US 3749674 A
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3,749,674 Patented July 31, 1973 3,749,674 BLEACH COMPOSITIONS John Paul Jones and Charles H. Nicol, Cincinnati, Ohio,
assignors to The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio No Drawing. Filed Feb. 22, 1971, Ser. No. 117,814 Int. Cl. Clld 7/54 U.S. Cl. 252-95 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Concentrated, dry bleach and fabric-softening compositions containing a peroxygen bleaching agent, a quaternary ammonium compound and a buffering agent. Such compositions when dissolved in water provide fast-acting. chorine-free, catalyzed bleaching and softening of textiles at all practical solution temperatures without the color and fabric damage usually associated with harsh active chlorine bleaches.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the invention This invention relates to chlorine-free, dry bleach compositions having fabric softening and low color damage bleaching characteristics when employed in aqueous solution. Chlorine-free as used herein means free of chlorine atoms which yield an active chlorine species in aqueous solution. An active chlorine species is either chloride or hypochlorite ion. Thus, chlorine substituents (such as those on an aromatic ring) which do not yield chloride or hypochlorite ions in aqueous solution may be present.
Such compositions may also be used for cleaning sinks or dentures and .for restoring natural coloring to hair after use of artificial hair coloring. As noted, these compositions are in the form of a concentrated product which can be added to water for actual use at both high and low bleaching temperatures.
The invention employs a combination of a peroxygen bleaching compound; a quaternary ammonium salt as a micelle catalyst and fabric softener and a buffering compound to maintain the bleaching solution at a proper pH. While acting as micelle catalysts for the bleaching reaction, the quaternary ammonium salts retain their fabric softening capabilities.
(2) Description of the prior art Several types of bleaching compositions for home use are known in the art. A commonly encountered household bleach is in the form of a liquid solution employing a hypochlorite species as the bleaching active. Such compounds are effective stain-removing bleaches when used in relatively high concentrations, but these hypochlorite or active chlorine bleaches also cause rather severe damage to fabric colors and can, in addition, damage textile fibers with repeated use. Liquid bleaches of this type also present handling and packaging problems.
Several solid or dry bleaches are also available for home use. Potassium dichloroisocyanurate, for example, is a dry bleach but that compound again yields an active chlorine species in bleaching solution. As with other chlorine bleaches, higher concentrations of this substance will cause undesirable color damage.
Chlorine-free bleaches, of course, reduce color damage but have additional shortcomings. A common solid peroxygen bleach, potassium monopersulfate, is relatively safe for colored fabrics but is not comparable to active chlorine bleaches in stain removal. Solid quaternary ammonium peroxysulfate bleaches, such as those disclosed in Diamond of al., U.S. 3,475,493, Oct. 28, 1969, while slightly more effective than potassium monopersulfate, have solubility limitations.
Several types of fabric softeners are presently available for home use, but a l must be added separately to the fabric rinse solution since they are chemically incompatible with many laundering products.
While many of the above-described disadvantages of prior art bleaching and fabric softening compositions have been overcome by the invention of a chlorine containing bleach-fabric softener composition described in the concurrently fied application of John Paul Jones and Charles H. Nicol entitled Bleach-Fabric Softener Compositions, Ser. No. 117,590. filed Feb. 22, 1971, chlorine-free compositions with such enhanced performance characteristics have not heretofore been available.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an imp0ved concentrated chlorine-free bleaching composition which can be safely applied to colored as well as white fabrics. It is a further object of this invention to provide a compatible bleach-fabric softener combination which is utilized in the form of a single, easily handled, dry composition. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a catalyzed bleach-fabric softener composition which can be employed at low solution concentration and which is effective at low temperatures and after short fabric contact time.
While bleaching and fabric softening compositions containing certain of the above-mentioned components have been disclosed in the prior art, it has now been discovered that by combining certain types of catalysts with the designated bleaching agents, a combined bleaching and fabric softening product can be created which accomplishes the above objectives and which is unexpectedly superior to the compositions of the prior art. Although peroxygen bleaching has been catalyzed by chloride ions (Lake, U.S. 3,048,546, Aug. 7, 1962) and metal ions (Kauffman et al., U.S. 2,975,139, Mar. 14, 1961), no chlorine-free bleaching compositions has ever employed quaternary ammonium salts as micelle catalysts for peroxygen bleaching reactions.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Dry, chlorine free, concentrated, bleach-fabric softener compositions and a process for using said compositions are provided. The compositions consist essentially of:
(a) About 8% to 60% by weight of peroxy bleaching agent selected from the group consisting of sodium or potassium monopersulfate; organic peroxy acids (or watersoluble salts thereof) of the general formula 0 HO-O-(l-R-YN wherein R is a substitutedor unsubstituted alkylene or arylene group and Y is or any other group which in water yields an anionic group and mixtures thereof;
(b) About 10% to 60% of a quaternary ammonium compound of the general formula wherein R is an alkyl group containing from about 12 to 20 carbon atoms, R is selected from the group con sisting of alkyl groups containing about 1 to 14 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl groups containing about to 8 carbon atoms, carboxymethyl groups, aryl groups containing from 6 to 8 carbon atoms, alkaryl groups containing from 7 to carbon atoms, pyridyl and groups of the general formula (C H O) (C H O) H wherein a and b are integers and a-l-b is l to 50; R R and R are each selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups containing about I to 3 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl groups containing about 5 to 8 carbon atoms, carboxymethyl groups, aryl groups containing from 6 to 8 carbon atoms, a karyl groups containing from about 7 to 10 carbon atoms, pyridyl, and groups of the general formula (C H O) (C H O) H wherein a and b are integers and a+b is l to 50; R is a group within the definition of R R and R groups or H; R-, is an alkylene group containing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, an arylene group containing from 5 to 8 carbon atoms or a group having the formula CH -CH O-CH CH X is any noninterfering, water-soluble salt forming anion; and n is 1 when X is a monovalent anion and 2 when X is a divalent anion; I
(c) About 10% to 75% by weight of a buffering agent effective to maintain the pH of said compositions in aqueous solutions within the range of from 7 to 10.
The compositions are dissolved in water to provide fabric softening and catalyzed bleaching of both colored and white fabrics. Such aqueous solutions may also be used as hard surface or denture cleaners and as agents for restoring natural color to artificially colored hair.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION At this juncture the theoretical nature of the present catalyzed bleaching system and the individual components of the compositions will be described in detail.
(A) Catalysis of bleaching reactions Although the scope of the present invention is not limited by any particular theory, the monopersulfate bleaches of this invention are believed to ionize in the bleaching solution according to the equation KHSO K++KSO The H50 further dissociates in solution as follows:
HSO -H++SO It has been discovered that the effectiveness of the persulfate bleaching is dependent on the formation in solution of a bi-anionic transition state complex having the formula [S05 P180513 Such a complex is formed from the SO and H505 anions present in the bleaching solution.
The organic monoand diperoxyacid bleaches of the instant compositions, representative compounds having the general formulas,
o o o rro-o-ii-n-ii -on and H00-i .R-( io0H wherein R is an alkylene or arylene group, likewise form bianionic dimers during the bleaching process. As with the monopersulfates, such complexes are formed from the combination of (1) the above compounds which have lost one proton upon dissolution and/or (2) the above compounds which have lost both protons. Thus, these bianionic complexes, for example, can have the general formulas,
wherein R is again an alkylene or arylene group.
It has been discovered that formation 'of these various complexes from two negatively charged ions can be facilitated by the addition to the solution of positively charged micelles.
A micelle is a highly charged colloidal aggregate. It is believed that such positively charged aggregates serve as rallying points for the S0 and HSO anions and their organic peroxyacid counterparts, thereby facilitating formation of the indispensible transition complex of r the bleaching reaction. Quaternary ammonium salts are (1) Bleaching agents.-The principal bleaching actives in the instant compositions are sodium or potassium monopersulfate (NaHSO and KHSO and the organic monoand diperoxyacids (or water-soluble salts thereof) having respectively the following formulas:
Monoperoxy acid and a Ho-o-h-rt-h-O-mn- Diperoxy acid wherein R can be alkylene or arylene and Y can be any group which yields an anionic moiety in solution such as H II Potassium monopersulfate is available commercially from the E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company under the trade name Oxone. It contains approximately 42.8% by weight KHSO the balance being KHSO and K in about equal proportions.
The organic peroxyacids or salts thereof of the invenvention, as noted above, can contain either one or two peroxy groups and can be either aliphatic or aromatic. When the organic peroxyacid is aliphatic, the unsubstituted acid has the general formula Ho-or:(oH,)..YH where Y, for example, can be and n can be an integer from I to 12 with perazelaic acids (n=7) being the preferred compounds. The alkylene linkage between the anionic groups can contain halogen or other non-interferring groups.
When the organic peroxyacid is aromatic, the unsubstituted acid has the general formula for example. The
and YH groupings can be in any relative posit'on around the aromatic ring. The ring can contain any non-interferring substituent such as halogen groups. Examples of suitable aromatic peroxy acids include monoperoxyphthalic acid, diperoxyterephthalic acid, 4-chlorodiperoxyphthalic acid and the monosodium salt of diperoxyterephthalic acid. The preferred aromatic pe oxyacids are the monoand diperoxyisophthalic acids.
The bleaching compositions can contain from about 8% to about 60% by weight of the bleaching agent. The preferred monopersulfate weight range is from about 25% to about 30% by weight. A preferred organic peroxyacid weight range is from about 16% to about 35% by weight. Mixtures of the monopersulfate compounds and the peroxyacids can be employed in the instant invention.
These bleaching compositions are, of course, dissolved in aqueous solutions for actual use on fabrics, sinks, dentures or hair. Depending upon the bleaching strength desired and the intended use, the bleaching composition is added in quantities suflicient to yield from about to 80 ppm. available oxygen in solution from either the persulfate or organic peroxyacid bleach actives. The above bleaching actives when employed in the catalyzed compositions of the present invention provide effective bleaching at all practical bleaching solution temperatures and bleach effectively after a very short contact time with the material to be bleached. As noted, color and fabric damage is minimal.
(2) Quaternary ammonium compounds-Quaternary ammonium compounds useful herein have the general formulas wherein R is an alkyl group containing from about 12 to 20 carbon atoms, R is an alkyl group of about 1 to 14 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl group of about 5 to 8 carbon atoms, a carboxymethyl group, a 6 to 8 carbon aryl group, an alkaryl group of 7 to carbon atoms, a pyridyl group, or a group of the general formula wherein a and b are integers and a+b is 1 to 50; R R and R are either alkyl groups of about 1 to 3 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl groups of about 5 to 8 carbon atoms, carboxymethyl groups, 6 to 8 carbon aryl groups, alkaryl 1 groups of 7 to 10 carbon atoms, pyridyl groups, or
groups of the general formula (C l-l O),,(C H H wherein a and b are integers and a+b is 1 to 50; R falls within the definition of the R R or R groups or is H; R-, is either a 1 to 3 carbon atom alkylene group, a 5 to 8 carbon arylene group or a group of the formula -CH CH --OCH -CH X is any noninterfering, water-soluble salt forming anion such as fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, methylsulfate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, carbonate, chlorate or hydroxide and n is 1 when X is a monovalent anion and 2 when X is a divalent anion. A noninterfering anion is one which does not render the quaternary ammonium compound insoluble or does not yield species in solution which interfere with the bleaching, softening, color-damage, or catalysis properties of the dissolved compositions. Bromide, for example, is an interfering anion since bromide in solution with some peroxygen bleaches can cause severe color damage to fabrics.
Examples of quaternary ammonium compounds employable in the compositions include tetradecyltrirnethylammonium methylsulfate; tetradecyltrimethylammonium nitrate; [C H N( (CH CO cetyltrimethylammonium chlorate; cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide; octadecyltrimethylammonium dihydrogzn phosphate; octadecyltrimethylammonium fluoride; octadecyltrimethylammonium nitrate;
[ zo ss 3 a a 4 eicosyltrimethylammonium chlorate; eicosyltrimethylammonium hydroxide; the nitrate analogs of the alkyl di methyl ethyl-benzyl ammonium chlorides of Petrocci et al., US. Pat. 3,525,793, Aug. 25, 1970; sulfate analogs of Armour Industrial Chemical Companys Ethoquad and Propoquad" and singly or doubly quaternizzd compounds derived from Wyandotte Chemical Corporations Tetronic compounds. Preferred quaternary ammonium compounds are C 6, C and C alkyltrimethylammonium nitrates. Depending upon the particular quaternary ammonium compound employed, the compositions contain from about 10% to about 60% by weight of the quaternary ammonium component.
The quaternary ammonium constituent serves two purposes in the instant compositions. These surface active compounds form the micelles for catalysis of the peroxygen bleaching, and in addition they impart fabric softening characteristics to the bleaching solutiozs. In solutions prepared from the compositions of this invention, the quaternary ammonium salt concentration should range from about 100 ppm. to about 500 ppm.
It is well-known that quaternary ammonium compounds of the type herein employed function as fabric softeners. They have heretofore been utilized alone in laundry rinse water since they are incompatible with anionic detergents. It has been discovered, however, that these compounds are compatible with the bianionic, complex-forming bleach agents of the present invention and, in fact, act as micelle catalysts while retaining their fabric softening properties.
It has been found that the shorter chain quaternary ammonium salts (C provide slightly better micelle catalysis while the longer chain salts C1840 are better fabric softeners. Consequently, a mixture of long and short chain quaternary ammonium compounds is preferred for use in the instant compositions. Thus a preferred embodiment of the invention is a dry composition which contains about 2% to about 30% by weight of an 18 to 20 carbon chain quaternary ammonium salt and about 8% to 30% by weight of 14 to 18 carbon chain quaternary ammonium salts. In aqueous solution prepared from this preferred composition there should be from about 20 ppm. to about ppm. of the C1g 2g quaternary ammonium salt to provide softening capability. A preferred bleaching process employing these compositions utilizes both C alkyl trimethylammonium and C or C trimethylammonium compounds in a C /C weight ratio of 1:4 in solution.
(3) Buffering agent.--It has been discovered that micelle catalysis and formation of the bianionic complexes discussed above are greatly facilitated by maintenance of the bleaching solution at a carefully controlled pH. The pH of the solution at which the concentration of the SO and H80; anions are equal (the pK,,) occurs at a pH of 9.2. The pK of the organic peroxyacid system is from a pH of 7 to 8. Consequently the best belaching performance occurs when the pH of the bleaching solution is 7 8 maintained between about 7 and about 10. Outside this dischloroisocyanurate. Composition No. 13 contains pH range, bleaching performance diminishes markedly. monopersulfate with a chloride salt as suggested by To maintain this controlled pH in solution, any non- Lake, US. 3,098,546, Aug. 7, 1962.
TABLE I Concentrated composition number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Com onent, weight percent:
Potassium monopersulfate Diperazelaic acid Monoperoxyphthalic ac! Diperoxyisophthalic acid... Dihydrogcnated tallow ammonium monoperoxysuliate. Sodium hypochlorite Potassium diohloroisocyanurate Cetyltrimethylammonium nitrate 14 Eicosyldimethylethylbenzyl ammonium methylsulfate. CiaHa1N(CH3)2(CH2)2N(CHa)3SO4 CHHaiN[(CH2CHzO)zH][(CHzCHO)zH](CH3) C103 Sodium chlori 1 For Compositions 1, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 16 buffering agent is sodium carbonate. For Compositions 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 the bufferin a sodium hydrogen phosphate and sodium hydrogen phosphate in a Nag-HPO. to NaI'IQPO-I ratio of a proximately 5.1. g gent is a mixture of (11 interfering compound which can alter and maintain pH 20 Some of these compositions are employed in a Bleaching such as any standard buffering agent or combination is Performance Test. The Bleaching Performan T employed. For example, phosphates, carbonates or bicaranalyzes bleaching performance of the various com osibonates which buffer within the 7-10 range are useful. tions of Table I. A Tergotometer (United States T ti Examples of suitable buffering agents include sodium Company) operated at a constant agitation rate f 5 bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, disodium hydrogen phos- 25 c.p.m. is used for all experiments. Unless otherwise Stated phate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate. Sodium carbonruns are made at 120 F. for 10 minute Swatches ate is the preferred buffering agent for monopersulfate graded before and after bleaching on a Hunter color difsystems. Disodium hydrogen phosphate and sodium dihyferenc meter. An initial and final whiteness grade was drogen phosphate are preferred for peroxy acid systems. calculated from the Hunter color coordinates (L, b) f Other bufiering compositions for any desired pH can each swatch through the use of the whiten be obtained by the skilled artisan from any standard 685 equatlon chemistry handbook or textbook. Buffering agents com- W=100 (100 L) 2+ 2 prise from about 10% to about 75% by weight of the and the color differences, AW, so obtained w taken as a compositions. measure of stain removal performance. The average AW (4) Other additives.-Other optional additives such as values f five mains are re erred in in exa builders, perfumes, coloring agents, fillers, etc., can be tea, wine, gravy and Empzi -Sulfur Black) 35 2 Ia/g??? added to the dry bleaching and softening compositions. f ence of 2 is readily apparent to the human eye These additional components, however, must not interfere with the essential chemical or physical functioning 40 REPARATION OF STAINED SWATCHES of the compositions as catalyzed bleaches and fabric The swatches used in the development these tests are ft ner obtained from several source s. The res ective swat The above-describe COIIIPOIICMS 0f the bleachlng and their sources (commercial or method of preparati ciii positions of this invention are all available in dry form. a
Formulation, therefore, of dry compositions is simply acre outlined m the followmg summary complished by thoroughly mixing the granular or pow- Grass stain dered components together in the appropriate weight percentage concentrations. It would be possible to provide a 200 of freshly Cut untreated g ss i mixed with 1000 bleaching solution containing the components of this presof 5 gn/gadhardness Water in a Waring blender unent invention by adding such components to the bleaching a Inform Slurry 15 produced s Slurry is strained solution in liquid form. Besides creating handling and a through t and the resulting extract is used in the packing problems, however, concentrated liquid composi- Atlas etectrlc pad e by passing the Cl th through three tions of this type are relatively unstable and tend to rapidly Successtve tlmes- The Cloth 15 ged hree days and stored degrade upon standing. the dark- Despite the powerful bleaching activity of the micellea catalyzed, active oxygen agents herein, textile fiber damage is comparable to perborate washing agents. In addi- 6 Ounces of Llpton tea 18 added to 11/2 gallons of 5 tion, the bleaching solution resulting from the composihFIrdIteSS Water and Slimmer-boiled f r 2 hours. tions of the present invention do not cause running of teX- The Solutlon filtered through cotton Cloth and liquor tile colors or undesirable color transfer. The fast-acting 6 made up to gallon f hot Water- Q Square yards low temperature bleaching acitvity of the dissolved corn- 0 of cotton. are.lmmersed. mm 3 Solutlon' The positions makes the present invention especially suited for P's-mature to boll and malntalned f two hours. use in fabric rinse water after normal textile laundering. The Cloth hfted out of the q and tra sferred to The following test serves to illustrate the bleaching per- 3 P gr-/galwatef (PI-1 at F. formance properties of the compositions of the instant to rmset is done t Atlas electric padder. invention. Table 1 provides 13 concentrated bleaching The cloth trotted, to fix the Stall! and allowed o age for compositions by component weight percentages. Composithree days at tion Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are representative examples of compositions of the instant invention. Composition No. 8 contains potassium monopersulfate with no bleach- Gravy A one ounce package of Durkees brown gravy mix is ing catalyst. Composition No. 9 contains monoperoxymixed with 1 cup of water and brought to a boil with phthalic acid with no bleaching catalyst. Composition stirring. The mixture is removed from the heat and stirred No. 10 is a dihydrogenated tallow ammonium monoperwith a high-shear homogenizer for 5 minutes. The warm oxysulfate composition. Composition No. 11 is a typical gravy solution is then placed in a container and the cloth liquid household hypochlorite formulation. Composition No. 12 is a typical dry, active-chlorine bleach, potassium is run through the solution and padded. The stained cloth 75 is then dried in an oven. Two applications are given.
Empa-Sulfur Black and red wine These cloth samples are obtained commercially from Test Fabrics Inc., 55 Vandam St., New York 13, N.Y., manufactured by E.M.P.A., Unterstasse II, 9001 St. Gall, Switzerland.
BLEACHING PERFORMANCE TEST Bleaching activity of some of the compositions of Table I is compared. Table II provides the concentration in.
bleaching solution of components of the various compositions. Table II also summarizes the AW value of each composition, thereby indicating its relative bleaching performance.
TABLE II 10 bleaching agent selected from the group consisting of (1) sodium monopersulfate,
(2) potassium monopersulfate,
(3) an organic peroxyacid or water-soluble salt thereof, said peroxyacid having the general formula wherein R is selected from the group consisting of alkylene groups containing from 1 to about 16 carbon atoms and arylene groups containing from 6 to about 8 carbon atoms and Y is a Concentrated composition number 1 Component; solution concentration:
Potassium monopersulfate (p.8.m. av. 0g) Diperazelaie acid (p.p.m. av. 2) Monoperoxyphthalie acid (p.p.m. av. 0
Diperoxyisophthalic acid (p.p.m. av. 02)
Dihydrogenated tallow ammonium monoperoxysultate (p.p.m. av. 02)
Sodium hypochlorite (p.p.m. av. C12) Potassium dichlorisoeyanurate (p.p.m. av. C1 Cetyltrimethylammonium nitrate (p.p.m.) Sodium chloride (p.p.m.) Inwitial solution pH It can be seen from Table II that the compositions of the instant invention provide stain removal superior to the other prior art compositions at comparable strength in solution and superior to compositions not containing all of the essential components of the instant invention. Preferred composition No. l performs at a very low strength about as well as a comparably concentrated NaOCl bleaching solution (#11). Compositions of the instant invention provide their stain removal results with significantly less color damage than the active chlorine bleaches. 7
When compositions of Table I not appearing in Table II (Nos. 5, 6 and 7) are dissolved in water at comparable concentrations, they provide stain removal substantially equivalent to Compositions l, 2, 3 and 4.
The potassium monopersulfate of Composition 1 is replaced with sodium monopersulfate in equivalent concentration and substantially similar stain removal results are secured.
Likewise the diperazelaic acid of Composition 2 is replaced with an equivalent concentration of monoperazelaic acid to provide substantially similar stain removal performance.
Likewise the diperoxyisophthalic acid of Composition 3 is replaced with an equivalent concentration of diperoxyterephthalic acid, 4-chlorodiperoxyphthalic acid, the monosodium salt of diperoxyterephthalic acid or a monoeroxy compound of the general formula RCH-( )OOX QsY I wherein R is an alkyl group of from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms and wherein X and Y are each se ected from the group of cations consisting of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, ammonium and substituted ammonium cations; and substantially similar stain removal results are secured.
When the quaternary ammonium component of Composition 1 is replaced with a mixture containing 3% by weight of the total composition of an eicosyltrimethylammonium compound and 11% of a cetyltrimethylammonium compound, the resulting composition provides substantially similar stain removal performance and is an especially useful fabric softening composition.
What is c aimed is:
1. A dry bleach composition consisting essentially of:
(A) from about 8% to about 60% by weight of a group providing an anionic moiety in aqueous solution, and (4) mixtures thereof; (B) from about 10% to about 60% by weight of a quaternary ammonium compound selected from the group consisting of wherein R is an alkyl group containing from about 12 to about 20 carbon atoms; R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups containing from about 1 to 14 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl groups containing from about 5 to 8 carbon atoms, carboxymethyl groups, aryl groups containing from about 6 to 8 carbon atoms, alkaryl groups containing from about 7 to 10 carbon atoms, pyridyl, and groups of the general formula -(C H O),,(C H O) H wherein a and b are integers and a+b is l to 50; R R and R are each selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups containing from about 1 to 3 carbon atoms, aryl groups containing from about 6 to 8 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl groups containing from about 5 to 8 carbon atoms, carboxymethyl groups, alkaryl groups containing from about 7 to 10 carbon atoms, pyridyl, and groups of the general formula (C H O),,(C H O) ,H wherein a and b are integers and a+b is 1 to 50; -R has the definition of the R R and R groups or is H; R; is selected from the group consisting of alkylene groups containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms, arylene groups containing 5 to 8 carbon atoms and groups of the formula wherein X is a non-interfering water-soluble salt forming anion selected from the group consisting of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, methylsulfate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, carbonate, chlorate, and hydroxide; and wherein n is 1 when X is monovalent and n is 2 when X is a divalent anion; and
(C) from 10% to about 75% by weight of a buffering agent effective to maintain a solution pH of from about 7 to about 10 when said composition is dissolved in water for bleaching; said composition being free of any compound which yields an active chlorine species in aqueous solution.
2. A composition in accordance with claim 1 wherein the bleaching agent is potassium monopersulfate.
3. A. composition in accordance with claim 1 wherein the bleaching agent is selected from the group consisting of monoperazelaic acid and diperazelaic acid.
4. A composition in accordance with claim 1 wherein the quaternary ammonium compound is a mixture containing from about 2% to about 10% by weight of the total composition of an eicosyltrimethylammonium compound and about 8% to about 30% by weight of the total composition of a cetyltrimethylammonium compound.
5. A composition in accordance with claim 4 wherein the bleaching agent is selected from the group consisting of diperazelaic acid, diperoxyisophthalic acid, diperoxyterephthalic acid, 4-chlorodiperoxyphthalic acid, the monosodium salt of diperoxyterephthalic acid and a monoperoxy compound of the general formula RCH( -OO-X SOQYI wherein R is an alkyl group of from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms and wherein X and Y are each selected from the group of cations consisting of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, ammonium and substituted ammonium cations.
6. A method for bleaching fabrics comprising contactn ing said fabrics with an aqueous solution consisting essentially of:
(a) a peroxygen bleach selected from the group consisting of (1) sodium monopersulfate,
(2) potassium monopersulfate,
(3) an organic peroxyacid or water-soluble salt thereof, said peroxyacid having the general formula wherein R is selected from the group consisting of alkylene groups containing from 1 to about 16 carbon atoms and arylene groups containing from 6 to about 8 carbon atoms and Y is a group providing an anionic moiety in aqueous solution, and
(4) mixtures thereof,
present in an amount suflicient to provide from about p.p.m. to 80 p.p.m. available oxygen in solution; and (b) a quaternary ammonium compound selected from the group consisting of a R,-NRi X- wherein R is an alkyl group containing from 12 to about 20 carbon atoms; R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups containing from about 1 to 14 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl groups containing from about 5 to 8 carbon atoms, carboxymethyl groups, aryl groups containing from about 6 to 8 carbon atoms, alkaryl groups containing from about 7 to 10 carbon atoms, pyridyl and groups of the general forinula (C H O) (C H O) H wherein a and b are integers and a+b is 1 to 50; R R and R are each selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups containing from about 1 to 3 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl groups containing from about 5 to 8 carbon atoms, carboxymethyl groups, aryl groups containing from about 6 to 8 carbon atoms, alkaryl groups containing from about 7 to 10 carbon atoms, pyridyl, and groups of the general formula wherein a and b are integers and a+b is 1 to 50; R has the definition of the R R and R groups or is H; R, is selected from the group consisting of alkylene groups containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms, arylene groups containing 5 to 8 carbon atoms and groups of the formula CH CH OCH CH wherein X is a non-interfering, water-soluble, salt-forming anion selected from the group consisting of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, methylsulfate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, carbonate, chloride and hydroxide; and wherein n is 1 when X is a monovalent anion and n is 2 when X is a divalent anion; present in an amount sufiicient to provide from about p.p.m. to about 500 p.p.m. of said quaternary ammonium compound in solution; and (c) water; while maintaining said aqueous solution pH within the range of from about 7 to 12; said quaternary ammonium compound containing no moiety which yields an active chlorine species in aqueous solution.
7. A process in accordance with claim 6 wherein the peroxygen bleaching agent is potassium monopersulfate. 8. A process in accordance with claim 6 wherein the quaternary ammonium compound is a mixture containing an eicosyltrimethylammonium compound and a cetylor octadecyltrimethylammonium compound in a respective weight ratio in said solution of 1:4.
US. Cl. X.R. 8-108, 111; 252-875, 8.8, 99