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Publication numberUS3745966 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 17, 1973
Filing dateNov 26, 1971
Priority dateNov 26, 1971
Publication numberUS 3745966 A, US 3745966A, US-A-3745966, US3745966 A, US3745966A
InventorsSeager R
Original AssigneeGen Electric
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Four-quadrant indicator employing moire effect
US 3745966 A
Abstract
Display apparatus for indicating motion and displacement of a control lever movable about one end thereof through various positions within a spherical sector of radius substantially coextensive with the lever comprises a first regular pattern formed on a transparent surface positionable by the control lever, and a second regular pattern formed on a surface beneath the positionable surface. By employing equally spaced lines in each pattern, each position of the control lever results in creation of unique moire fringes which are set into motion whenever the control lever is moved.
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United States Patent [1 1 Seager 1451 July 17, 1973 1 FOUR-QUADRANT INDICATOR EMPLOYING MOIRE EFFECT [75] lnventor: Richard H. Seager, Manlius, NY.

[73] Assignee: General Electric Company,

Syracuse, N.Y.

[22] Filed: Nov. 26, 1971 [21] Appl; No.: 202,369

[52] US. Cl 116/124, 40/l06.53, 40/137,

74/471, 338/128 [51 Int. Cl. G091 9/00 [58] Field of Search 116/114, 124 R,

116/129 R;40/106.53,106.5,137,106.51; 338/128; 272/8 M; 250/237 G; 356/169; 74/471 1 56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,917,854 12/1959 Swarbrick 40/106.51 X 3,365,975 1/1968 Hathaway.... 338/128 X 3,372,359 3/1968 Wilson 338/128 3,629,775 12/1971 Kindred 338/128 3,634,959 1/1972 Goodrich 340/27 R Eaves..... 4()/l06.53

Komatsu 338/128 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Publication: Edmund ScientificCo Barrington, N. 1., Catalog 671, Cover-Page, Page 2, Pages 74 & 75.

Primary Examiner-Louis J. Capozi Attorney-Marvin Snyder et a1.

57 ABSTRACT 11 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PAIENTLU JUL 1 mm SHEU 1 BF 3 FIGS PAIENIED JUL 1 7 ms SHEU 3 BF 3 RIGHT- FIG.6

FRON

RE'AR --ILEFT- FOUR-QUADRANT INDICATOR EMPLOYING MOIRE EFFECT INTRODUCTION This invention relates to visual displays, and more particularly to indicators for displaying the effects of moving a control lever about one end thereof through various positions within a substantially spherical sector of radius coextensive with the lever.

The purpose of employing four-channel stereo playback systems is to reproduce for the listener the effect of hearing music as he might if he were seated at a live performance in a concert hall, wherein he hears sound emanating directly from the stage and reverberating from the surfaces within the hall. As the name implies, four separate channels of sound are involved, with each channel representing the sound at a particular location at the recording site. These channels are individually coupled through the system to four separate loudspeaker enclosures, two of which are preferably placed in front of the listener on either side thereof and reproduce the sound recorded at the left and right sides of the stage, and the other two of which are preferably placed behind the listener on either side thereof and reproduce the complex sound at the rear of the hall made up of natural reverberations from the surfaces within the room containing the recording site plus sound emanating from the stage itself.

In order to provide the listener with reproduced sound that seemingly is how he would have heard it if present in the concert hall when and where it was produced, it is necessary to balance the system so that volume of sound produced by the system is optimized. This balance obtains when the volume of sound produced by any one loudspeaker enclosure is relatively the same, with respect to that produced by each of the other three loudspeaker enclosures, as the volume of sound recorded at the recording location corresponding to that one enclosure is with respect to the volume of sound recorded at each of the other three recording locations, respectively. One type of control for achieving such balance has required use of three separate potentiometers. Typically, in this type of control, one potentiometer balances the right front and left front loudspeaker enclosures with respect to each other, the second balances the left rear and right rear loudspeaker enclosures with respect to each other, and the third balances the combined front loudspeaker enclosures with respect to the combined rear loudspeaker enclosures. While such controls are entirely adequate, they require individual manipulation of three separate knobs.

To reduce the manipulations required to achieve balance among separate loudspeaker enclosures in fourchannel stereo playback systems, a so-called joystick control has been employed. This control operates in a manner similar to that of the control stick employed in aircraft to achieve changes in pitch and roll; that is, movement of the joystick through any geometric plane oriented along a given direction controls audio output of the pair of front loudspeaker enclosures in relation to the pair of rear loudspeaker enclosures, and movement of the joystick through any geometric plane oriented along a direction perpendicular to the given direction controls audio output of the pair of loudspeaker enclosures on the left in relation to the pair of loudspeaker enclosures on the right. Movement of the joystick in any direction other than through the aforementioned geometric planes causes interaction among the audio outputs of the four loudspeaker enclosures with the resultant effect being that a complete rebalancing of the audio outputs produced by all four loudspeaker enclosures occurs.

Small displacements of the joystick control, however, may not have a readily noticeable effect on the audio outputs of the loudspeaker enclosures, due, for example, to the degree of aural sensitivity on the part of the listener (especially if the displacement is made at the instant when the musical instruments in one section of the orchestral music source substantially supplant the musical instruments in another section). In such case, the listener may not be sure that he did, in fact, reposition the joystick. Accordingly, one object of the invention is to provide an indicator on which displacement of the joystick by even a small amount may be visually detected.

Another object of the invention is to provide a device which presents a moving visual display during movement of a joystick.

Another object is to provide esthetic visual effects to accompany each movement of a joystick and a different esthetic visual pattern to accompany each separate respective position of the joystick.

Another object is to provide apparatus employing the moire effect to designate the general direction in which a joystick is moved.

Briefly, in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, a visual display for indicating motion and dsiplacement of a control lever movable about one end thereof through various positions within a spherical sector of radius substantially coextensive with the lever is provided. The display comprises a first regular pattern formed on a transparent surface which is positionable by movement of the lever, and a second regular pattern formed on a surface situated beneath the transparent surface such that the second regular pattern is visible through the transparent surface. The first and second patterns are thus superimposed on each other so as to form moire fringes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The features of the invention believed to be novel are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to organization and method of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference -to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a side view of the indicator of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a plan view of a typical stationary pattern employed in the indicator of the invention;

FIG. 3 is a plan view of a movable pattern employed in the indicator of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a plan view of a typical viewing window employed in the indicator of the invention;

FIG. 5 is a top view of the indicator of the present in vention, with the joystick in its center position; and

FIG. 6 is a top view of the indicator of the present invention, with the joystick offset from its center position.

DESCRIPTION OF TYPICAL EMBODIMENTS In FIG. 1, the indicator of the present invention is illustrated as comprising an escutcheon 10 and a joystick 11 having a manually operable portion 9 thereof, which swivels at one end about a ball and socket joint made up of ball 12 and socket l3. Joystick 11 is thereby movable through various positions within a spherical sector of radius substantially coextensive with joystick 11. A rod 14, affixed to ball 12, penetrates gimbals l and 16 so as to move the gimbals whenever ball 12 is repositioned by movement of joystick 11.

A group of four potentiometers, two of which, 17 and 18, are illustrated, are mounted on each side of a foursided chassis 20, shown partially cut away, such that each potentiometer shaft, such as shaft 21, is affixed to one end of a gimbal, respectively. Thus, potentiometer shaft 21 is affixed to one end of gimbal 16 while poten tiometer shaft 22 is affixed to one end of gimbal l5, and movement of joystick 11 is conveniently converted into rotation of the potentiometer shafts. Each potentiometer is electrically connected to control amplitude of audio output from a separate loudspeaker enclosure, respectively.

Affixed to chassis is an apertured plate on which, as shown in FIG. 2, a regular, distinctive pattern is formed by any of a number of conventional ways, such as printing, engraving, overlaying, etc. This pattern preferably comprises a plurality of equidistantly spaced lines so as to constitute a periodic strucure, formed on the upper surface of plate 30. Conveniently, the pattern may be made up of four sets of arcs of concentric circles, each set of arcs, respectively, being centered about a separate comer of plate 30 where plate 30 is formed in the shape of a four-sided polygon, such as a square. Joystick 11, as shown in FIG. 1, passes through the aperture in plate 30, leaving the joystick free to swivel within the aperture.

Positioned atop plate 30, as shown in FIG. 1, is a transparent plate 31 having a sloped collar 32 with a beveled edge 33 facing joystick 11. Plate 31 is slidably displaceable through 360 within the plane of the plate. Joystick 11, when moved, bears against collar 32 so as to shift the position of plate 31 in the direction of movement of the joystick. Any portion of beveled edge 33 cooperates with its diametrically opposite portion of the inner surface of collar 32 to allow joystick 11, when thrown fully to one side, as illustrated by either dotted positionof joystick 11, to minimize lost motion between the joystick and plate 31 when the joystick is returned from its maximum offcenter position.

As illustrated in FIG. 3, plate 31,'typically in the shape of a four-sided polygon, such as a square, contains a regular, distinctive pattern made up of a plurality of equally spaced opaque lines so as to constitute a periodic structure. Conveniently, the line pattern is formed of a plurality of concentric circles on the lower surface of plate 31, with arcs of concentric circles extending outward to the corners of the plate. The circles are centered about the center of the aperture defined by collar 32. Spacing of the lines in the pattern on plate 31 is made equal to that in the pattern on plate 30, in order to produce well-defined, prominent moire fringes by virtue of superimposition of the patterns on plates 31 and 30. As with plate 30, the line pattern produced in plate 31 may be formed by any of a number of conventional methods, such as printing, engraving, overlaying, etc. An additional pattern 34, comprising an arrangement of dots and radially-directed lines situated in a circle, is preferably formed by a similar process on the upper surface of plate 31 and centered about the center of the aperture therein, giving added visual emphasis to the position of the joystick on the indicator.

Situated atop plate 31, as shown in FIG. 1, a fixedlymounted, transparent viewing plate 35 containging indica, such as illustrated in FIG. 4, to designate the effect of movement of the joystick in any .given direction. These indica, which show the user what loudspeaker enclosure or enclosures of the four-channel stereo system are being emphasized and what enclosures are being deemphasized, generally signify four quadrants within which sound is emitted, permitting the listener to balance the sound heard from these four quadrants as he desires. The indicia may be formed by any of the aforementioned methods for producing patterns on plates 30 and 31 of FIG. 1, on the lower surface of plate 35 in order to prevent abrasion of the pattern through normal usage of the indicator. An opaque border 36 around plate 35 prevents the edges of plate 31 from being visible to the user even when joystick 11 is at its maximum off-center position.

FIGS. 5 and 6 are illustrations of typical moire fringes presented visually to the user. In the example of FIG. 5, the joystick is centered, so that circular scale 34 of dots and radial lines on the upper surface of plate 31 is centered about the joystick and with respect to the indicia on the viewing plate. However, should the joystick be moved from its central position, the moire fringe pattern is altered and circular scale 34 moves off-center with respect to the indicia on the viewing plate, in the direction of displacement of the joystick. This condition is illustrated in FIG. 6. During motion of the joystick from its condition illustrated in FIG. 5 to its condition illustrated in FIG. 6, the moire fringe pattern is altered, and a visual illusion of much movement is presented to the user of the indicator, even if thejoystick motion is slow and even if it is produced by but a small displacement of the joystick. Hence, the user visually receives information which unmistakeably tells him that he has moved the joystick. Additionally, by use in the indicator of the patterns illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, movement of the joystick in any given direction causes the moire fringes to appear to widen or open in the direction toward which the joystick is being moved, and to narrow or close behind the joystick, thereby providing to the user an indication of the quadrant toward which the joystick is being moved. To further enhance the visual effects, plate 30 of FIG. 1 may be made transparent, and a light source employed beneath plate 30, so that the opaque lines forming the patterns on plates 30 and 31 produce directly illuminated moire effects.

The foregoing describes an indicator on which displacement of ajoystick by even a small amount may be visually detected. The device provides esthetic dynamic visual effects to accompany each movement of the joystick and different esthetic static visual patterns to accompany each separate respective position of the joystick. The moire effect is employed to produce fringes designating the general direction in which the joystick is moved.

While only certain preferred features of the invention have been shown by way of illustration, many modifications and changes will occur to those skilled in the art. It is, therefore, to be understood that the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications and changes as fall within the true spirit of the invention.

I claim:

1. Display apparatus for indicating motion and displacement of a control lever movable about one end thereof through various positions within a spherical sector of radius substantially coextensive with said lever, said apparatus comprising:

a first regular pattern formed on a transparent surface, said transparent surface being engageable with said lever and displaceable through 360 by movement of said lever;

a second regular pattern formed on a surface situated beneath said transparent surface such that the second regular pattern is visible through the transparent surface, said first and second patterns being superimposed on each other so as to form moire fringes; and

means retaining both of said surfaces to limit maximum displacement of said first pattern relative to said second pattern.

2. The display apparatus of claim 1 wherein said transparent surface contains an aperture through which said lever passes to permit said transparent surface to be slidably displaced atop the surface on which said second pattern is formed, in accordance with the positioning of said lever.

3. The display apparatus of claim 2 wherein said aperture is surrounded by a collar, said collar being in contact with said lever at least when said lever is being moved.

4. The display apparatus of claim 1 wherein the surface on which said second pattern is formed is transparent.

5. The display apparatus of claim 1 wherein the surface on which said second pattern is formed is opaque.

6. The display apparatus of claim 2 wherein each of said first and second patterns comprises substantially equally spaced lines, each of said lines representing at least an arc of a circle.

7. The display apparatus of claim 6 wherein lines in said first pattern form a plurality of concentric circles and lines in said second pattern form four sets of arcs of concentric circles, each set of arcs, respectively, in said second pattern being centered about a separate corner ofa four-sided polygon, respectively, containing said second pattern.

8. A visual display for indicating motion and displacement of a lever movable about one end thereof, said lever being displaceable through a spherical sector of radius substantially coextensive with said lever, said display comprising:

a first pattern of equally spaced lines being formed of opaque material separated by regions transparent to light, said lever being contiguous to said first pattern such that said first pattern is displaceable through 360 by movement of said lever;

a second pattern of equally spaced lines being formed of oapque material separated by regions transparent to light, said first and second patterns being superimposed on each other to form moire fringes; and

means retaining both of said patterns to limit maximum displacement of said first pattern relative to said second pattern.

9. The visual display of claim 1 whrein said first pattern includes an aperture through which said lever passes to permit said first pattern to be slidably displaced atop said second pattern in accordance with positioning of said lever.

10. The visual display of claim 9 wherein the line spacing of said first pattern equals the line spacing of said second pattern, each of said lines being at least an arc of a circle.

11. The visual display of claim 10 wherein lines in said first pattern form a plurality of concentric circles and lines in said second pattern form four sets of arcs of concentric circles, each set of arcs, respectively, being centered about a separate corner of a four-sided polygon, respectively, containing said second pattern.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2917854 *Jan 12, 1956Dec 22, 1959John SwarbrickDisplay device
US3365975 *Dec 10, 1965Jan 30, 1968Army UsaJoy stick mechanism
US3372359 *Jan 30, 1967Mar 5, 1968Carter Precision Electric CoCoordinated control for variable resistors
US3629775 *Jun 19, 1970Dec 21, 1971Gulf & Western IndustriesStereo balance and fader potentiometer
US3634959 *Nov 17, 1969Jan 18, 1972Lear Siegler IncMotion display utilizing moire patterns
US3643361 *Nov 17, 1969Feb 22, 1972Photo Motion CorpMoire motion illusion apparatus
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Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *Publication: Edmund Scientific Co., Barrington, N. J., Catalog 671, Cover Page, Page 2, Pages 74 & 75.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3939451 *Mar 16, 1973Feb 17, 1976Alps Electric Co., Ltd.Balance control for use in 4-channel stereophonic system
US4042902 *Jan 20, 1976Aug 16, 1977Firma Simprop-Electronic Walter ClaasApparatus for controlling two crossed proportional adjusting devices by means of a single control stick
US4127841 *Jul 28, 1977Nov 28, 1978Toshiba Kikai Kabushiki KaishaMulti-direction controlling mechanism
US4156130 *Sep 26, 1977May 22, 1979Tele Industries, Inc.Joystick mechanism
US4161726 *Apr 6, 1977Jul 17, 1979Texas Instruments IncorporatedDigital joystick control
US4375631 *Apr 9, 1981Mar 1, 1983Ampex CorporationJoystick control
US4469330 *Jan 7, 1982Sep 4, 1984Atari, Inc.Controller unit for video game
US4470320 *Aug 15, 1983Sep 11, 1984Wico CorporationJoystick assembly with wear member
US4533827 *Oct 6, 1982Aug 6, 1985Texas A&M UniversityOptical joystick
US4976620 *May 11, 1989Dec 11, 1990Patail Enterprises, Inc.Device for creating and displaying moire patterns
US5011363 *Dec 5, 1989Apr 30, 1991Crown Equipment CorporationExtend and retract control for fork lifts
US5258895 *Mar 9, 1992Nov 2, 1993Bosse Thomas WMoire light assembly
US6286873Aug 26, 1999Sep 11, 2001Rufus Butler SederVisual display device with continuous animation
US6489946Sep 29, 2000Dec 3, 2002Nintendo Co., Ltd.Operating device with analog joystick
WO1999014725A1 *Sep 9, 1998Mar 25, 1999Pesach BennyThree dimensional depth illusion display
Classifications
U.S. Classification116/311, 338/128, 74/471.0XY, 40/437, 116/310, 428/30, 40/427
International ClassificationG05G9/00, G05G9/047, H01H9/16, G05G1/00, G05G1/015
Cooperative ClassificationG05G2009/04748, G05G1/015, H01H9/16, G05G2009/04707
European ClassificationH01H9/16, G05G1/015
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jan 27, 1988ASAssignment
Owner name: RCA LICENSING CORPORATION, TWO INDEPENDECE WAY, PR
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A NY CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004854/0730
Effective date: 19880126
Owner name: RCA LICENSING CORPORATION, A DE CORP.,NEW JERSEY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A NY CORP.;REEL/FRAME:4854/730
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A NY CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004854/0730