|Publication number||US3742631 A|
|Publication date||Jul 3, 1973|
|Filing date||Oct 8, 1970|
|Priority date||Oct 8, 1970|
|Also published as||DE2149827A1|
|Publication number||US 3742631 A, US 3742631A, US-A-3742631, US3742631 A, US3742631A|
|Original Assignee||Hasala E|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (24), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Hasala [4 1 July 3,1973
[ ILLUMINATED DISPLAYS  Inventor: Ernest Hasala, 608 W. Hillsdale Boulevard, San Mateo, Calif.
 Filed: Oct. 8, 1970 w  Appl. No.: 79,024
 11.8. C1 40/l06.53, 40/36, 40/137  Int. Cl. G0f 13/36  Field of Search 40/36, 106.51, 106.52,
40/l06.53, 132 F, 137, 133 A  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,689,422 9/1954 Hoff 40/133 3,562,941 7/1968 Boden.... lo/106.53 3,082,560 3/1963 E1vestrom..... 40/10651 X 2,293,106 8/1942 Bourdakoff.... 40/133 A 1,869,276 7/1932 Precort 40/133 A 829,902 8/1906 Urry 40/137 2,246,001 6/1941 Powers 40/137 3,480,352 11/1 969 Deninson et a1 352/81 3,314,179 4/1967 Leach 40/106.51 X
3,000,125 9/1961 Elvestrom 40/137 2,618,087 11/1952 Hutchison 40/l06.53
Primary Examiner-Wm. 1-1. Grieb Assistant Examiner-John F. Pitrelli Attorney-Eckhoff, Hoppe, Slick, Mitchell & Anderson ABSTRACT A composite display is formed from a mosaic of substantially contiguous luminous images each obtained by viewing one of a coordinated pattern of separated and smaller luminous apertures through more than one texture element of a transparent textured screen. A program sheet having an edited pattern of variable light transmission values is shifted ino coincidence with and relative to the aperture pattern to provide change in or animation of the mosaic by modifying the luminosity of the several apertures in the aperture pattern.
5 Claims, 16 Drawing Figures PATENTEUJUL 3 I975 same or;
I INVENTOR. ERNEST HASALA ATTORNEYS FIG .8
ILLUMINATED DISPLAYS The principal object of the invention is to create a large illuminated display which is a composite of substantially contiguous readily changeable illuminated images formed by viewing a pattern of smaller luminous apertures through a textured screen.
Another object of this invention is to provide a mosaic of luminous images having undiminished brilliance from a variety of viewing positions.
Still another object of the invention is to change or to animate the mosaic by an edited modification of the luminosity of the aperture pattern which generates the mosaic.
An object of the invention also is to provide a display presenting an edited program of rapidly changed images such as letters, pictures, messages, etc. without time based distortion or the need for precise registry of its optical components.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings wherein FIG. la is a schematic top view of the three principal components of the invention for a static display namely, the light source, aperture pattern and textured screen;
FIG. lb is a schematic top view of the three components of FIG. 1a with the spacing between screen and aperture pattern increased to illustrate the multi-point refractional spread of an aperture image on the screen;
FIG. 2a is an elevational view of typical types of apertures in the aperture pattern;
FIG. 2b is an elevational view of the image which the rectangular apertures of FIG. 2a develop when viewed through a lenticular screen with its ruling parallel to the vertical edges of the apertures;
FIG. 2c illustrates a rectangular aperture oriented at an angle relative to the ruling of the lenticular screen;
FIG. 2d illustrates the image developed by the angularly oriented aperture of FIG. 20;
FIG. 3 is a schematic top view of the four principal components of this invention for an animated display including light source, program sheet, aperture pattern and textured screen;
FIG. 4 is a schematic exploded perspective view of one form of apparatus useful in producing an animated composite display;
FIG. 5 shows a form of fixed aperture pattern useful in the apparatus of FIG. 4 to form a composite display of the letter D";
FIG. 6 is a shiftable program sheet for the apparatus of FIG. 4 useful in forming the D";
FIG. 7 is the resultant composite display of the letter D" developed by the aperture pattern viewed through the lenticular screen of the apparatus of FIG..4;
FIG. 8 is an alternative apparatus with a fixed program sheet and shiftable aperture pattern;
FIG. 9 illustrates schematically a variation of the invention employing a screen textured for multidirectional refraction and a planetary or orbital movement between the aperture pattern and program sheet;
FIG. 10 illustrates in perspective a form of apparatus for moving the program sheet in an orbital scan;
FIG. 11 schematically illustrates the relationship between the radial spread of a single aperture and the variable transmission pattern of the program sheet moving in the orbital scan of FIG. 9; and
FIG. 12 illustrates in cross-section a modified construction for the apertured grid.
This invention employs the optical principle that on a transparent screen. textured with parallel lines such as lenticular lining, prismatic or similar ribbing of line texture, the same luminous aperture spaced from the screen so that it is in the field of view of more than one of the screen rulings will spread by multi-point refraction into a larger image having a dimension perpendicular to the rulings that is proportional to the number of rulings through which the luminous aperture is visible. In other words, a luminous dot" aperture is refractionally spread into a line image. Such line image actually consists of multiple contiguous images of the luminous dot, one formed by each of the screen rulings. Each of the multiple contiguous dots has substantially undiminished brilliance and can be seen from a variety of viewing positions because of the focusing effect of the screen rulings. The length of that line for a given aperture and screen texture depends upon the distance between the aperture and the screen or stated otherwise, by the number of texture elements which have the aperture in their field of view.
Similarly, viewed through a transparent screen textured in a multidimensional manner such as round lenticles, a diamond, rectangular or a similar dotted pattern, the image of an illuminated aperture will spread by multi-point refraction on the texture elements in di-' rections perpendicular to every face of those elements. For example, it spreads radially for a round element or in four directions for a rectangular element. Again the amount of spread of the viewed image depends upon the distance between aperture and screen.
The individual luminous apertures are arranged in a coordinated pattern with a spacing between apertures which preferably relates to the amount of refractional spread so that the composite of images viewed through the textured screen is a mosaic of larger substantially contiguous and non-overlapping images produced by light from each of the individual apertures. The amount of refractional spread is controlled by the distance between textured screen and aperture pattern.
FIGS. 10 and lb illustrate the multi-point refractional spread. A source 1 of diffuse light back-illuminates a pattern of light transparent apertures only one of which, aperture 5, is shown in FIGS. 1a and 1b, formed in a generally opaque sheet herein called the apertured grid 4. A textured transparent screen 2, such as a lenticular screen of transparent lens material having at least one face ruled into a plurality of contiguous cylindrical lens elements 3, is spaced in front of the apertured grid 4 on the viewing side of the display. The light source 1 illuminates each aperture 5 which is viewed by an observer through a number of lens elements 3 of the screen 2 that is proportional to the spacing between grid 4 and screen 2. For example, in FIG. 1a the luminous aperture is viewed through four lens elements 3, whereas with increased spacing between grid and screen the aperture is in the field of view of six lens elements in FIG. 1b.
If a luminous aperture is, for example, the thin vertical line 5a of FIG. 2a, its image when viewed through a lenticular screen 2 is the area 50 shown in FIG. 2b which is spread in a direction perpendicular to the ruling of the lenticular screen an amount of four times the width of the aperture. This corresponds to the aperture and screen spacing of FIG. la. Similarly, if an aperture is the dot b of FIG. 2a, it spreads into line 5d of FIG. 21; having a length in a direction perpendicular to the screen rulings which corresponds to the number of lens elements having the luminous aperture in their field of view. Again, in this case with the spacing of FIG. la, line 5b is four times the length of dot 5b of the apertured grid 4. Hence, the unit element of the display appears as such a line which in fact consists of contiguous multiple dots, one developed by each lens element 3.
In a similar fashion, if the aperture 5a is oriented at an angle on an apertured grid 4 with respect to the grid 4 of FIG. 2a, as is shown in FIG. 2c, the image 50' on the lenticular screen 2 is the paralleogram 50' shown in FIG. 2d.
The mosaic of images developed by the pattern of apertures in the apertured grid 4 on textured screen 2 can be modified by interposing between them a program sheet 6 having areas of variable light transmission value to vary the luminosity of the apertures. In FIG. 3, for example, the opaque areas 7 of the program sheet 6 block light from the aperture 5 farthest to the right, whereas the program sheet is transparent in areas over lying the other two apertures 5 and permits the light source to illuminate them. The program sheet can be placed on either side of the apertured grid to accomplish its effect.
The program sheet and apertured grid are shifted or moved relative to one another to change or to animate the display and develop a large number of image combinations. The term animate" herein means visual effect of motion of persons or things depicted in the display, or the visual effect of motion in a shift from one fixed scene to another, or the visual effect of an object or person expanding in size with respect to time, or a combination of these visual effects. In the embodiment of FIG. 3 the spacing between apertured grid and textured screen and the size of the separated apertures is such that each luminous aperture viewed through screen 2 spreads to form a mosaic of contiguous light images. The image for a particular aperture pattern, of course, could be made to overlap or to have nonilluminated gaps between them depending upon the distance between screen and grid.
FIG. 4 illustrates a simplified apparatus for an animated display. It comprises source 1 of diffuse light which, for example, may be a sheet of frosted glass back-lighted by an electric light that is not shown, an apertured grid 4 and a transparent lenticular screen 2, all fixedly mounted upon base 9. Between the apertured grid 4 and diffuse light source 1 is program sheet 6 carrying on it a pattern of variable light transmission values. It is translated horizontally relative to the other elements of the combination by a reciprocating drive means referred to generally as 10. This means can be a motor driven cam mechanism, for example. FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 show, respectively, a typical pattern of apertures on the grid 4, a pattern of transmission values on the program sheet 6 for a single position of it, and the resulting composite display of the letter D produced on lenticular screen 2 by the modified pattern of luminous apertures. All are useful in a device of the type shown in FIG. 4.
The apertured grid 4 comprises a plurality of thin line apertures parallel to the rulings in the lenticular screen 2 and separated opaque columns 16 which are much wider than the apertures. A typical ratio of aperture to column width is one to ten with the opaque columns about ten times wider than the transparent apertures. A typical aperture grid can be formed by printing alternate opaque columns 16 upon a transparent dimensionally stable sheet of polyester plastic such as Mylar or other rigid sheet material. The illuminated line apertures 15 of the grid 4 viewed through the lenticular screen 2 set in front of it, create a mosaic of refractionally spread aperture images covering the entire screen. The distance between the grid and screen is adjusted so that the individual images do not overlap and form one continuous composite display.
The mosaic of images cast upon the lenticular screen can be modified by a programmed pattern of variable light transmission values on program sheet 6. For example, in FIG. 6 the program sheet 6 is generally opaque as at 17 but provided with the illustrated pattern of spaced vertical transparent lines 18. Each line 18 has a width approximately equal to that of an aperture in grid 4 and has the various lengths shown. Their spacing one from the other is the same as the spacing of the apertures of the grid. The program sheet 6 and apertured grid 4 mount in the embodiment of FIG. 4 closely adjacent one another. For illustrative purposes, however, in FIG. 4 the program sheet and apertured grid are shown in exploded perspective.
When the transparent lines 18 of the program sheet lie directly behind the opaque columns 16 of the grid, its opaque portions 17 block all of the apertures 15 from view and the display is dark. On the other hand, when the reciprocating drive means 10 translates the program sheet 6 horizontally with respect to the grid 4 so that the transparent lines 18 of the program sheet 6 coincide with apertures 15 of the grid, each aperture is illuminated only in the pattern of the transparent lines 18 of the program sheet. The composite mosaic formed on the screen 2, as shown in FIG. 7, displays the letter D referred to as 19 made of multiple spread images 20 of apertures 15 as modified by each transparent program line 18 with a non-illuminated background 21.
Since the aperture lines 15 of the grid are small relative to the adjacent opaque columns 16, a number of similar patterns of transparent lines, not shown, normally are formed upon the program sheet between the transparent lines 18 shown in FIG. 6 to form other letters, for example. Each such pattern in turn modifies the image cast by the grid apertures upon translation of these lines on the program sheet into coincidence with the apertures 15 of the grid.
For a 10 to 1 ratio between the width of apertures 15 and columns 16 as many as 10 different images can be formed upon a single program sheet6. Such program can be augmented by additional separately shiftable program sheets, each one of which has one line open and remains normally fixed behind the opaque columns of the grid until its turn to modify the aperture transmission. The program sheet may be a strip image transparency of the general type described in US. Pat. No. 3,314,179 for Display Apparatus issued on Apr. [8, 1967 to S. L. Leach or in US. Pat. No. 3,000,125 for Pictorial Display Device issued Sept. 19, l96l to V. Elvestrom.
The aperture grid 4 also can be moved relative to the program sheet. Movement can be continuous as illustrated in the embodiment of FIG. 8 or can be intermittent. There a lenticular screen '2 with its ruling oriented horizontally and a program sheet 6 are fixedly mounted on a frame referred to generally as 25. The apertured grid is a flexible continuously moving belt 26 having a pattern of horizontal aperture lines 15 and horizontal opaque columns 16. The grid belt 26 moves on a system of four rollers 27 rotatably mounted on the frame 25, one or more of which are power driven. In this instance the program sheet 6 has its program oriented horizontally also and is spaced between the grid and screen. The diffuse light source for this embodiment comprises a pair of fluorescent lights 28 backed by reflector 29 with a light diffusing sheet 30 of plastic, frosted glass or other material on the side adjacent to the apertured grid belt 26. The same operating principles described for the vertical aperture orientation in connection with FIGS. 4 7 apply to their horizontal disposition in FIG. 8.
FIGS. 9 l 1 illustrate in part another embodiment of the invention in which apertured grid 42 is viewed through a textured screen 40 which carries a multidimensional pattern. The textured screen in this embodiment has a dotted pattern such as provided by round lenticles, diamond, rectangular or similar pattern with multiple refraction surfaces so that the refractive spread occurs in multiple directions from the aperture element surfaces.
In FIG. textured screen mounts over one face of a rigid rectangular frame 41. The apertured grid 42 carries a plurality of circular spaced apertures 43. Side shields 44 in this embodiment extend rearwardly from the textured screen 40 to restrict the width of refractive spread when the assembly is viewed from extreme side positions.
Means for orbitally moving a program sheet 50 relative to the fixed grid 42 are illustrated schematically in FIG. 9 and comprise a pair of driven wheels 45 each carrying an eccentric pin 46 upon which the program sheet 50 is pivotally mounted. Clockwise rotation of wheels 45 moves the program sheet 50 through the several positions indicated on FIG. 9 as a shown in solid lines and in sequence 12, c and d shown in dash lines.
The program sheet 50 carries for each aperture 43 a pattern of light modifying areas 51 which orbit in sequence into coincidence with the aperture and modify its luminosity. FIG. 11 shows nine of these areas 51 (designated 1 through 9) which during one revolution trace circular path 47 of FIG. 9 and coincide in sequence with the aperture 43. The modified luminous aperture is then spread by the screen 40 into the larger image 43' of FIG. 11.
Similarly linear light modifying areas 48 would move through an orbit 49 to modify a linear aperture at the top of such orbit shown in FIG. 9.
The embodiment of FIGS. 9, 10 and 11 functions in a manner similar to that described above for FIGS. 1
7 but with multidimensional stretch of the luminous aperture images to form a composite display.
FIG. 12 illustrates a modified construction for the apertured grids 4 and 42. Rather than the printed flat plastic sheet described in connection with FIG. 5, the grid 60 can be a molded transparent plastic sheet having light condensing or focusing protuberances 61 overlying each line aperture 15 of the type shown in FIG. 5. The apertures 15 are similarly formed by printing opaque columns 16 on the side of the molded sheet opposite the protuberances. This construction improves the light output from the apertures.
1. A composite display formed of a mosaic of multipoint refractionally spread images of a pattern of separated luminous apertures, including a coordinated pattern of separated luminous apertures, at least some of said apertures having light focusing elements overlying them for transmitting the aperture light to said screen, and
at least one transparent textured screen spaced such distance from said pattern of apertures that each aperture of the pattern is in the field of view of more than one texture element of the screen.
2. An animated composite display formed of an edited series of mosaics of multi-point refractionally spread images of a pattern of luminous apertures including a coordinated pattern of separated luminous apertures; at least one transparent textured screen spaced such distance from said pattern of apertures that each aperture of the pattern is in the field of view of more than one texture element of the screen; program means modifying the luminosity of the apertures of said screen in varying amounts for positions corresponding to each mosaic of said series; and means for shifting the program means and pattern of apertures relative to one another.
3. The animated composite display of claim 2 wherein for each relative position of said program means and pattern of apertures a light modifying portion of said program for that position only substantially coincides with said pattern of apertures and the remainder of said program means is obscured by the separation between said apertures.
4. The animated display of claim 2 wherein said textured screen is a lenticular screen.
5. The animated display of claim 2 wherein adjacent ones of said separated apertures are equidistant from one another and their spacing one from the other and distance from the textured screen are such that the formed spread images are substantially contiguous with one another.
I I i iii
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|U.S. Classification||40/437, 40/454, 40/476, 359/619|
|International Classification||G09F13/34, G09F13/00|