US 3741481 A
A shower spray element includes a plurality of three-sided channels, the fourth side remaining open to atmosphere. Water is issued through each channel in the form of a jet which experiences "Coanda" attachment to one side of the channel. By selecting different angular orientations of the attachment side in the various channels, the issuing jets can be angled to provide even spray coverage with a minimum number of channels. In a modified embodiment a fourth side is provided for each channel to form a fluidic switching element wherein the jet issuing from each channel may be directed along either of two angularly displaced paths or, alternately may fill a channel encompassing both paths. The switching element may be connected as a fluidic oscillator whereby the overall spray pattern produced by the spray element is caused to oscillate.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [151 Bauer SHOWER SPRAY  Inventor: Peter Bauer, Germantown, Md.
 Assignee: Bowles Fluidics Corporation, Silver Springs, Md.
 Filed: July 19, 1971  Appl. No.: 163,566
154,674 l/l954 Australia 239/DIG. 7
[H] 1 lune 26, 1973 493,723 6/1953 Canada 239/DIG. 7
Primary Examiner-Richard A. Schacher Attorney-Rose & Edell  ABSTRACT form of a jet which experiences Coanda attachment to one side of the channel. By selecting different angular orientations of the attachment side in the various channels, the issuing jets can be angled to provide even spray coverage with a minimum number of channels. In a modified embodiment a fourth side is provided for each channel to form a fluidic switching element wherein the jet issuing from each channel may be directed along either of two angularly displaced paths or, alternately may till a channel encompassing both paths. The switching element may be connected as a fluidic oscillator whereby the overall spray pattern produced by the spray element is caused to oscillate.
1 SHOWER SPRAY BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a shower spray and more particularly to a shower spray employing fluidic techniques to achieve even spray coverage.
In order to achieve even spray coverage, prior art shower heads are generally configured to issue multiple individual water jets from apertures or channels arranged in concentric circular patterns. The machining required to form the plural patterns of apertures or channels is generally relatively complex and costly. Moreover, to render such shower heads adjustable to vary the coverage provided by the spray requires even further manufacturing complexity and increased cost. In addition, the adjustable prior art shower sprays require mechanically movable parts which tend to wear out with use, thereby deteriorating the performance of the shower head.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a shower head which is simple and relatively inexpensive to manufacture and yet provides complete area coverage.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a shower head in which the area coverage may be adjusted with a minimum of movable parts.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention a shower spray element comprises a plurality of three-sided channels, preferably arranged in a single circular path, the fourth side of eachchannel remaining open to atmosphere. Water is issued through each of the channels in the form of a jet which experiences boundary layer attachment and thereby locks on to one side of the channel. The channel side to which the jet attaches is angled to direct the issuing jet as desired. Various groups of channels are angled to the same extent whereby a plurality of concentric spray patterns are issued from a single circular pattern of channels.
The foregoing principal of shower head design employing fluidic techniques may be expanded to provide a two mode shower spray wherein the issuing jet from each channel is caused to attach to either of two opposite channel walls, thereby varying the coverage provided by the overall spray. Switching of the issuing jet from one channel wall to another is effected simply by varying the amountof air entrained by the issuing jet on one side or the other of the channel. In one form this two mode shower spray utilizes a feedback passage to cause oscillation of each jet between its two angular positions. The overall effect is an oscillating spray in the form of a cone which periodically opens and closes. A three mode spray is also possible, the third mode comprising full channel flow wherein the issued jet attaches to both channel walls.
It is therefore another object of the present invention to provide a shower head in which a plurality of nozzles are arranged in a single circular pattern and yet are capable of issuing an overall spray configuration composed of a plurality of individual concentric spray patterns.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a shower head which utilizes the boundary layer attachment of a liquid jet to direct the jet at a desired angle.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide a two mode shower head in which the issuing spray comprises a plurality of individual jets which can be angled in at least two directions by simply controlling the amount of air entrained by the jets.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a shower head in which individual components of the shower spray issued by the head may be cyclically switched between two positions to provide an overal conical spray pattern which periodically opens and closes as the individual spray components are switched.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The above and still further objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description of specific embodiments thereof, especially when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a view in perspective and partial section of a shower head according to one aspect of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view along the lines 2-2 in FIG.
FIG. 3 is a front view in plan of the outer body portion of the shower head of FIG. 1, illustrating the arrangement of the various spray nozzles;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary view in section taken along lines 4-4 in FIG. 3 and illustrating one possible configuration of spray nozzle;
FIG. 4a is a front view of the spray nozzle illustrated in FIG. 4;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary view in section taken along lines 5-5 of FIG. 3 and illustrating a second possible nozzle configuration;
FIG. 5a is a front view of the nozzle illustrated in FIG.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary view in section taken along lines 6-6 of FIG. 3 and illustrating a third possible nozzle configuration;
FIG. 6a is a front view of the nozzle illustrated in FIG.
FIG. 7 is a sectional view of a typical nozzle of the shower head of FIG. 1, diagrammatically illustrating the flow pattern of a jet issued through the nozzle;
FIG. 8 is a view like FIG. 7 in a modified form of the present invention wherein the jet issued from the nozzle can be switched to either of two angularly displaced positions;
FIG. 9 is a view like FIG. 7 is still another form of the present invention wherein the jet issuing nozzle is configured as a fluidic oscillator whereby the issuing jet is cyclically switched between two angular positions;
FIG. 10 is a view like FIG. 9 in still another form of the present invention whereby the nozzle is configured to provide a fluidic oscillator of the reversing chamber type; and I FIG. 11 is a plan view of a comb member employed to separate an annular spray into multiple spray components.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring specifically to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the accompanying drawings, the shower head 10 of the present invention includes a barrel type casing 11 of generally conical or frusto-conical configuration. A comb section 13 of generally circular configuration is disposed inside barrel 11 proximate the forward end of the barrel. Comb 13 may either be a separate element circumferentially secured to barrel 11 or alternately may comprise an integral portion of the barrel. The interior surface of comb 13 includes a radially extending step 15 such that the interior surface of the comb is wider at the forward end than at the rearward end. An annular rubber gasket 17 is seated in step 15 and supports a core section 19 centrally relative to barrel 11. Core 19 may either be a solid mass disposed to prevent liquid flow through the interior of gasket 17; alternatively core 19, as illustrated, may include a fluidic oscillator of the same general type as disclosed in my US. Pat. No. 3,563,462. Such an oscillator, when supplied with liquid under pressure, issues the liquid jet alternately from two outlet passages 21 and 23 terminating at the forward end of core section 19. Such an alternating fluid stream produces a massaging effect upon the body which has been found both pleasing and invigorating; consequently a massage mode of operation, as an alternative to the spray mode of operation, is possible in those shower heads with which an oscillator is provided in core 19.
The rearward end of core 19 includes a pair of diametrically opposed flanges 25 and 27 which fit in respective longitudinally extending guide channels 29 and 31 in the interior surface of barrel ll. Flanges 25, 27 assure that core section 19 is properly positioned within barrel 11. The rearward end face of core section 19 also includes a pair of openings 33 and 35 through which pressurized liquid may be supplied to the oscillator in core section 19. O-rings 37 and 39 surround openings 33 and '35 and provide a fluid tight seal against a valve cylinder assembly 4l. Valve cylinder assembly 41 includes an end plate 43 which abuts the end face of core section 19 and is rotatably secured thereto by means of a screw and bolt arrangement or the like. The rearward endof valve cylinder assembly 41 extends out through the open rearward end of barrel 11 channels 29 and 31 to prevent rotation of valve cylinder assembly 41 by more than 90 to thereby define two specific operating positions of barrel 11 relative to the valve assembly.
Pressurized liquid supplied to the head is received through the hollow interior of valve assembly 41. In one extreme rotational position of barrel 11 relative to valve assembly4l liquid is conducted from the valve assembly through a pair of suitably provided apertures 47 in end plate 43 which are aligned with openings 33 and 35 to supply fluid to the fluidic oscillator in core section 19. Rotation of barrel 11 90 to its other extreme position relative to valve cylinder assembly 41 aligns apertures 47 outside of core section 19 to permit the pressurized liquid to flow around the core section towards comb 13 and issue as a spray in the manner described in detail below.
As best illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, the rearward portion of comb 13 comprises a multiplicity of tooth-like projections 51 extending radially inward toward the longitudinal center line of shower head 10. Adjacent teeth 51 define flow channels therebetween through which pressurized liquid is constrained to flow during the spray mode of the shower head. Teeth 51 terminate at step 15 at which point the various flow channels assume a three sided configuration. A portion of the fourth side of the flow channels forwardly of step 15 is closed by gasket 17; however, comb 13 extends forwardly of gasket 17 so that a portion of each of the flow channels at the forward end of the comb is open to ambient pressure.
The opposing side walls of the various flow channels lie on respective radii of the circle defined by comb 13. The outer wall of each flow channel diverges from the longitudinal centerline of the shower head in a forward direction. In the illustrated embodiment there are three groups of nozzles, each group diverging to a different degree than the others. More specifically, a channel 53 representing the first group of channels is illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 4a. Forwardly of step 15 and teeth 51 the outer wall 52 of channel 53 is observed to diverge only slightly (i.e., about 1). In FIGS. 5 and 5a there is illustrated a channel representing a second group of channels in which the divergence of outer wall 54 is relatively large (i.e., about 9). A channel 57, representative of the third group of channels, is illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 6a and includes an outer wall 58 which diverges to some intermediate degree (i.e. about 4 Flow of pressurized liquid through each of the channels in comb 13 is illustrated diagrammatically in FIG. 7. More specifically, pressurized liquid forced to flow outside core section 19 flows radially into the comb slots between teeth 51 and then axially forward through the various nozzles defined by channels 53, 55 and 57 and gasket 17. Upon egressing from the nozzle the flow attaches to the outer wall of its channel. More specifically, since ambient air is present at the open side of the channel, the issuing stream entrains air trapped between it and the outer channel wall to reduce the pressure proximate the outer channel wall. The stream is thus attracted to the outer wall and consequently is directed in accordance with the angle formed by that wall upon issuing from the shower head face. It will be appreciated therefore that each of the channels formed in comb 13 can have its outer wall individually angled to produce substantially any overall spray coverage effect from the shower head. In the particular shower head illustrated and described, there are 60 individual channels of which 15 are like channel 53 with a relatively shallow divergence, 15 are like channel 55 with a rela- I tively large divergence, and 30 are like channel 57 with an intermediate divergence. The resulting spray pattern from this type of shower head is composed of three individual concentric patterns of substantially circular cross section. It is to be understood of course that more than three different angles of divergence may be employed and that the individual components of the overall spray pattern need not form three concentric circles but rather may provide a random pattern or any number of concentric patterns.
Importantly, gasket 17 terminates rearwardly of the front end of each channel so that thereafter the stream is confined on only three sides by the three channel walls. Air may then be readily and inexhaustably entrained on the open side of the channel to maintain ambient pressure on the open side of the stream; this thereby assures that the lower pressure between the stream and the angled outer wall of the channel causes the stream to deflect toward and attach to the outer wall. Such deflection is achieved without significantly changing the cross sectional shape or velocity of the stream.
Individual water jets are preferably issued from the shower head to provide an even coverage over the target area. The illustrated shower head, wherein one set of jets is substantially parallel with the longitudinal axis of the shower head, one set is inclined at approximately 4 and another set is inclined at about 9, has been found to produce in a spray pattern which gives a very pleasing and desirable coverage over a wide range of distances from the shower head face.
All of the nozzles are substantially identical in depth at the step in comb member 13; however, as described above, the outer wall of each channel flares out in a downstream direction to produce the resulting jet deflection at the desired angles. In the preferred embodiment the nozzle or channel widths vary to provide substantially equal nozzle cross section areas for all nozzles, a nozzle being defined as that region where gasket 17 provides a closure for the fourth side of the channel. The purpose of having identical cross sectional areas in the nozzle region is the attainment of substantially equal flows for each and every jet, thereby assuring even spray coverage. More specifically, water flows through each nozzle, filling its cross sectional area until the water reaches the angled section of the outer wall and the forward end of gasket 17. Depending upon the angle of the outer wall, the flow tries to follow it and the resulting jet is directed at an angle to the direction of flow through the nozzle throat itself. If the nozzle throat were also angled to the same extent as the outer wall of the channel the cross sectional area of the nozzle would increase in a downstream direction thereby decreasing the velocity of the jet. The result would be uneven spray. Alternately, it is possible to utilize equal cross sectional areas for all nozzles, thereby attempting to attain equal effects. I-Iowever, this would require corresponding nozzle width variations along the length of the nozzles, thereby increasing the complexity and cost of manufacturing. Thus, for optimum even spray coverage it is desirable that the various nozzle widths vary to provide equal nozzle cross section for all nozzles in the region between step 15 and the forward end of gasket 17 where flow separation from the outer channel wall first occurs. It is to be stressed that identical cross sectional areas for the nozzles is required only where equal flows and even spray coverage is desired; it is not a requirement of the present invention. The crucial aspect of the present invention is the utilization of the Coanda effector boundary layer attachment to direct individual jets in-an overall spray pattern. This is achieved without a decrease in flow velocity and in fact produces a slight increase in the flow velocity due to the Coandaeffect.
The advantages of the shower head described above include the possibility of using a single circular pattern of nozzles, which is easily and inexpensively manufactured, to provide a relatively wide area of spray coverage. In addition the inner nozzle walls are all formed by the same member, that is gasket 17. This gasket also serves to prevent water leakage and outflow anywhere but through the nozzles during the spray mode of the shower head.
It is to be understood that the spray nozzle concept as described above is equally applicable to an arrangement which is inverted whereby the nozzles (comb and channels) are formed in the core assembly and open radially outward. The gasket in such an arrangement would fit over and around these channels as opposed to inside the channels.
Referring specifically to FIG. 8 of the accompanying drawings there is diagrammatically illustrated a modified nozzle employing the principles described above. The essential feature of the nozzle of FIG. 8 is the fact that the jet issued from the nozzle is capable of attaching to either of two channel walls and may thereby issue from a shower head face in either of two directions. More specifically, the nozzle throat .61 opens into a channel in which an outer wall 62 diverges in a downstream direction from the central longitudinal axis of the shower head 60. The inner side of the channel is no longer directly open to ambient downstream of the nozzle throat but rather is provided with a side wall 64 which may preferably be part'of a gasket 63 or the core structure 19 of FIG. 1. A control port 65 is defined through the outer wall 62 at the downstream end of nozzle 61. Control port 65 communicates directly with a central fluid passage 66 arranged to communicate directly with the control ports of all the nozzles in the I shower head 60. The forward end of fluid passage 66 terminates at the face of the shower head at which location a manually operable slide member 67 is disposed to permit selective opening and closing of passage 66 to ambient air.
In the embodiment illustrated inner wall 64 is positioned so that the stream from nozzle 61 normally attaches thereto, in the absence of control influence. This is merely a matter of choice, however, and wall 62 can be positioned so that the stream is biased thereto.
If slide 67 is closed, thereby shutting off the supply of ambient air to fluid passage 66 and control port 65, the liquid jet issuing from nozzle 61 fills the channel and attaches to both of walls 62, 64. Specifically, since no ambient air is supplied through control port 65, the jet tends to attach to both walls 62, 64 and, in so doing, fills the channel. If now slide 67 is open permitting substantially unlimited ambient air inflow to control port 65, the pressure between the jet and outer wall 62 is increased significantly. The outer edge of the jet is compressed toward inner wall 64 and an integral stream issues along wall 64 and out through the shower head.
The configuration of FIG. 8 can be utilized in a shower head to change the shower spray pattern from a narrow cone to a wide cone, or to simply change from one spray configuration to another spray configuration. In addition nozzles may be utilized in conjunction with a fluidic oscillator of the core section 19 in FIG. 1 to permit a massage mode to be selected.
Various modifications of FIG. 3 are possible within the scope of the present invention. For example, the nozzle illustrated in FIG. 8 (and in FIGS. 9, 10 described below) need not be a narrow nozzle such as the types illustrated in FIG. 3; rather the nozzles may be arcuate in shape, each nozzle subtending an arc of significant length on the face of theshower head. On the other hand, a single annular nozzle having the core section illustrated in FIG. 8 may be utilized to provide a single cone spray which may be selectively widened or narrowed depending upon the position of slide 67. In this regard the drawing of FIG. 3 may simply represent a cross section of such an annular or arcuate nozzle. The spray resulting from such a nozzle may be utilized for decorative fountains, or the like, and need not be limited only to shower head utilization.
It is also to be understood that both the inner and outer walls of the channel may each have a control port defined therein. In such circumstances, closure of both control ports produces full channel flow; opening of either control port directs the stream away from that port. The result is a three-mode device with a full channel mode and two partial channel modes.
Furthermore, control of the flow is not necessarily limited to the closure or obstruction of a control channel but may also be achieved by water or other liquid introduced into the control nozzle to obstruct the control nozzle. In such a case water is drawn into the control nozzle and represents a very high impedance to the liquid, producing an effect quite similar to the closure of the channel to ambient air. The advantage of such an approach is the elimination of a moving part, such as slide 67. Of particular importance, this concept may be utilized in feeding back a portion of the issued jet to provide an oscillatory jet which alternately deflects between two positions without operator intervention. Nozzles of this type are illustrated diagrammatically in FIGS. 9 and 10.
Referring specifically to FIG. 9, there is illustrated a nozzle in a shower head 70 comprising nozzle throat 71 which terminates in a channel defined in part by inner wall 74 and outer wall 72. A control port 75, analogous to control port 65 in FIG. 8, communicates with a fluid conduit 76 terminating at the face of the shower head. No slide analogous to slide 67 is provided to close fluid passage 76 in the embodiment of FIG. 9. A further control port 78 is defined at the upstream end of outer wall 72 and is connected to a fluid feedback passage 77 which terminates proximate the downstream end of side wall 74. Feedback channel 77 is also connected to an aperture 79 in the face of the shower head which permits ambient air to enter feedback passage 77 when the latter is not blocked. Aperture 79 may be dispensed with if sufficient inflow of ambient air can enter feedback passage 77 from the opening in wall 74 when the stream is attached to wall 72.
In operation, initially the jet issued from nozzle throat 71 flows along inner wall 74 and a portion of the jet flows into feedback passage 77. The liquid in feedback passage 77 tends to obstruct the passage, preventing ambient air from flowing therethrough and producing a relatively low pressure in the control port 78. The low pressure at the control port 78 combined with the ambient pressure at control port 75 forces the jet to deflect toward and at least partially attach to outer wall 72. The jet no longer supplies liquid to the feedback passage 77. Residue liquid in the passage is aspirated by the power stream flowing rapidly past control port 78. Upon aspiration of liquid from the feedback line ambient air enters the feedback passage and increases the pressure in control port 78. The stream then switches back to its undeflected position along inner wall 74 to begin another automatic cycle of oscillation.
The overall effect of a shower head employing plural oscillator elements of the type illustrated in FIG. 9 is a spray which cyclically widens and closes producing a pleasing tingling effect on the body of the bather.
FIG. 10 illustrates another form of oscillator which is particularly useful as a nozzle in a shower head 80. More specifically, the element in FIG. 10 is a familiar fluidic cross over type element, operating as a relaxation oscillator, wherein pressurized liquid supplied from a throat 81 is issued into a reversing chamber 85 having sidewalls 86 and 87. Operation of the reversing chamber type element is well known and is described in detail in my US. Pat. No. 3,563,462. Pressurized liquid initially issued from throat 81 impinges against the downstream end of sidewall 87 and flows out through the downstream end of reversing chamber in the manner illustrated by the solid arrow in FIG. 10. The outflowing liquid stream seals the reversing chamber from ambient air when crossing over the chamber output opening. A portion of the outflow is received by feedback passage 84 and blocks the flow of ambient air through that passage to control port 82 (defined through the upstream end of inner wall 86) to significantly lower the pressure at that point. This, combined with the ambient air inflow from vented control port 83 at the upstream end of outer wall 87 forces the stream to deflect toward inner wall 86. The jet thus issues from reversing chamber 85 at an angle which is determined by the contour of inner wall 86. Feedback passage 84 is now opened to ambient and any residue liquid in feedback passage 84 is aspirated by the jet flowing quickly past control port 82. Ambient air in feedback passage 84 and control port 82 increases the pressure proximate the upstream end of inner wall 86 forcing the jet to switch back to its undeflected position proximate sidewall 87 and impinging against the downstream end of that wall. The cycle repeats to provide an oscillating output spray of the same general type produced by the element of FIG. 9.
The fluidic shower spray described above in its various embodiments is simple to manufacture and requires a minimum of components. The shower head itself is extremely versatile in that it may be constructed to provide only a constant spray or alternatively may be built with a multimode capability wherein an oscillating spray, a manually deflected spray, and a massaging alternating jet such as described in my previous patent may be selectively utilized by the bather.
The spray elements illustrated in FIGS. 8, 9 and 10 may be cross-sections of individual thin channels, of arcuate channels, or of annular channels extending about the periphery of the entire shower head core. Where annular elements are employed, a comb-like member 90 (FIG. 11) having multiple teeth 91 arranged in an annular path, may be placed in front of the shower head to divide the annular spray into multiple individual spray elements.
While I have described and illustrated specific embodiments of my invention, it will be clear that variations of the details of construction which are specifically illustrated and described may be resorted to without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
l. A spray head, especially for a shower, of the type which issues a spray pattern of substantially conical configuration, characterized by an egress opening (53, 55, 57, 61, 71) for said spray which is substantially larger in total cross-section than the issued spray and which includes at least one surface (52, 54, 58, 62, 64, 72, 74) positioned to cause boundary layer attachment thereto of the issued spray, and further characterized in that said egress opening comprises a multiplicity of individual adjacent channels (53, 55, 57, 61, 71) for issuing a respective multiplicity of individual liquid jets forming said spray pattern, each channel having a sidewall (52, 54, 58, 62, 64, 72, 74) positioned to cause boundary layer attachment thereto of the individual liquid jet flowing through that channel.
2. A fluidic spray member of the type comprising a body having a longitudinal axis and a plurality of liquid jet-issuing openings defined in its face, said spray member characterized by a plurality of nozzles, one for each opening, and a plurality of channels, one for each opening, each nozzle being arranged to receive pressurized liquid and issue a jet into a respective channel, each channel terminating at a respective one of said openings and including at least one channel wall angled relative to said longitudinal axis to permit a jet flowing in that channel to attach to said one channel wall, whereby each jet issues from said spray member in a direction determined by the angle of its one channel wall;
wherein said channels are arranged in a single circular path about said longitudinal axis, said one channel wall in alternate channels along said path having different angles of divergence.
3. A fluidic spray member of the type comprising a body having a longitudinal axis and a plurality of liquid jet-issuing openings defined in its face, said spray member characterized by a plurality of nozzles, one for each opening, and a plurality of channels, one for each opening, each nozzlebeing arranged to receive pressurized liquid and issue a jet into a respective channel, each channel terminating at a respective one of said openings and including at least one channel wall angled relative to said longitudinal axis to permit a jet flowing in that channel to attach to said one channel wall, whereby each jet issues from said spray member in a direction determined by the angle of itsone channel wall;
wherein said channels are arranged in groups, the
angle of divergence of said one channel wall being the same for all channels in the same group but different for channels in different groups.
4. A fluidic spray member of the type comprising a body having-a longitudinal axis and a plurality of liquid jet-issuing openings defined in its face, said spray member characterized by a plurality of nozzles, one for each opening, and a plurality of channels, one for each opening, each nozzle being arranged to receive pressurized liquid and issue a jet into a respective channel, each channel terminating at a respective one of said openings and including at least one channel wall angled relative to said longitudinal axis to permit a jet flowing in that channel to attach to said one channel wall, whereby each jet issues from said spray member in a direction determined by the angle of its one channel wall;
wherein each of said channels includes a second channel wall, opposite said first channel wall, to which said jet is capable of attaching, said opposite channel-wall subtending an angle relative to said longitudinal axis which differs from the angle between said one channel wall and said longitudinal axis, said spray member additionally including control means for selectively attaching said jets in each channel to both said one and said second channel walls. a
5. The spray member according to claim 4 wherein said control means comprises means for controllably admitting ambient air into said channel proximate one of said opposite channel walls.
6. A fluidic spray member of the type comprising a body having a longitudinal axis and a plurality of liquid jet-issuing openings defined in its face, said spray member characterized by a plurality of nozzles, one for each opening, and a plurality of channels, one for each opening, each nozzle being arranged to receive pressurized liquid and issue a jet into a respective channel, each channel terminating at a respective one of said openings and including at least one channel wall angled relative to said longitudinal axis to permit a jet flowing in that channel to attach to said one channel wall, whereby each jet issues from said spray member in a direction determined by the angle of its one channel wall;
wherein each of said channels includes a second channel wall opposite said first channel wall to which said jet is capable of attaching, said spray member additionally including control means for automatically oscillating said jet in each of said channels between said one and said second channel walls.
7. The spray member according to claim 6 wherein said control means comprises means for controllably admitting ambient air into said channel proximate one of said opposite channel walls.
8. The spray member according to claim 6 wherein said control means includes means for admitting ambient air into said channel proximate both of said opposite channel walls.
9. A shower head comprising: a body having a longitudinal axis; a plurality of liquid jet-issuing openings formed in said body, each comprising a nozzle arranged to receive pressurized liquid and issue a jet,-and a channel arranged to receive said jet from said nozzle and direct said jet externally of said body, said channel being closed on three sides and open to atmosphere on a fourth side, one closed side of said channel diverging angularly from said longitudinal axis in a'downstream direction, the angles of divergence of said one closed side being small enough to permit said jet to attach thereto.
10. The shower head according to claim 9 wherein said openings are arranged in a single circular path on the face of said shower head, said circular path being centered about said longitudinal axis, and wherein alternate channels in said path have one side which diverges from said longitudinal axis at different angles.
11. The shower head according to claim 10 further comprising a central core member including a fluidic oscillator responsive to application of pressurized liquid thereto for alternatively issuing slugs of liquid from a pair of openings located interiorly of said circular path, and means for selectively applying pressurized liquid to either said nozzles or said fluidic oscillator.
12. The shower head according to claim 10 wherein channels of different divergence from said longitudinal axis are positioned at regular intervals along said circular path to provide a plurality of concentric spray patterns issuing from said shower head.
13. The shower head according to claim 9 wherein said channels are arranged in groups, the angle of divergence of said one closed side being the same for all channels in the same group but different for channels in different groups.
M. A shower head including: a longitudinal axis; a face plate having plurality of openings defined therein and arranged in a single circular path centered about said longitudinal axis; a plurality of fluid passages, one for each opening in said face, each passage arranged to deliver a fluid stream through a respective opening in said face, some of said fluid passages subtending different angles relative to said axis than others of said passage, whereby the streams issued through said openings form a spray pattern having a configuration determined by the angles subtended by said fluid passages.
15. A shower head comprising:
a body member having an outlet end and adapted to receive pressurized liquid and issue a spray pattern of the received liquid from said outlet end, said outlet end having a continuous annular outlet opening defined therein from which said issued spray pattern emerges with an annular crosssection;
outer and inner walls of said body, said walls being of generally annular cross-section and spaced to define said annular outlet opening at said outlet end of said body member, said outer and inner walls being mutually convergent in a direction inwardly of said body member to define an annular throat inside said body member;
means for defining an annular flow of said received pressurized liquid and directing said annular flow into said annular throat; and
automatic means for cyclically deflecting said annular stream to flow along said outer and inner walls in turn, whereby said issued spray pattern alternately widens and narrows.
16. The shower head according to claim 15 wherein said annular outer and inner walls are concentrically disposed about a longitudinal axis, said inner wall being disposed to converge toward said longitudinal axis in the direction of spray pattern flow, said outer wall being disposed to diverge from said longitudinal axis in the direction of spray pattern flow.
17. The shower head according to claim 15 wherein said automatic means is a fluidic oscillator.
18. The shower head according to claim 15 wherein the divergence of said annular inner and outer walls at said annular throat is sufficiently small to permit said annular stream to be attracted to each wall by means of boundary layer attachment.
19. The shower head according to claim 15 further comprising manually actuable means for inhibiting said automatic means and directing said annular stream along one of said outer and inner walls continuously.
20. A shower head comprising:
a body member adpated to receive pressurized liquid;
said body member comprising:
means defining a first outlet path for issuing pressurized liquid in a first annular spray pattern;
means defining a second outlet path for issuing pressurized liquid in a second annular spray pattern concentric with and interiorly of said first annular spray pattern;
automatic means for alternately directing said received pressurized liquid along said first and second outlet paths in turn.
21. The shower head according to claim 20 wherein said automatic means comprises a fluidic oscillator.
22. The shower head according to claim 20 wherein said first and second outlet paths each comprise a plurality of adjacent channels arranged in a circle, and wherein said first and second annular spray patterns each include a plurality of individual streams, each stream being issued through a respective channel.
23. The spray head according to claim 22 further characterized in that said adjacent channels (53, 55, 57) are arranged in a single closed path, and in that respective sidewalls (52, 54, 58) to which said liquid jets attach are positioned at a plurality of different outwardly divergent angles relative to the longitudinal axis of said conical flow pattern.
24. The spray member according to claim 23 further characterized in that said channels are arranged such that adjacent channels (53, 55, 57) have outwardly divergent sidewalls (52, 54, 58) with different angles of divergence.
25. Liquid spray apparatus, comprising:
a body member having an inlet for receiving pressurized liquid and an annular outlet for issuing the received liquid;
an annular throat, defined in said body and arranged in a flow path between said inlet and said annular outlet;
first and second spaced cylindrical walls extending in concentric relationship between said throat and said outlet to define an annular flow region between said throat and said outlet, said walls diverging in a downstream direction immediately downstream of said throat; and
vent means for selectively admitting air into said flow region through said first wall;
wherein the annular spacing between said first and second walls causes flow through said flow region to attach only to said second wall upon admission of air by said vent means into said flow region and to cause flow to fill said flow region in the absence of air admitted into said flow region by said vent means.