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Publication numberUS3748516 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 24, 1973
Filing dateFeb 16, 1971
Priority dateJun 22, 1968
Also published asDE1927455A1, DE1927455B2, US3586637
Publication numberUS 3748516 A, US 3748516A, US-A-3748516, US3748516 A, US3748516A
InventorsBlasse G, De Vries J
Original AssigneePhilips Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Low-pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp
US 3748516 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1 Blasse et al.

[ 1 July 24, 1973 LOW-PRESSURE MERCURY VAPOUR DISCHARGE LAMP [75] Inventors: George Blasse; Jaap De Vries, both of Emmasingel, Eindhoven, Netherlands [73] Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation, New York,

22 Filed: Feb. 16,1971

211 Appl.No.:115,787

Related US. Application Data [62] Division of Ser. No. 834,285, June 18, 1969, Pat. No.

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data June 22, 1968 Netherlands 6808846 [52] US. Cl. 313/109 Primary Examiner-Roy Lake Assistant Examiner-James B. Mullins AtmmeyFrank R Trifari [57] ABSTRACT Luminescent material for a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp consisting essentially of a europium .activated strontium or barium bore-phosphate.

4 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures r115 I 1 L, I l 1 1 I I lllL ii 1 I I I 1.1, 1 l 1 1 1 1 14,!!! I Pmmemm LOW-PRESSURE MERCURY VAPOUR DISCHARGE LAMP This applicatlon is a division of copending US. Pat. application Ser. No. 834,285, filed June 18, 1969 and now US. Pat. No. 3,586,637.

The invention relates to a novel luminescent material and to a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp employing such a material.

in many photochemical document-copying systems a document is copied by irradiating the master and directing the radiation which has been reflected or transmitted to a piece of paper which is sensitive to this radiation and contains substances which can be decomposed by the radiation so that a copy of the master document is obtained possibly after further treatment, for example, fixing.

For efficient use of the reproduction papers it is of course desirable to have a radiation source which emits a strong radiation at those wavelengths to which the paper is most sensitive.

A requirement generally imposed on the reproduction papers to be used is that the substances which are sensitive to radiation are converted as little as possibly by normal daylight. This of course facilitates working with these papers and also imposes few requirements on the storage thereof. Since normal daylight contains comparatively little ultraviolet radiation, the best combination is apparently a paper which has a maximum sensitivity below 400 nm. and a radiation source which emits a strong ultraviolet radiation.

As already stated above, the master to be copied must transmit or reflect the radiation. It has been found that many documents are made from paper which transmits and/or reflects ultraviolet radiation comparatively poorly. In view of the contradictory requirements for document-copying machines, a compromise must therefore be made: it is therefore preferred to use lightsensitive papers the maximum sensitivity of which lies between 380-and 440 nm and a radiation source having a maximum of the emitted radiation between these two values.

Document-copying machines generally use as radiation sources mercury vapour discharge lamps including a luminescent layer provided on a support, which layer converts a great part of the ultraviolet radiation produced in the mercury vapour discharge into radiation of longer wavelength. Thus, as described above, the maximum emitted radiation energy must preferably be in the wavelength range between 380 and 440 nm. This is, for example, the case'with the very frequently used substance, calcium tungstate. The conversion efficiency of the ultraviolet radiation of the mercury vapour discharge into radiation between 380 and 440 nm. is however, comparatively small for this substance, because the emission spectrum is very wide and hence much radiation energy is emitted at wavelength outside this range. In addition the absorption spectrum of most light-sensitive papers is considerably narrower than'this range. As a result of these two causes only a comparatively small part of the total radiation energy emitted by the calcium tungstate is efficiently used by the sensitive paper.

A further luminescent substance, which is very frequently used, is a lead-activated silicate of strontium, barium and magnesium. The emission spectrum of this substance is not very wide when excited by the ultraviolet radiation of a mercury vapour discharge and hence is more suitable for adaptation to the absorption spectrum of a radiation-sensitive paper; the maximum emission of this substance lies, however, at 355 nm. and is therefore less suitable to be transmitted or reflected by the paper of most documents. In spite of this fact, the substance is very frequently used on account of the nar row emission band and the strong radiation.

A low-pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp according to the invention includes a luminescent material provided on a support and is characterized in that this luminescent material is an alkaline earth boratephosphate activated by bivalent europium and having the following composition.

in which0 s x s 0.5 and 0.003 s p s 0.15.

A luminescent material which is represented by the above formula can be excited satisfactorily by ultraviolet radiation which is emitted by a low-pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp and the material then shows an emission spectrum in which the greater part of the luminescent energy is radiated between 380 nm. and 440 nm. Since the conversion efficiency is also very high, namely considerably higher than that of calcium tungstate and also higher than that of the abovementioned silicate, a lamp according to the invention is more suitable for use in document-copying apparatus in combination with available radiation-sensitive types of paper having a maximum absorption within this range, because all requirements as set above are now simultaneously satisfied. In addition, it has been found that the substances according to the invention have a good temperature dependence, that is to say, their conversion efficiency decreases only slightly as the temperature increases. They are thus very suitable for use in high-power, low-pressure mercury vapour discharge lamps, whose wall temperature assumes a high value during operation.

As is evident from the above-given formula, a luminescent material according to the invention consists of a bivalent europium-activated borate-phosphate of barium and/or strontium, wherein the barium and/or strontium may be partly replaced by calcium. The fundamental lattices of the borate-phosphates of the alkaline earth metals barium, strontium and calcium are isomorphous. Z

The pure barium borate-phosphate activated by bivalent europium is preferred because this substance has the highest light output. This substance has its maximum emission at a wavelength of approximately 385 nm. The pure strontium borate-phosphate activated by bivalent europium has its maximum emission at a wavelength of approximately 390 nm. The barium-strontium borate-phosphates according to the invention have their maximum emission at wavelength between the abovementioned values and a light output which is approximately equal to that of the pure strontium boratephosphate.

Tests have shown that the pure calcium boratephosphate when activated by bivalent europium, is no usable luminescent substance due to its small light output. The emission spectrum has, however, a maximum at approximately 405 nm. and by partial replacement of barium and/or strontium in the barium strontium borate-phosphates by calcium, luminescent substances can'be obtained whose location of the maximum emission in the spectrum is shifted to longer wavelengths. The calcium content x must, however, remain within the above-given limits because otherwise luminescent substances are obtained which are not usable for practice.

The amount of bivalent europium may be varied between the above-mentioned limits, but is preferably chosen to be between 0.005 and 0.05. In fact, the highest radiation efficiency is found in this range.

In addition to the above-mentioned advantages of the materials according to the present invention it is to be noted that the substances are only slightly affected by oxidation. This is of great importance in the manufacture of the mercury vapour discharge lamps, because they are then often exposed for a short period to a heat treatment in air at a fairly high temperature, for example, 600C. Such a heat treatment is necessary, for example, when an organic binder is used which is to be removed later on by heat treatment.

Some embodiments of the present invention will now be described with reference to one Table, one Example and one drawing.

and of two known substances as a function of the wave length;

FIG. 3 is a graphic representation of the variation of the radiation intensity of the substance of Example 2 of the Table with temperature.

FIG. 1 shows a low-pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp which includes an envelope 1. Electrodes 2 and 3 between which the discharge takes place during operation of the lamp are provided at the ends of the lamp. The inner side of the envelope 1, which is made of, for example, glass is coated with a luminescent layer 4 which contains a luminescent material according to the present invention. The luminescent material may be provided on the envelope 1 by bringing a suspension of the luminescent material and nitrocellulose in butyl acetate into contact with the inner side of the envelope, whereby a thin layer of the suspension is left on the envelope. The nitrocellulose serves as a temporary adhesive. Then the envelope is subjected to a thermal treatment by which the temporary adhesive is removed and a satisfactory adhesion of the luminescent layer is obtained.

TABLE Location Composition firing mixture in grams maximum Rel. emission light Example Formula BaOO; SICO3 CaCO; Bull 11 130; (NIT-{)ZIIPO4 (nm.) output Ba0.g Eun-or5BPO5 l. 970 O. 009 0. 750 1. 320 3 55 80 B80.9 EU0.01BP05 0. 016 0. 750 l. 320 385 105 Bau.g5Euu.c2BP05 0. 036 0. 750 1. 320 385 125 BilmgsEllmosB P05 0. 089 0. 750 1. 320 385 11G BamEuouB P05 0. 178 0. 750 1. 320 385 92 sro-nqEllmmB P05 O. 018 0. 750 1. 330 390 85 C3.o.99Eu .o1B P0,; O 018 0. 750 1. 320 405 20 B110.6Sl0.19El1o.01BPO5 0. 013 0. 750 1. 320 385 85 B10.5sr0.49E110.01BPO5 0. 018 O. 750 1. 320 388 80 B8o.2S1'o.79E11u-01BP05 O. 016 0. 750 I. 320 390 85 B80.7C8.0.2gEl10.mBPO5 0 018 0. 750 1. 320 390 90 Ba0.4SXu.30&0.z9E11u.mBP05 0 792 0. 441 O. 290 O 018 O. 750 l. 320 395 80 SI0.5CE1 .49El10-01BP05 0. 755 0. 490 0 018 0. 750 l. 320 400 65 EXAMPLE The broken-line curve a in the graph of FIG. 2 shows A mixture was made of the substances indicated in the Table in the quantities indicated for each Example in the Table. Since the boric acid partly evaporates during the reaction, an excess of H 80 of approximately percent relative to the stoichiometric quantity is always used. The mixture was heated at a temperature between 400 and 600C for approximately 4 hours. After cooling of the firing product obtained, it was ground and again heated at a temperature between 800 and 900C for 4 hours. In both cases the heat treatment took place in a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen. The ratio of nitrogen to hydrogen is then not critical, a ratio of, for example, 20 l was found to be quite usable. The hydrogen serves for reducing the trivalent europium to bivalent europium. After cooling subsequent to the second heat treatment the reaction product obtained was ground and sieved, if necessary. The product was then ready for use.

The last two columns of the Table state the wavelengths of the maximum of the emission band (in nm) and the relative light-outputs in arbitrary units for the different substances.

All measurements were made using an exciting radiation having a wavelength of 254 nm.

In the drawing FIG. I diagrammatically shows a low-pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a graphic representation of the radiation intcnsities of a few substances according to the invention,

the spectral energy distribution of the known leadactivated silicate of barium, strontium and magnesium, and the broken-line curve 17 shows the spectral energy distribution of the known calcium tungstate. These curves are shown for comparison both for the spectral distribution and for the intensity of the luminescent radiation. The maximum intensity of the curve a is fixed at 100. The curves 2, 6, l2 and 13 relate to the materials of Example 2, 6, l2 and 13 of the Table. As is clearly evident from the drawing, the luminescent materials according to the invention have higher peak values and a narrower emission range as compared with the known silicate and the known tungstate, while they have a more favourable location of the maximum emission in the spectrum as compared with the known silicate.

The curve 2 in the graph of FIG. 3 shows the temperature dependence of the radiation intensity of the material of Example 2. The temperature is plotted in "C on the abscissa. The maximum intensity is fixed at 100. The Figure shows that the borate-phosphates according to the invention have a very good temperature dependence. The barium borate-phosphate still shows an intensity of the luminescent radiation at approximately 300C which is equal to half the maximum value. It may be noted for comparison that already at C the intensity of the known calcium tungstate has decreased to half the value at room temperature.

It is still to be noted that the luminescent substances according to the invention may also be excited by elecand 0.003 s p s 0.15.

2. The low-pressure mercury vapor discharge lamp of claim 1 wherein the alkaline earth bore-phosphate activated by bivalent europium has the formula Ba a Eu BPO wherein 0.003 s p s 0.15.

3. The low-pressure mercury vapor discharge lamp of claim 1 wherein 0.005 s p s 0.05.

4. The low-pressure mercury vapor discharge lamp of claim 2 wherein 0.005 s p s 0.05.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3205394 *May 15, 1962Sep 7, 1965Sylvania Electric ProdFluorescent lamp having a sio2 coating on the inner surface of the envelope
US3516940 *Dec 15, 1967Jun 23, 1970Sylvania Electric ProdEuropium activated bao.mgo.p2o5 phosphors
US3522191 *Dec 21, 1966Jul 28, 1970Owens Illinois IncLuminophors and method
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3973691 *Oct 21, 1974Aug 10, 1976Gte Sylvania IncorporatedFluorescent lamp having improved phosphor coating
US4267485 *Oct 25, 1978May 12, 1981Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki KaishaFluorescent lamp with sharp emission peaks betwen 480 and 490 nm and between 620 and 640 nm
U.S. Classification313/486, 355/67
International ClassificationH01J61/38, H01J61/44, C09K11/77, C09K11/08
Cooperative ClassificationC09K11/774, C09K11/7738
European ClassificationC09K11/77N12, C09K11/77N10B