US 3748057 A
A method and apparatus for compressing fluids by employing a rotating rotor wherein said fluid compressed to a pressure that is higher than the unit exit pressure; said fluid is discharged from said rotor via exit nozzles discharging backward; said fluid being cooled within said rotor by employing a second fluid that may be either compressible or non-compressible type. Specific fluids to be used that are disclosed are air as the fluid to be compressed, and water as the second fluid. The device may also be used to produce refrigeration and heating, either with accompanying pressurization of said fluid, or without pressurizing of said fluid.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Eskeli [111 3,748,057 July 24, 1973 ROTARY COMPRESSOR WITH COOLING inventor: Michael Eskeli, 6220 Orchid Ln.,
Dallas, Tex. 75230 Filed: Jan. 11, 1972 Appl. No.: 216,929
. References Cited 7 UNITED STATES PATENTS 711902 Harris 415/116 6/1936 Kessel 415/116 2/1967 Bachl 415/199 A 7/1961 Reinecke 415/116 Primary Examiner-C. J. Husar Attorney- Wofford, Felsman & Tails 57] ABSTRACT A method and apparatus for compressing fluids by employing a rotating rotor wherein said fluid compressed to a pressure that is higher than the unit exit pressure; said fluid is discharged from said rotor via exit nozzles discharging backward; said fluid being cooled within said rotor by employing a second fluid that may be either compressible or non-compressible type. Specific fluids to be used that are disclosed are air as the fluid to be compressed, and water as the second fluid. The device may also be used to produce refrigeration and heating, either with accompanying pressurization of said fluid, or without pressurizing of said fluid.
4 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures Patented July 24, 1973 no u 1 ROTARY COMPRESSOR WITII COOLING BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to devices for compressing gases by employing centrifugal force to compress said gas within a rotating rotor.
The art of compressing gases has seen many devices. In some of those devices, a gas is accelerated within a rotating rotor passage and then discharged from said passage usually radially outward, and then said gas is compressed in a diffuser where the kinetic energy of said fluid is converted to pressure.
The main disadvantage of these conventional compressors is that their efflciency is rather poor due to friction to the high speed passage of said gas within said rotor, and losses in converting said kinetic energy to pressure in said diffuser.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a cross section of the device, and
FIG. 2 is an end view of the same unitshown in FIG. I with a portion removed to show interior details.
FIG. 3 is a section of the rotor being used in this device.
DESCRlPTlON OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS It is an object of this invention to provide a method and apparatus for compressing gases, wherein said gas is compressed within a rotating rotor to a pressure that is normally higher than the discharge pressure from the unit, with cooling applied to said gas during compression by circulating another fluid in heat exchange relationship with the fluid to be compressed, and discharging said gaseous fluid from said rotor via nozzles oriented to discharge backward.
Referring to FIG. 1, therein is shown a cross section of the compressing device. is casing, 12 is rotor, 11 is a space around rotor, 13 is rotor outer fluid passage, 15 is'rotor internal fluid passage for fluid to becompressed, 16 is rotorbearing and seal, 23 is shaft, -17 are rotor internal vanes assuring that the fluid will rotate with said rotor and also serving as heat exchange members, 18 are rotor internal vanes, 14 is a fluid passage for the cooling fluid, 22 is compressed fluid discharge, 24, are rotor internal vanes, 21 is rotor bearing and seal,
is cooling fluid inlet, 19 is'fluid inlet for the fluid to be compressed, 26 is rotor dividing wall, and 29 is cooling fluid outlet.
In FIG. 2, an end view of the unit shown in FIG. 1 is illustrated. 10 is casing, 11 is fluid space, 14 is cooling fluid passage, 24 is internal vane, 26 is rotor wall, 19 is fluid inlet, 20 is cooling fluid inlet, is unit base, and
.22 is compressed fluid outlet.
In FIG. 3, asection of the rotor for this device is shown. 12 is said rotor, 13 is fluid passage for the fluid being compressed, 14 is cooling fluid passage, 15 is passage for the fluid being compressed, 17 is a vane, 27 is exit nozzle for the fluid being compressed, 28 indicates rotation direction of said rotor.
In operation, the fluid to be compressed enters the said rotor via opening 19, passes to the rotor and is accelerated to the rotor speed with vanes 17 assuring that said fluid will rotate with said rotor. Vanes 17 will also serve as heat exchange members. Said fluid is then sage l3, and said fluid will then pass to exit nozzles 27,
or non-compressible type, such as water, air, or other fluid. Calling the fluid to be compressed as the first fluid, and the cooling fluid as the second fluid, following is the description of the functions of these fluids:
The first fluid is compressed to a higher pressure than the pressure at point 22, by the rotating rotor. Said first fluid normally would gain in temperature when the pressure is increased, but in this device, the second fluid will remove most of such heat so that the compression becomes nearly isothermal. Said first fluid is then discharged from said rotor exit nozzles in a direction that is backward away from the direction of rotation and the fluid jet will produce an impulse on said rotor nozzle, reducing the power input to said rotor from an external source. The velocity of the leaving jet in relation to said nozzle will be determined by the enthalpy difference available between the pressure of the, space 13 of the said rotor, and space 11 of said casing. Said nozzles are sized and shaped to provide for highest attainable exit velocity, and said nozzles are either converging or converging-diverging type as required for The second fluid enters said rotor via opening 20 and is then passed to said rotor interior. Said fluid may'be either compressible type, such as air, or noncompressible type, such as water. Said second fluid is pressurized within said rotor passage, and for a liquid fluid, there is no appreciable temperature increase due to pressurization, so that the temperature difference between a liquid second fluid and gaseous first fluid will larger, than a temperature difference between-a gaseous second fluid and gaseous first fluid. Therefore, for cooling a gaseous first fluid, a liquid second fluid is desirable.
It should be noted thatthis device also may be used to produce refrigeration, since a gaseous ,flrst fluid when compressed isothermally, and then expanded isentropically, will have lower exit temperature at point 22 than in point, 19, FIG. 1. Also, this device maybe used as a generator of heat, since said second fluid will leave said device at a higher temperature than said second fluid enters. If the device is used to produce refrigeration or heating, the pressure in passage 11 may be space between said rotor walls and said casing, thereby reducing friction.
This device may also be used to heat said first fluid during or after compression, by proper selection of the said second fluid. In this type of application, said second fluid should be a compressible gas, such as air,
while said second fluid may be a fluid such as freon. In this type of application, the temperature gain of the first fluid would be more than the temperature gain for the said second fluid, so that heat transfer will take place from said second fluid to said first fluid with the result that said first fluid will be warmer when being discharged from the unit.
Various well known devices, such as governors, gauges, and the like, are employed with the device of this invention. They do not form a part of this invention and are not further described herein.
What is claimed is:
l. A device for compressing fluids and comprising:
a. a rotor for compressing said fluid by centrifugal action onsaid fluid by said rotor; said rotor having an inlet for said first fluid near the center of said rotor; said first fluid being passed to the interior of said rotor where vanes placed within said rotor interior will assure that said fluid will be rotating with said rotor; said fluid being cooled by a second fluid being circulated in heat exchange relationship with said first fluid within said rotor; said first fluid being discharged from said rotor via exit nozzles oriented to discharge said fluid in backward direction that is away from the direction of rotation; said exit nozzles being sized and shaped to provide for highest attainable exit fluid velocity from said exit nozzles; said exit nozzles being either converging or converging-diverging in shape; said second fluid being either compressible or non-compressible type; said second fluid being passed into said rotor via entry opening near the center of said rotor, being passed from there through passsages provided within said rotor to area near the periphery of said rotor and then being passed to area near the center of said rotor and then discharged from said rotor; said rotor being supported by suitable seals and bearings; said rotor being provided with a suitable power shaft;
b. a casing to support said rotor and to contain said first fluid; also to provide exit opening for said first cja fluid to be compressed and being said first fluid;
d. afluid to be used as the cooling fluid and being said second fluid. 2.,The device of claim 1 wherein the casing is closely fitted to the walls of said rotor to provide for partial evacuation of space between said rotor and said casing by centrifugal action on fluid particles by said rotating rotor thereby reducing friction loss on said rotor.
3. A method of compressing gases and comprising:
a. a rotor for compressing said gas wherein a second.
fluid is circulated to cool said gas during and after compression to produce essentially isothermal compression of said gas;
. discharging said gas via exit nozzles oriented to discharge said gas in backward direction; said nozzles being shaped to obtain highest attainable exit velocity for said gas; employing impulse produced by the said gas when leaving said exit nozzles to reduce the work required to rotate said rotor;
. employing a second fluid as coolant within said rotating rotor; said fluid being supplied to said rotor via openings near center of said rotor, and being discharged via openings near the center of said rotor thereby reducing work required to circulate said second fluid within said rotor.
4. A method of heating a second fluid in a device in which a gas is compressed comprising:
a. heating said gas by compression in a rotating continuous flow centrifuge rotor;
b. flowing said second fluid at an adjustable flow rate that is less than that required to obtain isothermal compression of said gas in said rotor and that is sufficiently reduced to attain the desired temperature on the effluent second fluid, in heat exchange relationship with said first fluid within said rotating rotor to heat said second fluid to said desired temperature; said second fluid being supplied to said rotor via openings near the center of said rotor, and being discharged via openings near the center of said rotor thereby reducing work required to circulate said secondfluid within said rotor; and
. discharging said gas via exit nozzles orientedto discharge said gas substantially tangentially rearward in a direction opposite the direction of rotation of said rotor such that the reaction force induces a torque to rotate said rotor and reduces the work required therefore; said nozzles being shaped to obtain the highest attainable exit velocity for said