross the width of the tank 30.
The cylindrical rolls 70 are rotatably mounted on the tank 30. As shown ball bearing pillow blocks 80 on the side walls of the tank 30 carry the shafts 76 and 78 to hold the cylindrical rolls 70 for rotation.
In operation the cylindrical rolls are driven in rotation. As more clearly shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 the drive includes an electrical motor 82, drive belt 84 and drive belt 86. 7
Referring more specifically to FIGS. 5 and 6, the rolls 70 are shown partially submerged in a body of vinyl plastisol coating liquid held in the tank 30.
The elongated confined space 72 for the coating liquid 90 is immediately above each of the cylindrical rolls 70. Spaced apart horizontal longitudinal sidewall members 94 and 96 and end members 98 and 100 provide vertical walls or surfaces forming the elongated confined space 72. The longitudinal members 94 and 96 extend in a direction generally parallel to the axis of rotation of the cylindrical rolls 70. As shown the space 72 has both an open top 101 and an open bottom or inlet 102. In practice the members 94 and 96 are normally spaced from 86 to 1% inches apart. In a sense one may consider the members 94, 96, 98 and 100 forming a horizontal elongated trough for containing liquid.
The lengthwise members 94 and 96 have openings in the form of vertical slots 104 and 106 respectively aligned for passage of the strands 20 across the width of the elongated confined space 72. These slots form pairs of opposed openings aligned for passage of the strands 20. In operation the strands 20 travel through the slots 104 and 106 in essentiaily straight line paths across the confined space 72 to the associated dies as indicated in the Figures.
In the embodiment disclosed in FIGS. 1 and 2, the strands 20 enter the space 72 for application of coating liquid 90 through the slots 104 and leave the space 72 through the slots 106. Hence, it is possible to refer to the member 94 as the applicator entrance wall and the member 96 as the applicator exit wall. Normally, the
members 94 and 96 form walls having the same height.
At the bottom of each of the exit walls 96 is a longitudinal stripper or scrapper member 110 in liquid removing relation with the circumferential surface of the cylindrical roll 70. As shown the member 110 is a flat elongated member disposed horizontally lengthwise of the exit wall 96. The leading edge 112 of the member 110 engages the moving circumferential surface of the roll 70.
In operation each of the rotating rolls 70 carries a layer of the coating liquid 90 held in the tank 30 upwardly to the open bottom or inlet 102 of the passageway 72. The stripper 110 engages the liquid on the circumferential surface of the roll 70 to move the liquid into the passageway 72 through the .opening 102 to build-up a body or supply of the coating liquid 90 to strands 20 traveling transversely across the space 72 through the slots 104 and 106. This liquid supply arrangement feeds liquid to the passageway 72 at a uniform rate over the entire length of the inlet 102.
As illustrated the strands 20 travel through the mass of coating liquid in the passageway 72. Hence, the coating liquid surrounds the strands 20 during their travel across the space 92.
As the strands 20 advance through the coating liquid 90, the strands 20 entrain or move coating liquid with them. So the traveling strands 20 remove coating liquid from the elongated space 72. Accordingly, the volume of coating liquid 90 moved into the space 72 by the moving circumferential surface of the roll 70 and the stripper l must be sufficient to replace coating liquid removed by the strands at the selected production speed of the strands. And the body of coating liquid 90 within the reservior 92 should be kept above the lower level of the slots 102 and 104; in preferred operation of the apparatus the strands 20 pass through the liquid 90 It can be more easily observed from FIGS. 6, 9 and 10 that an excess amount of coating liquid travels on the strands 20 from the applicators 92 tothe dies 38 and 40. In practice the best coating results occur when the entrance region of these dies are full of (flooded with) coating liquid 90.
As shown the dies 38 and 40 includes a converging entrance region 120 the central cylindrical passage 122 and a diverging exit 124.
The presence of an excessive amount of coating liquid entrained upon and being carried along with 'the strands 20 results in most of the liquid coating material being forced backwardly off the strands by the dies 38 and 40.
FIGS. 6, 9 and 10 show the general flow pattern of the coating liquid in the elongated space 72. As one can see from the arrows in these Figures the coating liquid 90 moves uniformly upwardly through the elongated bottom opening 102 of the'space 72 towards the plane of strand travel indicated by dashed lines in FIG. 10. The Figures show preferred operation where liquid travels upwardly above and around each of the traveling strands 20 and then moves horizontally in the direction of the strand travel. As one can more readily see from FIG. 9 each of the strands 20 is supplied coating liquid from a particular region having a general length l lengthwise of the passageway 72. Hence, liquid coating material 90 in the space 72 moves laterally from both sides of the slots 104 and to leave with each of the strands 20 through the slots 106. Each of these regions is continuously being supplied with coating liquid along the length of the opening 102; the rate of supply is uniform along the entire length of the opening 102 (and hence uniform over the entire transverse length of the passageway 72). I
The lateral dimensions of the slots 104 and 106 should be large enough to permit easy threading of the strands 20 and must be small enough to somewhat limit the quantity of liquid coating material that can flow through the slots. The wall'portions between the slots 104 and 106 contain liquid.
The coating station 12 includes a liquid flow system. Excess coating liquid 90 carried from the applicators 34 and 36 at the strand exit side (wall 96) and falling from the dies 38 and 40 is caught by slides 130. Excess coating liquid 90 flowing from the applicators at the strand entrance side (wall 94) is caught by slides 132. The slides and 132 direct coating liquid into recirculating troughs 134. As shown there is a trough 134 at each end of the tank 30 and in the middle region of the tank 30. A branched exit pipe 136 carries coating liquid from the troughs 134 to a pump 138 driven by an electrical motor 140 through a drive belt 142 The pump 138 moves the coating liquid 90 to a filter 144 through a pipe 146. From the filter 144 the coating liquid 90 travels upwardly through a supply pipe 148 into the tank 30 for use again.
In practice the pump 138 is a diaphragm pump to reduce pumping shear actionthat is detrimental to most coating liquids.
The slides 130 and 132 also function as shields that keep any broken strands from becoming entangled in the rotating rolls 70.
The applicators 34 and 36 includes apparatus for controlling the viscosity of the coating liquid 90. Referring to FIGS. 5, 6 and 7, a treating fluid of selected temperature, normally a cooling liquid such as water, from a suitable source is passed lengthwise through the hollow cylindrical roll 70. The treating fluid moves to and from the cylindrical roll 70 through the tubular shaft 76 and 78. Hence, commercial rotatable couplings 150 are used with supply tubes 152 to permit rotation of the roll 70.
The viscosity of the relatively thin layer of coating liquid 90 on the circumferential surface of the roller 70 is quickly affected by the temperature of the treating fluid in the roller 70.
FIG. 11 shows another applicator for applying coating liquid to linear elements like the strands 20 at the coating station 12. As shown the applicator, referred to by reference number 234, includes a driven movable continuous belt 270 supplying coating liquid 290 to an elongated confined space 372, which is disposed at right angles to the direction of belt movement. The belt 270 travels through coating liquid 290.
The sidewalls 294 and 296, together with a top wall 297, forms the elongated space 272 with an elongated inlet opening 302 at the bottom of the space 27. The sidewalls 294 and 296 have pairs of opposing circular openings 304 and 306 aligned for passage of linear elements like the strands 20 as the elements cross transversely of the space 272.
The base of wall 296 is in liquid removing relation with the belt 270. And like the stripper 110, the member 296 removes coating liquid from the moving belt 270.
The FIG. 12 shows a driven rotatable hollow cylinder 370 supplying a coating liquid 290 to the confined space 272 shown in FIG. 11.
FIG. 13 shows another applicator according to the principles of the invention. As illustrated there is a horizontally disposed longitudinal passageway 372 for containing liquid formed by walls including sidewalls 394 and 396. The bottom of the container has an elongated inlet 402 for supply of liquid to the space 372 formed by the sidewalls 394 and 396. The opening 402 extends the length of the container or passageway 372. There is an upper outlet 404 for discharge of liquid. The outlet 404 is elongated and extends the length of the container 372. The driven rotatable cylinder 370 advances liquid 290 to the container at a uniform rate along the entire length of the inlet 402. The rate of liquid supply is sufficient to provide a uniform supply of the liquid 290 above and along the entire length of the outlet 404. Linear elements can advance through the supply of liquid above the outlet 404 as the dashed line yarn path indicates in FIG. 13.
1. Apparatus for treating linear elements with liquid comprising:
a transverse extending trough means, open throughout the bottom thereof and comprising vertically extending walls;
a receptacle containing a supply of said treating liquid and dispersed below said trough;
a member including an endless surface and partially submerged in said treating liquid;
means to drive said member whereby to dispense said liquid; scraper means operatively associated with the dispencing surface of said member and communicating with said open bottom whereby to feed said liquid into the trough;
said endless surface, scraper and open bottom being transversely coextensive whereby to effect a uniform rate of liquid feed to said trough over the entire length of said open bottom; and
means to pass said linear elements in operative association with an upper portion of said trough whereby to effect said treatment.
2. Apparatus of claim 1 in which said scraper means comprises an edge of one of said walls.
3. Apparatus of claim 1 in which said scraper means comprises a generally horizontally disposed plate element.
4. Apparatus of claim 1 wherein said upper portion of the trough includes pairs of opposed and aligned aperatures through which said linear elements pass for traversing the trough to effect said treatment.
5. Apparatus of claim 4 wherein said trough has a closed top.
6. Apparatus of claim 4 wherein said trough has an open top and said apertures are slot means open at said top.
7. Apparatus of claim 1 wherein said partially submerged member is a rotatable cylinder.
8. Apparatus of claim 1 wherein said partially submerged member is an endless bolt.
9. Apparatus for treating a linear element with liquid comprising:
means for retaining liquid including spaced apart upwardly extending walls forming a passageway for containing said liquid, said passageway having at least one pair of opposed apertures in opposed said walls, the apertures being aligned for passage of the linear element therethrough, means forming an inlet to said passageway for supply of liquid thereto from below the apertures;
a movable endless surface adjacent the inlet;
means for advancing the endless surface across the inlet;
means for supplying liquid to the endless surface in advance of the inlet;
scraper means operatively associated with the endlesssurface to feed the coating liquid upwardly into the passageway, the endless surface, scraper and,
inlet means being coextensive with the passageway to effect a uniform rate of liquid feed across the passageway during advancement of the endless surface to provide a supply of the liquid that will surround the linear element during its travel in the passageway; and
means for advancing the linear element to treat it with the liquid.
10. Apparatus of claim 9 in which the movable surface is the periphery of a rotatable member.
11. Apparatus of claim 10 in which the movable sur face is the circumferential surface of a rotatable cylinder.
12. Apparatus of claim 11 in which the rotatable cylinder is hollow and further includes means for moving fluid through the interior of the cylinder for modifying the temperature of liquid carried by the circumferential surface of the cylinder.
II i i