US 3747232 A
An article of manufacture which includes an absorbent sheet of material having a non-absorbent sheet or backing bonded to one surface. The outline of a picture to be colored is drawn on the other surface of the absorbent sheet by using moisture impervious barrier lines which penetrate into the absorbent sheet. Colored fluid mediums are applied to the surface of the absorbent sheet to form the colored article.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 Donaldson et al.
COLORING SET Inventors: Asa Lynn Donaldson; Gale D.
Jenkins; Jack Lewis Lemkin, all of Cincinnati, Ohio General Mills Fun Group, luc., Minneapolis, Minn.
Filed: Sept. 27, 1971 Appl. No.: 184,135
U.S. Cl. 35/26, 161/13 Int. Cl. 60% 11/04 Field of Search 35/26; 161/5, 12,
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3/1945 Connelly 35/26 [111 3,747,232 [451 July 24,1973
2,584,021 1/1952 Jackson 35/26 UX 2,963,797 12/1960 3,100,063 8/1963 3,600,827 8/1971 Fisher 35/26 Attorney Anthony A. .lliettner and L. McRoy Lillehaugen  ABSTRACT An article of manufacture which includes an absorbent sheet of material having a non-absorbent sheet or backing bonded to one surface. The outline of a picture to be colored is drawn on the other surface of the absorbent sheet by using moisture impervious barrier lines which penetrate into the absorbent sheet. Colored fluid mediums are applied to the surface of the absorbent sheet to form the colored article.
13 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures PAIENTEU 3. 747. 2 32 SHEET 1 or 2 INVENTORS ASA LYNN DONALDSON Y GALE D. JENKINS JAC LE '5 LEMKIN ATTOR EY PAIENIED M41913 3.147.232
SHEET 2 OF 2 INVENTORS E5120 .ASA LYNN DONALDSON Y GALE D. JENKINS JACK WIS LEMKIN F155; 5 J6 J2 ATTORNEY COLORING SET The present invention relates to a new type of color- 2 ing set, and more particularly to a coloring set whereby liquid dye solutions are applied to the surface of a sheet of material having an outline ofa picture or design placed thereon. The invention involves the science of chromatography, and utilizes it to create a new and different coloring technique or process.
A vast number of techniques and approaches are known in the art for permitting or enabling an individual, such as a child, to produce colored pictures as a form of education, entertainment,-and amusement. A variety of painting techniques are known by which a child produces a multi-colored article by applying a selected color, or colors, from a container onto the article by means of an applicator such as a brush or sponge. Such an applicator is used to transfer the colored medium onto selected areas on the surface of the article either by permitting the child to exercise his own judgment as to what colors are to be used, where they are to be placed, and in what order, or by following a set of instructions which directs or guides the child in producing his finished production. In art productions of this type, the coloring medium, such as water colors, paints, or the like, generally remains on, or near the top surface of the paper.
While items of this type are generally designed for amusement and entertainment purposes, considerable effort is being expended to design and create items having educational aspects as well. Thus, items of this type are being used to teach children new approaches and techniques for coloring, as well as to teach children about primary and secondary colors, color make-up, color reactions, color separation, color complements, and the like.
A variety of new coloring techniques are being devised as improvements over the existing approaches. To the best of applicants knowledge, however, very little has been done in applying or adapting the science of chromatography to practical usage as a coloring technique. Paper chromatography, whereby materials are separated by partition between a solvent and the paper support has been known for many years. While the principle of paper chromatography has been used as a scientific tool in laboratories for years, to the best of applicants knowledge, no one has used this technology to produce colored pictures by applying dye solutions onto the surface of a sheet of absorbent material.
Accordingly, it is one object of the present invention to provide a new and different coloring set for educational, entertainment, and amusement purposes.
Another object is to provide a coloring set which utilizes a new and different approach for applying coloring material onto the surface of a work of art.
A further object is to provide a coloring set which includes an absorbent sheet of material having a picture or design printed thereon, and a plurality of dye solutions which can be applied to selected areas on the absorbent material, to produce a multi-colored article.
A still further object is to provide a coloring set which includes an absorbent sheet of material having a picture or design on one surface, such picture being formed by barrier lines which resist or restrict the flow of a dye solution applied to designated areas on such a surface.
Another object is to provide a coloring set which includes an absorbent sheet of material having a nonabsorbent backing secured to one surface, and a plurality of barrier lines on its other surface which define an object to be colored.
A still further object is to provide a coloring set which utilizes the phenomenon of chromatography to produce a colored picture in a new and different manner.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from a consideration of the following specification and accompanying drawings. Before proceeding with a detailed description of the invention, however, a brief description will be presented.
Briefly, the invention comprises an article of manufacture which includes a fibrous, absorbent sheet of paper having good capillary action properties and a plurality of dye solutions in individual containers or bottles. An outline of a picture or design to be colored, is drawn on one surface of the paper, and this outline is formed by moisture impervious barrier lines which resist or restrict the flow of the fluid dye solutions past designated areas, when they are applied onto the surface of the sheet. A moisture impervious backing sheet is bonded to the other surface of the absorbent sheet, and it serves as a barrier between the absorbent sheet and a surface upon which the absorbent sheet is placed. By applying colored liquids from the bottles to areas bounded by the barrier lines, a multi-colored picture can be produced.
The invention will best be understood by a reference to the following drawings, wherein;
FIG. 1 is a plan view which illustrates an absorbent sheet of material being colored by applying a colored fluid medium from a bottle containing such fluid medium, onto the surface of the sheet;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged partial plan view which illustrates a portion of the sheet depicted in FIG. 1, in greater detail;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged partial sectional view taken along line 33 of FIG. 2, which illustrates the sheet of material before a colored fluid medium has been applied to it;
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3 but illustrating the sheet of material after a colored fluid medium has been applied to it; 7
FIG. 5 is a partial plan view which illustrates the result after a non-separating colored droplet has been applied to the surface of the absorbent sheet;
FIG. 6 is a partial plan view which illustrates the result after a separating colored droplet has been applied to the surface of the absorbent sheet; I
FIG. 7 is a partial plan view which illustrates the result after a water droplet has been applied to the sheet uponwhich a colored droplet has been first applied;
FIG. 8 is a partial plan view which illustrates the result after two colored droplets of different hues, have been placed adjacent to each other;
FIG. 9 illustrates a colored droplet which gradually diminishes in color intensity; and
FIG. 10 illustrates the bottle for containing the colored fluid medium, in greater detail.
FIGS. 1-4 show a partially colored article designated generally by numeral 10, having the outline or picture of an object such as an animal 12, printed or drawn on its top surface 14, and being colored by a plurality of colored fluid mediums designated generally by numeral 16. Bottles 18 are provided for storing such colored fluid mediums, and discharging the contents therefrom when desired. Generally, the article includes a first sheet or layer 20 superimposed over, or bonded to, a second sheet or layer 22. The sheet 20 is formed of a relatively soft, fibrous material capable of absorbing and readily dispersing a fluid medium applied to its surface. Preferably, the absorbent sheet 16 should have good capillary action properties so as to permit the fluid medium to move freely in the fibers of the sheet. While any number of commercially available absorbent paper materials might be used, it is preferred that it have sufficient strength when wet, so as to create minimum distortion or warpage. As an example, unsized, absorbent paper weighing about 20-40 lbs. per 500 sheets, and having a 24 inch by 36 inch surface, has been used with good results.
The second sheet or layer 22 is formed of a flexible, moisture impervious, non-absorbent material, and it serves as a protective backing or barrier for the article, and it prevents moisture from contacting a surface upon which the article is placed. A polymer, such as polyethylene, has been used very satisfactorily for this purpose, although it is recognized that a number of other impervious materials might be used just as well. The polyethylene 22 is bonded to the absorbent sheet 20 to form the laminated article 10 by techniques well known in the art.
The lines which form the picture 12 are drawn on the top surface 14 by using a waterproof medium which penetrates through the sheet 20 to form barrier lines 24 which resist or restrict the flow of the colored fluid medium through the absorbent layer 18. Although any number of waterproof mediums might be used to form the barrier lines, it is preferred that a black material be used, such as a black non-toxic textile printing ink, a silicone based ink, or the like. If preferred of course the barrier lines could be formed of another color, or they could be colorless.
At this point, it might be mentioned that if desired, the barrier lines might be drawn on the absorbent sheet by the user, thus permitting him to create his own design or configuration to be colored. A variety of felt tip marking implements are commercially available which might be satisfactorily used for this purpose. Marking implements which contain a permanent ink which will penetrate into the absorbent sheet to form the barrier lines, should preferably be used.
As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the barrier line 24 penetrates through the sheet 20 to the barrier layer 22. The thickness of the barrier lines can vary over a relatively wide range; as depicted in FIG. 3 for example, the barrier line 24a is substantially wider or thicker than the barrier line 24b. The relative thickness of the barrier lines is determined primarily by the desired shape and configuration of the object being drawn on the article, as certain areas or sections of the drawing will require wider lines than other sections. Moreover, the age of the intended user might have some bearing on the relative thickness of the lines, as younger children will generally be less proficient at coloring in smaller areas than older children. It should be recognized of course, that thicker barrier lines 24a are better able to resist or restrict the dispersing or migration of the colored fluid medium. In FIG. 4, a pool of the colored fluid medium 16 is illustrated as dispersing or migrating downwardly and radially into the absorbent sheet 20, by capillary action. Since the barrier line 24a is relatively thick, it effectively resists or blocks the flow of the fluid medium, and prevents it from flowing from the area designated II into the area designated I. The barrier line 2412 on the other hand, is relatively thin, and as shown, it is unable to prevent the fluid from flooding over the barrier line into the area designated Ill. The result is a flooding of the colored fluid medium into the area III on the other side of the barrier line 24b.
A variety of colored fluid mediums 16 can be used for coloring the article, such as water colors, food coloring materials, inks, dye solutions, or the like. Since the article will very likely be used by children, preferably, a water soluble dye solution should be used which can be removed from the childs hands, clothing, etc. A number of dyes of this type are commercially available which can be used with satisfactory results. As an example, dye powders are commercially available in many different hues; a dye solution can be made by mixing a quantity of one or more powders with a prescribed amount of water. The dye solution might consist of a primary color, secondary colors, or a mixture of colors. Preferably, the dye solution should spread as far as possible, in as short a time as possible, and it should dry as quickly as possible.
If preferred, special dye solutions might be formulated to obtain a specific color, and color affect. A yellow dye solution was formulated for example, by mixing and dissolving 13 oz. of sodium chloride crystals in ten gallons of heated water having a temperature of about F. Thereafter, 13 oz. of potassium nitrate crystals were mixed and dissolved in the water; 1.5 oz. of sodium benzoate crystals were mixed and dissolved in the water; 3 oz. of malic acid crystals were added and dissolved in the water; and finally 375 grams of FD & C Yellow No. 5 colorant was added and mixed for about 15 minutes. The resultant dye solution had a very pleasing yellow color.
At this point, it might be pointed out that certain colors can be formulated which are mixtures of two or more colors. It has been found that such colors tend to separate as they disperse or migrate in the absorbent material, thus producing a very different and unique effect. It is believed that this phenomenon is caused due to the different molecular weights of the colors, as some colors diffuse or disperse faster than others, in the absorbent material. A green dye solution was formed in substantially the same manner as the yellow color described above, in that the same amounts of sodium chloride, potassium nitrate, sodium benzoate, and malic acids were sequentially mixed with 10 gallons of heated water. Thereafter, 189 grams of FD & C Yellow No. 5 and 94 grams of PD & C Blue No. l-colorant were added to the mixture to form the green dye solution. As explained below, such a green color tends to separate into green and blue components when applied to the absorbent sheet.
FIGS. 5-9 illustrate the flow characteristics and patterns of different dye solutions. In FIG. 5, a drop 16 of a color, such as yellow, has been applied to the surface 14 of the absorbent sheet 20, to form a spot designated by letter Y. The dye solution moves both vertically, and radially, in the fibrous, absorbent material to form a spot substantially larger than the initial spot formed when the drop was applied to the surface. Observe that the spot Y has a specifically defined perimeter where the color stops, and itsintensity does not vary appreciably throughout the colored area.
In FIG. 6, a color which separates into two components, such as the green color composed of blue and yellow components as described above, has been applied to the absorbent sheet 20. As shown, the droplet has dispersed in the fibrous sheet, and it has separated into two components, i.e., green, designated by the letter G, and a surrounding narrow rim blue, designated by the letter B. The blue pigment diffuses at a faster rate than the green pigment, so that it results in a colored spot having two components.
In FIG. 7, the green and blue colors have been caused to diffuse or spread even further, by applying a drop of water to the center of a spot similar to that shown in FIG. 6, with an instrument such as an eye dropper 26 (note FIG. 1). While it is difficult to predict what will happen when a drop of water is applied in this manner, generally, application of the water (or an appropriate solvent of some type,) causes the dye solution to dissipate and migrate even further throughout the absorbent material. As shown in FIGv 7, the green has separated into darker and lighter areas designated G1 and G2 respectively, while the blue has generally expanded and become slightly lighter in intensity.
FIG. 8 illustrates two droplets of different colors, such as red R and green G, which have been placed approximate each other so that the two colors merge together to form a third color designated M. Thus, a variety of colors can be formed by intermixing separate colors on the absorbent sheet.
Finally, FIG. 9 depicts a colored dye solution which gradually diffuses or disperses in such a manner that no definite margin is retained.
FIG. 10 illustrates the bottle or container 18 in greater detail. Preferably, the bottle is formed of a flexible plastic material so that it can be readily squeezed to aid in discharging the contents. The bottle is provided with a cover 30 which permits the bottle to be filled with a dye solution, and which prevents the solution from being discharged from the bottle when not in use. The cover 30 is formed of two parts, a main portion 32 which is secured to the bottle to form a leakproof seal, and a cap 34 secured to the portion 32 by a web 36. The top of the cover portion 32 is formed as having a hollow frusto-conical member or discharge end 38 with a small opening 40 in its apex, and a bead 42 which surrounds the member 38 proximate the main portion 32. The pointed discharge end permits the contents within the bottle to be discharged therefrom, in small quantities and with some degree of control. The cap 34 is dimensioned to fit snuggly over the conical member 38, and more specifically the bead 42, so as to provide the leak-proof closure. A small tab 44, affixed to the cap 34, permits the cap to be readily snapped off from the member 38.
In use, the uncolorcd article 10 is placed upon a flat surface so that the absorbent sheet 20 is exposed. A bottle having the desired dye solution is selected, and after removing the cap 34, one or more drops are permitted to drop onto the absorbent sheet in a given area, care being taken so that too much of the solution is not discharged in one area, especially if the area being colored is proximate a barrier line. If preferred, the bottle can be moved at a slow rate of speed as the contents are discharged, to form a continuous line upon the surface of the absorbent sheet. As explained hereinbefore, as the dye solution contacts the absorbent sheet, it moves in the sheet fibers until the drop is completely dissipated, or it contacts a barrier line 24. Since some pictures may have small areas to be colored, it might be desirable to use a small implement such as a brush 28 (note FIG. 1) to distribute the solution into these small areas. This willreduce the tendency to flood the barrier lines, especially if such barrier lines are relatively narrow. Once the dye solution has been applied, the color intensity can be changed by applying a small quantity of water to the colored area, or a different color can be obtained by applying a different dye solution onto the colored area already existing.
The above described invention results in a completely' different and unique approach in coloring or painting techniques. It is extremely fascinating, because the artist can exercise his own imagination and creativity in applying the dye solutions onto the absorbent sheet, so as to create new and unique effects. By experimenting with various colors, the manner in which they are applied, as well as the order of their application, an extrmely interesting finished original colored article can be obtained, which is most difficult to duplicate.
In the above description and attached drawings a disclosure of the principles of this invention is presented, together with specific embodiments by which the invention might be carried out.
Now, therefore, we claim:
1. In combination, an absorbent sheet formed of a relatively soft, fibrous material capable of absorbing and dispersing a fluid medium applied to the surface thereof, said sheet having an outline of a picture or design placed on a first surface, said outline being formed by a moisture impervious medium which penetrates into the absorbent sheet thus forming a barrier line throughout the sheet thickness which effectively resists the flow of the colored fluid across said barrier line, and at least one receptacle for containing and storing a colored fluid medium, said colored fluid medium when. applied to the surface of said sheet of material dispersing vertically and radially in the fibrous material away from the point where said fluid medium is applied.
2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said moisture impervious barrier line is formed by using a textile printing ink.
3. The combination of claim 1 wherein said moisture impervious barrier line is formed by using a fluid medium containing silicone.
4. The combination of claim 1 wherein the dimension of said barrier line varies in thickness at a number of different locations on the surface of the sheet, thus forming a design with a variety of line thicknesses.
5. The combination of claim 1 wherein a backing sheet is secured to the other surface of the absorbent sheet of material, said backing sheet being formed of a moisture impervious, non-absorbent material.
. 6. The combination of claim 5 wherein the backing sheet is polyethylene.
7. The combination of claim 5 wherein the medium forming the barrier lines penetrates through the absor-' bent material until it contacts the backing sheet.
. 8. The combination of claim 1 wherein a plurality of receptacles are provided for containing a variety of different colored fluid mediums, said fluid mediums being formed of a water soluble dye solution.
9. The combination of claim 8 wherein at least some of said colored fluid mediums separate into at least two components as they disperse in the absorbent sheet of material.
10. The combination of claim 1 wherein said receptacle is provided with means for discharging the fluid medium in small increments, said means including a frustoconical discharge end with an opening in its apex, and closure means are provided for preventing said fluid medium from being inadvertently discharged therefrom.
11. The combination of claim 10 wherein said receptacle is formed of a flexible material.
12. In combination, an absorbent sheet formed of a relatively soft, fibrous material capable of absorbing and dispersing a fluid medium applied to the surface thereof, said sheet having the outline of a picture or design placed on a first surface, said outline being formed by a moisture impervious medium which penetrates into said absorbent sheet thus forming a barrier line which resists the flow of a fluid medium across said line, and a backing sheet secured to the other surface of said absorbent sheet, said backing sheet being formed of a moisture impervious, non-absorbent material.
13. An article of manufacture comprising a relatively soft, fibrous sheet of material having an outline of a picture or design drawn on a first surface, said sheet being capable of absorbing and radially dispersing a fluid medium applied to its surface, a moisture impervious, nonabsorbent sheet of material bonded to a second surface of said fibrous sheet so that it forms a moisture impervious backing for said absorbent sheet, said picture outline being formed by a moisture impervious medium which penetrates into the absorbent sheet thus forming a barrier line which effectively resists the flow of the fluid medium across said barrier line unless an excessive amount of said fluid medium is applied to said surface, said fluid medium being a liquid dye solution of a preselected hue, and a receptacle for storing said fluid medium, said receptacle having a discharge opening which can be opened and closed.