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Publication numberUS3746051 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 17, 1973
Filing dateApr 21, 1972
Priority dateApr 23, 1971
Also published asDE2219571A1, DE2219571B2, DE2219571C3
Publication numberUS 3746051 A, US 3746051A, US-A-3746051, US3746051 A, US3746051A
InventorsM Jisa, J Mohelnicky, J Zmatlik
Original AssigneeStatni Vyzkumny Ustav Textilni
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Machine for making a partly woven and partly knitted fabric
US 3746051 A
Abstract
A machine for making a partly woven and partly knitted fabric, having a row of lapping guides mounted on a crossbar for simultaneous angular movement about parallel axes and having radial arms provided with eyelets threaded with weft threads supplied from a weft supply beam and moving along part-circular paths within open warp sheds between an initial position projecting in warp direction, and one, or two opposite, lapping end positions for laying the weft threads into the opened hooks of knitting needles so that knitted stitch wales are formed of sectional weft thread loops between fabric portions woven of warp threads and the sectional weft thread loops.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Umted States Patent 11 1 1111 3,746,051 Mohelnicky et al. July 17, 1973 MACHINE FOR MAKING A PARTLY 1,953,654 4/1934 Metzler 139/50 WOVEN AND PARTLY KNITTED FABRIC 3,556,165 l/l97l Zmatlik et al. 139/124 A [75] Josef Mohelnicky; Josef Zmatlik, both of FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS g e; Miloslav Jisa, w 599,742 11/1959 Italy 139/11 of Czechoslovakia Primary Examinerl-lenry S. Jaudon [73] Ass1gnee: Statn Vyzkumny USIAV Textilni, Liberec, Czechoslovakia Attorney-Milena Smker F'l [22] led Apr 21, 1972 ABSTRACT [21] Appl' 246239 A machine for making a partly woven and partly knitted fabric, having a row of lapping guides mounted on [30] Foreign Application Priority Data a crossbar for simultaneous angular movement about Apr. 23, 1971 Czechoslovakia 2981 Parallel axes and having radial arms Provided with Jan. 14, 1972 Czechoslovakia 251 lets threaded with Weft threads pp from a Weft Jan. 19, 1972 Czechoslovakian, 343 p y beam and moving along Part-Circular Paths within open warp sheds between an initial position pro- 52 us. c1. 139/11, 139/124 A jecting in p direction, and one, or two opposite, p- 51 1111. C1 D03d 47/00 p g end positions for y g the weft threads into the 5 Fi l f Search 139 11 12 3 5 4 opened hooks of knitting needles so that knitted stitch 139 47 4 49 50 11 124 A wales are formed of sectional weft thread loops between fabric portions woven of warp threads and the 5 R fe Cited sectional weft thread loops.

UNITED STATES PATENTS 29 Claims, 37 Drawing Figures 73l,377 6/1903 Littlcfield 139/49 Patented July 17, 1973 3,746,051

13 Sheets-Sheet 1 Patented July 17, 1973 13 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented July 17, 1973 3,746,051

13 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented July 17, 1973 v 3,746,051

13 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented July 17, 1973 13 Sheets-Sheet 7 Patented July 17, 1973 7 3,746,051

13 Sheets-Sheet 8 Patented July 17, 1973 3,746,051

13 Sheets-Sheet 9 Pmnted July 17, 1973 13 Sheets-Sheet 10 ...!l||l|| ll illllllll.

Patented July17,1973 3,746,051

13 Sheets-Shani} llll lllll Patented July 17, 1973 3,746,051

13 Sheets-Sheet 12 Patented July 17, 1973 3,746,051

13 Sheets-Sheet lb S g a J6 i i 5a MACHINE FOR MAKING A PARTLY WOVEN AND PARTLY KNITTED FABRIC BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a machine for manufacturing a partly woven and partly knitted textile fabric. A machine serving this purpose is disclosed in the US. Pat. No. 3,5 80,295 in which a knitting mechanism is provided for inserting weft threads into an open warp shed, constituted by an array of lapping guides. The weft threads are taken off a stationary package in the form of hairpin-like weft thread loops. The lapping guides are mounted for oscillation on a support bar and provided with eyelets reciprocating along parallel paths extending from an outer end position outside of the warp shed obliquely between the warp threads of the upper warp into the open shed. Each lapping guide is associated with a knitting needle which catches the weft threads and interlaces the respective weft thread loops to form a stitch wale located between two adjacent warp thread groups interlaced with stitch connecting loops of the weft threads to form woven fabric portions. The hooks of the knitting needles are displaced to an operative position in the open shed out of an initial position in front of the fell and beat up plane of the fabric. The stitch connecting weft loops are beaten up by a conventional reed into the fell of the fabric which is wound up by a take-up beam.

A disadvantage of the prior art machine resides in that, as the weft threads are inserted into the shed from the outside, small spots are formed at the points where the lapping guides penetrate, and such spots are noticeable in the finished fabric as undesirable strips in the warp direction. Since the lapping guides are inserted into the open warp shed from outside, the warp is excessively stressed at the lapping guide penetrating points, and on the other hand, faults in the woven fabric may appear, since the lapping guides do not penetrate the upper warp always at the same points. Furthermore, the location of the lapping guides above the weaving plane of the fabric which is being made, has the disadvantage that the operator of the machine has no access to the warps in the region between the fell of the fabric and the reed.

An other machine is known which is also designed for making a partly woven and partly knitted fabric, wherein the weft threads, of which a warp knit structure is formed are threaded into the heddles of an auxiliary independently controlled heddle frame harness. No lapping guides are provided, which are replaced by a transversely movable reed in which both warp and weft threads are threaded, each in one dent space of the reed which can be moved from an intermediate initial position in which the warp threads are straight and parallel, to one of two lapping end positions and back again, while at the next shed change, the reed is moved into the opposite lapping end position, and back again. Since the reed is moved transversely from the intermediate initial position to one of the lapping end positions, the weft threads are placed in positions above or below the respective knitting needles, and laid into the needle hook by the movement of the auxiliary harness. After the weft threads have been lapped into the respective needle hooks, the reed is returned from one of its lapping end positions to the intermediate initial position in which the stitch connecting weft loops are beaten up by the reed against the fell of the fabric. After the beat up operation and the change of the warp shed, the reed is moved to the other opposite lapping end position and back again to the initial position. New stitch loops are drawn in the beat up plane of the reed through old stitch loops formed in the preceding warp shed, and the double stitch cnnecting loops extending across the warp between each adjacent pair of knitting needles, are beaten up by the reed within the beat up plane of the fabric which is being made, and interlaced with the warp threads to form a woven fabric portion.

Due to the alternate transverse reciprocation of the reed, the weft threads are lapped onto the knitting needles to form a warp knit tricot or cloth binding structure. It is not possible to make an atlas binding structure due to the return of the reed to its initial position before the beat up.

It is a disadvantage of the machine according to the prior art that the knitting mechanism uses knitting needles, the reed, and an auxiliary harness to perform the function of lapping guides. In order to obtain a perfect performance of the mechanism, it is necessary to use a warp shed which can be formed by imparting a high tensionto the warp threads. Therefore, it is a disadvantage of the prior art machine that during the lapping operation by which the weft threads are placed in the needle hooks, the warp threads are also tensioned due to the transverse reed movement while the fabric is held in the beat up plane only by the stitches caught by the knitting needles.

The transverse movement of the reed, together with both warp threads and weft threads, takes place in the open warp shed, and the warp threads may be exposed to a maximum tension between and kg/m of fabric width.

Another disadvantage of the prior art machine is the inconvenient location of the auxiliary harness between the rear dead center position of the reed and the auxiliary harness whereby the distance between the beat up plane of the fabric and the auxiliary harness is undesirably extended which results in the necessity of making a larger warp shed opening in the plane of the auxiliary harness. Another factor, which should not be overlooked, is the fact that the lapping is insufficiently reliable due to the movements of the auxiliary harness whose heddles control the weft threads when they are laid into the hooks of the knitting needles. Since the reed is located betwen the heddle eye and the hook of the knitting needle, the reliability of the lapping is unfavorably influenced since the threads rub against the reed dents, which is very undesirable, particularly when certain yarn types are being used.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the invention to provide a machine for making a partly woven and partly knitted fabric with a knitting mechanism which substantially eliminates the disadvantages of the prior art, and which is particularly suitable for high speed weaving operations.

This object is obtained by machine for manufacturing a partly woven and partly knitted textile fabric, comprising means for forming warp sheds, a knitting mechanism for forming a warp structure having stitch wales located between adjacent groups of warp threads interlaced to form a weave with stitch connecting weft thread loops, and means for beating up the stitch connecting loops into the fell of the fabric. The knitting mechanism comprises a lapping guide mechanism 3 threaded with weft threads taken off a stationary package, and on the other hand, a system of knitting needles with closable hooks disposed in a row extending across the fabric being made for catching lapped weft threads and for forming stitch wales of the caught weft threads. In accordance with the invention, the lapping guide mechanism is formed of lapping guides which are supported in a cross-bar and which have arms terminating in weft thread guiding eyelets, and which are oscillated along coextensive paths in the form of circular arcs within each open warp shed from an intermediate initial position, in which a perpendicular projections of the lapping guide arms onto the plane of the warp threads in the closed shed position, are parallel with the warp threads, into a lapping end position and back again, whereupon in the next open warp shed, the lapping guide arms move either to the same lapping end position as before, or in the opposite direction to another lapping end position, and back again. The lapping guides penetrate in the closed shed position, the plane of the warp threads, and inthe open shed position, at least one of'the two planes in which the warps are located when the shed is opened.

A mechanism is provided in the crossbar which supports the lapping guides for imparting an oscillating movement to the lapping guides. Each lapping guide has a stem with a journal portion mounted in a bearing bore of the crossbar so that the respective lapping guide can oscillate about an axis with its lapping arm. Means are provided in the crossbar for imparting an oscillation movement to the lapping guides. In one embodiment of a lapping guide, the lapping arm has two separate portions radially extending from the stem of the lapping guide, and converging toward an apex provided with the thread guiding eyelet.

The knitting mechanisms of the invention-has two main embodiments. In a first embodiment, the crossbar supporting the lapping guides is stationary, while in the second embodiment, the crossbar is mounted on the sley and moves with the same.

In one embodiment, the stationary crossbar is arranged under the warp in the region between the heddle frames and the fell of the fabric, while in another embodiment, the stationary crossbar with the lapping guides is arranged under a flat stationary support defining the beat up plane of the fabric.

When a stationary crossbar is used, the axes of oscillations of the lapping guides are either substantially perpendicular, or slanted to the weaving plane formed by warp threads in the closed shed position.

In the embodiment with a movable crossbar supporting the lapping guides, the oscillation axes of the lapping guides in the rear dead center position of the sley, can be either parallel with, or perpendicular to the plane of the warp threads in the closed shed position. It is also possible to mount the lapping guides for movement about oscillation axes extending in the rear dead center position of the sley, parallel with the plane of the lower warp in the open warp shed position, or concurrent to the plane of the warp threads in the closed warp shed position.

In the intermediate initial position of the lapping guides, the thread guiding eyelets of the lapping arms thereof can point substantially either toward the beat up plane of the fabric, or toward the harness.

If a stationary crossbar is provided, and lapping guides are used whose lapping arms with eyelets point in the intermediate initial positions of the lapping guides substantially toward the beat up plane of the fabric, the lapping guides pass in the rear dead center position of the sley through dent spaces of the reed, whereas they do not pass through the same in the forward beat up position of the sley. On the contrary in the case of lapping guides on a stationary crossbar whose lapping arms point in the intermediate initial position of the lapping guides toward the harness, the lapping guides pass in the foremost dead center position of the sley through dent spaces of the reed, whereas in the rear dead center position of the sley, they do not pass therethrough.

When a stationary crossbar is used, a conventional reed is provided on the sley, which beats the stitch connecting loops into the fell of the fabric.

On the other hand, when the crossbar is mounted on the sley for movement therewith, the lapping arms of the lapping guides mounted on the crossbar serve to beat up stitch connecting loops into the fell of the fabric in the foremost sley position.

In the above-described two mechanisms, the knitting needles and lapping guides can be aligned, respectively, or staggered. If each lapping guide is aligned with a knitting needle in the intermediate initial position of the lapping guide, the arm of the lapping guide points toward the corresponding knitting needle, whereas in the event that the knitting needles and lapping guides are not aligned, respectively, the lapping arms are disposed in staggered positions relative to the knitting needles.

When the lapping guides and needles are respectively aligned, and the weft threads are lapped by the eyelets of the lapping arms to the knitting needles from the intermediate position alternately to two opposite lapping end positions, the lapping guides form a clothwarp knit structure, whereas in the embodiment in which the lapping guides are oscillated in opposite directions to a single lapping end position from the intermediate initial position, a warp knit structure is formed as described in the US. Pat. No. 3,580,295. If the needles and lapping guides are staggered, and the weft threads are lapped onto the knitting needles alternately in two opposite lapping end positions, the lapping guides form a tricot warp knit structure, whereas in the embodiment in which the lapping guide swings from the initial position repeatedly to the same lateral lapping end position, a warp knit structure is formed which is also described in the U5. Pat. No. 3,580,295.

A lapping guide can be made of a metal blank bent of a flat piece of wire, with a weft thread guiding eyelet formed by a hole provided in the wire at the apex of the lapping arm, or the lapping guide may be stamped out of a metal sheet blank.

When a reed is provided in the machine, it is preferred to make the movement of the knitting needles from the starting positions to the operative positions phase shifted relative to the movement of the reed from its front beat up position, so that the knitting needles enter the warp shed prior to the movement of the reed out of the beat up position.

The knitting needles can be operated so that the hooks thereof move either around an endless closed curved path, or reciprocate along a linear path.

The first movement is preferred in arrangements where the plane of coextensive circular arc paths along which the eyelets of the lapping guides move, is substantially parallel with the weaving plane of the warps in the closed shed position, or where, if a movable crossbar is used for the lapping guides, the plane of coextensive circular arc path is substantially parallel with the weaving plane of the warps in the closed shed position, when the sley is in the rear dead center position.

The linear movement of the knitting needles is preferred, if a stationary crossbar is used for supporting the lapping guides, when the plane of coextensive circular arc paths along which the eyelets of the lapping guides move, is concurrent to the plane of the warps in the closed shed position, or, if a movable crossbar is used, when the plane of coextensive circular arc paths is concurrent to the warp plane in the rear dead center position of the sley.

In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, it is possible to use knitting needles whose hooks move around a closed endless curvilinear path, and lapping guides whose plane of coextensive circular arc paths along which the eyelets of the lapping guides move, is in the case of a stationary crossbar, concurrent to the warp plane in the closed shed position, or in the case of a movable crossbar, in the rear dead center position of the sley, is concurrent to the warp plane.

If the arrangement of the present invention is compared with known knitting mechanisms for inserting weft threads into a warp shed, the advantage of the lapping guides according to the invention resides in that the lapping guide arms with weft threads threaded into the eyelets thereof, can oscillate within the warp shed without additionally stressing the warp threads, and furthermore in that the lapping guides separate the warp threads from one another, preventing them from passing into adjacent longitudinal strips of the fabric.

Due to the fact that the weft threads are lapped into the needle books by oscillating lapping arms, the entire mechanism is made less complicated as compared with the prior art, and the lapping operation is more reliable, particularly at high operational speeds.

The arrangement of lapping guides supported for angular movement in a crossbar on the sley contributes considerably to the simplicity of the machine, since the arms of the lapping guides can be designed to perform also the function of a reed. This arrangement facilitates the movements of the warp threads, and is therefore convenient, particularly from the point of view of an attendant controlling the machine.

The device for inserting weft threads into the warp shed by means of oscillating lapping guides according to the invention, permits a very easy exchange of cams for controlling the operations for forming different weft and warp binding fabric structures, making possible a greater variety of patterns, and improving the versatility of the machine.

A very simple device is required for oscillating the lapping guides requiring little service and making possible an easy exchange and replacement of machine parts. The simple construction of the lapping guides is highly advantageous inasmuch as it makes possible mass production thereof at a relatively low manufactur ing cost.

The weft inserting device according to the invention is capable of handling any type of weft threads made of natural and man-made fibers. Even strips and metallic or glass filaments can be used as material for the weft threads.

The stitches in the wales formed of weft thread loops, can be either open or closed, the spaces in weft direction between stitch connecting weft thread loops being freely variable.

The apparatus of the invention also makes it possible to manufacture fabrics consisting of extremely loose weft sets, for example for curtains or decorative fabric in which both warp and weft threads are prevented from slipping, since the stitch connecting weft thread loops are secured at both ends in the wales.

When the weft threads are lapped, due to the reciprocatory oscillation movement of the lapping guides, in alternate lapping end positions, and thereafter interlaced with warp threads, the final product has excellent dimensional stability, as compared with warp knitted fabrics.

Unlike in conventional looms, the weaving operations of the machine of the invention are not limited by the width of the fabric to be manufactured, and it is possible to weave one or more stripes of fabric side-byside without additional selvedge forming devices. Moreover, as compared with some types of shuttleless looms, no waste of weft thread occurs.

The novel features which are considered as characteristic for the invention are set forth in particular in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its construction and its method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be best understood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawing.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a view illustrating a fabric made on the machine of the invention by alternate weft lapping in opposite directions;

FIG. 2 is a side view of the machine for making the fabric illustrated in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary perspective view of the machine shown in FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary schematic side view of a knitting mechanism used in the machine of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a perspective view illustrating the oscillatory drive of the lapping guides;

FIGS. 6 to 9 are schematic fragmentary plan views illustrating successive operational positions during the making of the fabric of FIG. 1;

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating the knitting mechanism for making the fabric shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary schematic side view of a knitting mechanism provided with lapping guides whose axes are perpendicular to the weaving plane;

FIG. 12 is a fragmentary schematic plan view of the mechanism illustrated in FIG. 11;

FIG. 13 is a fragmentary side view illustrating the lapping guide used in FIG. 11 in detail;

FIG. 14 is a fragmentary plan view of the lapping guide shown in FIG. 13;

FIG. 15 is a fragmentary schematic side view illustrating a knitting mechanism with lapping guides whose oscillation axes are perpendicular to the plane of the warp threads in the closed shed position, and passing through the beat up plane in the region of the fell of the fabric;

FIG. 16 is a fragmentary plan view of the mechanism illustrated in FIG. 15;

FIG. 17 is a fragmentary schematic side view, partially in section, illustrating a knitting mechanism having lapping guides whose oscillation axes are oblique to the plane of the warps in the closed shed position;

FIG. 18 is a fragmentary schematic plan view of the knitting mechanism shown in FIG. 17;

FIG. 19 is a perspective view of a knitting mechanism provided with lapping guides supported on the sley, the sley being shown in its rear dead center position;

FIG. is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating the knitting mechanism of FIG. 19 with the sley located in the front dead center position;

FIG. 21 is a fragmentary schematic side view of the knitting mechanism illustrated in FIG. 19;

FIG. 22 is a fragmentary schematic plan view of the knitting mechanism shown in FIG. 21;

FIG. 23 is a schematic plan view illustrating a fabric made by lapping guides oscillating only in one direction out of an initial position;

FIGS. 24 and are schematic fragmentary plan views illustrating successive operational conditions of the knitting mechanism making the fabric illustrated in FIG. 23;

FIGS. 26 and 27 are fragmentary schematic plan views illustrating successive operational positions of a knitting mechanism having lapping guides oscillating alternately in opposite directions, and located in an intermediate initial position staggered to and located between two adjacent knitting needles;

FIG. 28 is a schematic fragmentary plan view illustrating a fabric made by the knitting mechanism illustrated in FIGS. 26 and 27;

FIG. 29 is a schematic plan view illustrating a fabric made by lapping guides lapping in only one direction to a lapping end position out of an initial intermediate position shown-in FIG. 31;

FIGS. and 31 are fragmentary schematic plan views illustrating successive operating positions of the knitting mechanism for making the fabric illustrated in FIG. 29;

FIG. 32 is a fragmentary schematic side view, partially in section, illustrating a knitting mechanism with lapping guides mounted on the sley and having oscillation axis which are perpendicular to the warp thread plane in the closed shed position when the sley is in the rear dead center position;

FIG. 33 illustrates a lapping guide for the knitting mechanism of FIG. 32 and being formed of a wire;

FIG. 34 illustrates a lapping guide stamped out of a metal sheet;

FIG. is a fragmentary schematic plan view illustrating the knitting mechanism of FIG. 32;

FIG. 36 is a fragmentary schematic side view illustrating the knitting mechanism of FIG. 32 in the beat up position of the sley; and

FIG. 37 is a fragmentary schematic side view of the knitting mechanism shown in FIG. 4, provided with a knock-over device and illustrating the relation between the movements of the reed and of the knitting needles.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawing, and more particularly to FIG. 1, a partly woven and partly knitted fabric is shown which can be made on a weaving machine according to the invention. Weft threads 1 form a warpknit binding, such as the so-called cloth structure,

which is designed so that the longitudinal stripes 2 are formed of interlaced warp threads 3 together with pairs of parallel connecting loops 4 of stitches 5. Wales 6 are produced by mutually interlaced stitches 5 and located in the gap 7 between the longitudinal stripes 2, the longitudinal direction being the warp direction.

Pairs of connecting loops 4 of stitches 5, which are disposed side-by-side, form a sectional weft 8 comprising stitches 5 which are coextensive but oriented in opposite directions, respectively, to both the preceding and suceeding sectional wefts 8.

The fabric illustrated in FIG. 1 has a secured selvedge as shown at the left side of FIG. 1. The other selvedge is not shown, and is a mirror image of the left-hand sel vedge.

The outer stitches 5' of the left marginal longitudinal stripe 2' have the same length as the stitches 5 in the respective gap 7, but are not interlaced with one another to form a wale, but are aligned with the sectional weft 8.

Between the legs of the connecting loops 4 of the stitches 5 in the marginal stripe 2', which legs are connected in the outer stitch 5', there are located the legs of the connecting loops 4' which legs are connected by links 9 with the succeeding and preceding legs of the connecting loops 4', respectively.

The fabric illustrated in FIG. 1 is made on the machine schematically shown in FIG. 2.

Between the lateral frames 1 l of the machine, a warp beam 12 is supported from which warp threads 3 are taken off by a rotary back rail 13 and then passed through the heddles of two heddle frames 14 and 15 which form a harness. Upright posts 16 are secured to the side frames 11 of the machine and support an auxiliary weft beam 17 from which weft threads 1 are taken OE and supplied through a stationary comb 18 to the weaving plane of the machine.

The produced fabric 19, supported on a stationary flat support 20 with a leading edge 21, is transported by a roller 22 and by a pressure roller 23 cooperating therewith, and finally wound up on the cloth beam 24.

The uniform take-off of the weft thread 1 and warp thread 3 from the beams 12 and 17, respectively, is controlled by well known devices either by a brake, or positively by well known let off motions.

The machine is driven by an electric motor 25 by means of a V-belt 26 and a pulley 27 keyed to the shaft 21 outside of the respective lateral frame wall 11. The shaft 28 carries two shed forming cams 29, 30 cooperating with cam followers 31 which are pivotally connected with heddle frame lifting levers 32, 33, respectively, levers 32, 33 being connected by connecting members 34 to the heddle frames 14 and 15.

A cam shaft 37 imparts by means of a connecting rod 38, a reciprocating swinging movement to a sley 39 which is provided with a reed 40 and pivotally supported on stationary pivots 41 which are secured to the lateral frame walls 11. Cam shaft 37 is driven from shaft 28 by means of gears 35, 36 meshing at a transmission ratio of 2 1.

As shown in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, a crossbar 42 is positioned between the lateral frame walls 11 in the space below the warp threads 3, and between the heddle frames 14, 15 and the stationary flat support 20. A row of lapping guides 43 is supported on crossbar 42, each lapping guide 43 being mounted for oscillating angular movement about a vertical axis 44, as best seen in FIG.

4. Each lapping guide 43 has a stem portion 45 extending in axial direction, and an intermediate portion with a lapping arm 46 which is provided with a thread guiding eyelet 47 through which the weft thread 1 passes. The lapping guides 43 are preferably manufactured by stamping of a steel sheet blank whose thickness may be between 0.3 and 0.8 mm. The edges of the lapping arm 46 converge at an angle substantially corresponding to the angle formed by the two groups of warp threads 3 when a warp shed is open.

All lapping guides 43 are coupled to simultaneously oscillate in the same direction about the vertical axis 44. The lapping guide stem 45 has a lower cylindrical journal portion 45' mounted in a corresponding bearing bore in crossbar 42, and having a projection or tooth 48 meshing with a rack bar 49 which is mounted for reciprocating movement in the crossbar 42, as best seen in FIGS. 4 and 5. The reciprocating movement of the rack 49 in the direction of the double arrow 50, 50, see FIG. 3, is derived from a cam 51 carried by the cam shaft 37 which is driven from shaft 28 by gear wheel gears 35, 36. Cam 51 is formed as a cam groove receiving a follower 52 secured to an end portion of rack bar 49, as shown in FIG. 2.

When the warp shed is changed while thesley 39 is in its rear dead center position, the lapping guides 43 are simultaneously moved from their intermediate initial position I shown in FIG. 9'to the extreme right-hand lapping position II, shown in FIG. 6, and back again to the intermediate initial position I, shown in FIG. 7. Upon the next warp shed change, the lapping guides 43 move from the intermediate initial position of FIG. 7 to the extreme left hand lapping position III shown in FIG. 8 and then back again to the intermediate initial position 1 shown in FIG. 9.

Between the dents 53 of reed 40 through which the warp threads 3 pass, as shown in FIG. 3, wider spaces 54 are provided at regular intervals in order to permit a smooth passage of the lapping guides 43 therethrough during the oscillating movement of sley 39. Irrespective of the width of the spaces between dents 53, reed 40 is threaded, for instance, by two warp threads in each space between dents 53. If a loosely constructed fabric is made, it is possible to use a reed having a wide uniform spacing between the dents.

In the intermediate initial position of the lapping guides 43, the eyelets 47 point toward the apex of the warp shed which is being formed so that the dents of the reed 40 can freely pass on both sides of the lapping guides during reciprocating movement of reed 40.

Between the lapping guides 43 there may pass warp threads 3, and weft threads 1 drawn through the eyelets 47 of the lapping guides 43. The height of the lapping guides 43 is selected so that the top of stem 45 may overlap the warp threads 3 of the upper warp shed plane in the open shed position, as shown in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, in order to assure the desirable separation between weft threads 1 and warp threads 3 during the weaving operation.

The stem 45 of each lapping guide 43 is connected with the lapping arm 46 by curved concave edge portions 55 and 55', best shown in FIG. 10. The lapping guides 43 may be modified by providing the stem, which may have a circular cross section, with a perpendicular arm terminating in an eyelet 47. The triangular shape of the lapping arm 46, as illustrated, is preferable inasmuch as it prevents a snarling of the warp ends during a warp shed change.

During oscillation of the lapping guides 43 about axis 44, the weft thread guiding eyelets 47 move along circular paths which intersect one another and have the same radius. The circular paths of the eyelets 47 are located in the plane 3' formed by the warps 3 in the closed shed position, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 4.

A knitting latch needle 56, which will be referred to hereinafter as a knitting needle, is located opposite each lapping guide 43. The longitudinal axis of each knitting needle 56 points in the initial position I of the lapping guides 43, toward the eyelet 47 of the respective lapping guide 43, as shown in FIGS. 7 and 9. The knitting needles 56 are secured in a movable holder 57 provided with a sleeve 58 which surrounds a cam 59 secured to a shaft 60, as best seen in FIG. 4, but also shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. Shaft 60 is mounted for rotation in bearings, not shown, in the lateral frame walls 11, and carries a sprocket 61 connected by an endless chain 62 with another sprocket 63 keyed to the cam shaft 37, as shown in FIG. 2. The transmission ratio be tween shafts 37 and 60 is 1 l.

Hooks 64 of the knitting latch needles 56 move along an endless curved path 65 in the direction of the arrow 66 in FIG. 4 from the foremost position to a retracted position and back again during each revolution of cam shaft 37. The endless path 65 is shown in FIG. 4 as a phantom line. The direction of rotation of cam 59 is indicated by an arrow 67, and the latch of the knitting latch needle 56 is designated by reference numeral 68. FIGS. 6 to 9 also show the fell 69 of the fabric 19.

The movements of the lapping guides 43 are synchronized with the movements of the knitting needles 56 and of the sley 39. As the sley 39 moves to its rear dead center position, the knitting needles 56 are simultaneously retracted from the foremost position to the rearmost position, and the sequence of movements is selected so that the needles 56 reach the rearmost position after sley 39 reaches its rear dead center position. Immediately after the lapping guides 43 have angularly moved from the intermediate initial position shown in FIGS. 7 and 9 to the extreme lapping end position II and III shown in FIGS. 6 and 8, respectively, the knitting needles 56 reach the rearmost position. These mutually interdependent movements are selected to reliably place the weft thread 1 into the hooks 64 of the knitting needles 56. During the return movement of knitting needles 56 to the foremost position, the hooks 64 will slightly lift the weft thread 1 in the region between the fell 69 of the fabric 19 and the thread guiding eyelet 47 of the respective lapping guides 43.

In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in the drawing, a plain weave harness with two heddle frames 14 and I5 is used, although it is possible to provide the machine with a multiple heddle frame harness controlled by a shed forming cam mechanism adapted to produce atlas, twill and like weaving patterns. The machine may also be provided with a dobby or Jacquard motion. I

The weaving speed is not limited by the width of the reed 40 but depends on the type of shed forming mechanism so that the maximum speed may be obtained, for instance, by using a plain weave shed forming mechanism with a cam driven harness.

The sley 39 may be driven in the conventional manner, i.e., from the cam shaft 37, as described, or in any other way bringing about the necessary dwell of the sley in the rear dead center position.

In order to assure the desired operation of the machine according to the invention, it is necessary that sley 39 dwells after completion of a revolution of cam shaft 37, in its rear dead center position for a time period corresponding to at least 45 of the next following revolution of cam shaft 37. The shorter the dwell of sley 39 there is in the rear dead center position, the higher must be the oscillation frequency of the lapping guides 43b during displacement of the lapping guides 43 from the intermediate initial position I to one of the extreme lapping positions II and III and back again, re-

spectively. Therefore, it is advisable that the dwelling period of the sley in the rear dead center position is longer, for example 60 to 120 of the revolution of cam shaft 37. In order to obtain the dwell of sley 39 for a period of time corresponding to the angle of about 120 of a cam shaft revolution, it is possible to make use of conventional sley driving mechanisms comprising connecting rods and cam systems, or multiple joint links.

The machine described with reference to FIGS. 1 to operates as follows:

During operation, the levers 32, 33 move in opposite direction upward and downward so that during each revolution of the drive shaft 28, the'heddle frames l4, will form sheds of warp 3 to make a plain weave, as best shown in FIGS. 2 and 4.

During each revolution of cam shaft 37, cam 51, see FIG. 2, shifts the rack bar 49 at intervals forward and rearward in the direction of the double arrow 50, 50, see FIG. 3. When the sley 39 is moved from its front dead center position to its rear dead center position, the knitting needles 56 are simultaneously retracted in the direction of the arrow 66 from the foremost to the rearmost position, see FIGS. 3 and 4. As soon as sley 39 has reached its rear dead center position, it which it dwells for a certain time period,- the rack 49 is displaced, for example in the direction of the arrow 50, so that the lappinG guides 43 swing simultaneously in one angular direction so that the eyelets 47 with weft threads 1 therein, are displaced from the intermediate initial position I to the extreme lapping position 11, see FIG. 6 and 10.

After the lapping guides 43 have reached the end position II, the knitting needles 56 are retracted to the rearmost position while the open hooks 64 are located under taut weft threads 1 which, in the wale regions 6 are secured under the knitting needles 56 to the fabric being woven so that the weft threads 1 enter the hooks 64. In this manner, the first parallel legs of the connecting weft loops 4 of stitches 5 are formed of weft thread portions of weft thread 1 taken off the auxiliary beam 17. Still during the dwell of sley 39 in the rear dead center position, rack bar 49 is shifted back in the direction of arrow 50 so that the lapping guides 43 swing back to the intermediate initial position I to form the second legs of the stitch connecting loops 4, as shown in FIG. 7.

Simultaneously with the movement of sley 39 from the rear dead center position to a front beat-up position, the knitting needles 56 are returned back to the foremost position thereof, together with stitches 5 caught in the hooks 64, carrying at the same time the first legs of the stitch connecting loops 4 to the beat-up plane of the fabric 19. After the return of the lapping guides 43 to the intermediate initial position I, the reed 40 beats the second legs of the connecting loops 4 of stitches 5 into the fell of the fabric 19 while the warp shed changes at the same time. In this manner, a new sectional weft 8 is provided. During the retraction of the knitting needles 56, the latches 68 of the knitting needles 56 are closed, by drawing the preceding stitches 5 over the new stitches 5 so that the wale 6 is formed. During the formation of the next warp shed, the above-described operation is repeated, with the exception that the lapping guides 43 are moved from the intermediate position I to the lapping end position III and back again, see FIGS. 8 and 9, whereby the next sectional weft 8 is formed, of which stitches 5 are oriented in opposite direction with regard to the preceding sectional weft 8.

Each knitting needle 56, except the marginal knitting needles 56', forms a warp knit thread structure in cooperation with the two lapping guides 43 disposed adjacent to, and on the right and left of the lapping guide 43 which, in its intermediate initial position I, is located directly opposite the respective knitting needle 56. For

instance, in FIG. 9 the knitting needle 56" cooperates with the lapping guides 43', 43 which are located on opposite sides of the lapping guide 43 which is aligned with the knitting needle 56". As is apparent from FIG. 1, each knitting needle 56 interlaces all the stitches pointing toward the same' gap between two adjacent stripes 2, to form the wales 6.

The marginal knitting needles 56' cooperate only with a single lapping guide 43 positioned on the right or left of the marginal knitting needle 56.

As lapping guides 43 swing from the lapping end position III shown in FIG. 8 to the intermediate initial position I shown in FIG. 9, the weft thread I threaded into the left marginal lapping guide 43, is not engaged by the knitting needle 56, but is connected by the loop link 9, see FIG. 1, with the second following sectional weft 8 where it forms again a complete loop due to the movement of the lapping guides 43 from the intermediate initial position I shown in FIG. 9 to the lapping end position II shown in FIG. 6, and back again. The marginal stitches 5' overlap the marginal warp thread 3, see

FIG. 1, and tie the loop links to the selvedge of the fabric 19.

In the same manner, as the lapping guides 43 are moved from the intermediate initial position I shown in FIG. 9 to the lapping end position II shown in FIG. 6, and back again, see FIG. 7, the opposite selvedge, not shown, of fabric 19 will be formed.

Since each of the marginal lapping guides 43 having a weft thread 1 in its eyelet, swings from its initial intermediate position I only to one of the two lapping end positions, for example lapping end position II, a lesser length of weft thread I is required so that this weft thread I has to be taken off a package on a separately braked reel.

The lapping guide mechanism and the knitting needles 56 cooperate in a well known manner to form either open or closed stitches 5 in the wale 6. The open stitches 5 of wale 6 are formed by laying the weft thread 1 into the hook 64 of the knitting needle 56 from above, as shown in FIG. 4.

In the event that cam 59 rotates opposite to the direction of the arrow 67, the weft thread 1 is laid into the hook 64 of the needle 56 from below so that the stitches 5 of the connecting wale 6 are closed.

Patent Citations
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IT599742A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4106531 *Sep 1, 1977Aug 15, 1978Statni Vyzkumny Ustav Textilni LiberecKnit-woven fabric selvage structure, and apparatus for producing the same
US4579151 *Jul 24, 1984Apr 1, 1986Stani Vyzkumny Ustav TextilniMachine for making a partly woven partly knitted fabric
US5553642 *Mar 10, 1993Sep 10, 1996Tillon; GeorgesProcess and device for making decorated woven-knitted textile backing
US6003564 *Dec 4, 1998Dec 21, 1999Aerospatiale Societe Nationale IndustrielleWeaving device for the production of a structure for a composite component
US8001998 *Oct 25, 2007Aug 23, 2011Airbus Operations SasSystem for weaving a continuous angle
US20110005632 *Feb 14, 2008Jan 13, 2011Massimo BertolaniFabric made up of at least two laps interwoven along a common stretch and method for its production
Classifications
U.S. Classification139/11, 139/383.00B, 139/429
International ClassificationD03D41/00, D04B39/00
Cooperative ClassificationD04B39/00, D03D41/00
European ClassificationD04B39/00, D03D41/00