US 3750682 A
Hair pieces, wigs and like products in which the predominant hair-simulating fiber is a blend of nylon-6 and a polyalkyl methacrylate, method of making fiber, and fiber.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 11 1 Bonafiglia et al. Aug. 7, 1973 HAIR PIECES, WIG AND LIKE PRODUCTS 2,531,685 11/1950 Jacoby 132/5  Inventors: Joseph C. Bonaiiglia, 124 Ivins Ave.,
Merchantville, NJ. 08109; Harold Krieger, 61 School House Ln" Primary Examiner-Louis G. Mancene Philadelphia, Pa. 19144 Assistant Examiner-Gregory E. McNeill Attorney--Donald C. Simpson, George Simmons  Filed: July 22, 1971 et aL  App]. No.: 165,372
52 us c1. 132/53  ABSTRACT  Int. Cl A4lg 3/00 581 Field of Search 132/5, 53, 54; 66/9; Hair p g and like p c in hich the pre- [9/10 5; 264/210 290 dominant hair-simulating fiber is a blend of nylon-6 and a polyalkyl methacrylate, method of making fiber, and 6] References Cited fiber.
, UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,199,516 8/1965 Frishman [32/5 3 Claims, No Drawings HAIR PIECES, WIG AND LIKE PRODUCTS This invention relates to wigs and hair pieces which can be dyed, set, bleached, redyed and reset an almost unlimited number of times.
The use of wigs and hair pieces has increased very substantially in recent times but has, to some extent,
- been limited by inability of the wigs or hair pieces to be restyled and/or redyed without deterioration of the hair piece. Thus it has been necessary to own a large number of hair pieces or wigs in order to provide the owner with a variety of styles and/or colors. Many attempts have been made to utilize synthetic fibers in place of human hair, but generally these lack the desirable qualities necessary for an esthetically satisfactory hair piece. Typically, such synthetic materials may have an excessively shiny appearance, an unsatisfactory hand, and most often cannot be stripped of color in a manner to permit redying and restyling.
It has now been found that certain polymer blends of nylon with polyalkyl methacrylates can be formed into fibers and drawn to provide a fibrous material closely resembling human hair with respect to hand and luster. Wigs or hair pieces made from these fibers can be dyed, set, stripped and redyed and reset innumerable times. This fibrous material is ideally suited for the production of wigs and other hair pieces.
More specifically the blends contemplated for the present invention comprise in excess of 70% by weight, but less than 90% by weight of nylon-6 (polycaprolactam) and less than 30%, but more than l%, ofa polyalkyl methacrylate having a glass transition tempera ture (Tg) in the range of about 50C. to about 110C, and preferably in the range of about 88 to lC. As used herein, the term polyalkyl methacrylate is intended to encompass any composition in which the predominant component is a polyalkyl methacrylate, or in which the predominant monomeric component of the polymer is an alkyl methacrylate but which may contain minor amoutns, e.g., or less of other compatible polymers or comonomers, provided the glass transi tion temperature of the resulting material meets the requirements specified above. Additionally, the polyalkyl methacrylate shall be selected such that the ratio of its melt viscosity to that of nylon-6 shall be equal to or greater than 1. Thus, for example, a 95/5 copolymer of methylmethacrylate and ethyl acrylate is included within the scope of the present invention, as would be a blend of polymethyl methacrylate with 5% polyethyl acrylate.
Fibers produced from the above composition are drawn to the general denier of human hair, which averages on the order of 50 to 75 denier. The drawing is conducted at a draw ratio of greater than 2:1 but less than 4:1, and preferably in the range of from about 2.75:] to about 3:1. The fibers are drawn at a hot pin drawing temperature of at least 5C above the glass transition temperatures of the polyalkyl methacrylate additive, preferably at about 130C. Higher temperatures can be used but do not contribute substantially to the overall processing.
The above described conditions are for the most part critical to the satisfactory attainment of the objectives of the present invention. At a nylon content of about 70%, the fibers are found to be too weak and to have too low a fiber elongation for use in hair piece manufacture. However when the amount of nylon reaches more desirable characteristics of natural hair'wigs but at a much-reduced cost. Most of the drawbacks found.
about the filamentary material will not curl to the: extent necessary to simulate the curling of human hair. If the filamentary material is produced at lower draw ratios than those specified, the fiber will exhibitexces sive cold drawing with its obvious concommitant unde.
blended extrudate. The methacrylate. polymer consisted essentially of a copolymer of methylmethacry-- late with about 4% by weight of ethyl acrylate, which copolymer had a viscosity average molecular weight of about 155,000. The nylon-6 had a relative viscosity (one part by weight nylon in parts by volume of 97% sulfuric acid at 25C.) of about 2.4, and the chip, contained 2% by weight of titanium dioxide. From this blend were formed fibers of 150 denier. These fibers were hot drawn ata hot draw pin temperature of.
C. to 50 denier. These hot-drawn fibers exhibited. a tenacity of 2.8 grams per denier and a residual elongation of 84%.
The above fibers can be tufted either individually or as a yarn bundle into any elastomeric power net to provide a hair piece which can be dyed, styled, stripped of dye, redyed, and restyled a multitude of times using essentially standard hair dyes and treatment conditions. The resulting hair pieces are found to approximaterthe.
in ahir pieces made from synthetic fibers are absent or minimized in these novel hair pieces.
Equivalent results are obtained using, as the additives, homopolymers of methyl methacrylate as well as copolymers with 1% ethyl acrylate and the acrylate and methacrylate monomers which do not adversely affect the glass transition temperature or ratio of melt viscosi ties as specified earlier herein.
Similarly, it is possible to utilize higher viscosity nylon-6, viz., nylon having a relative viscosity of the order" of 2.6 2.75 without adversely affecting the usefulness of the fibers for wig purposes. The chip may contain ti-- tanium dioxide or other dulling pigment or be free of such materials depending on the degree of shininess tolerable. The present materials are not generally as shiny as straight nylon-6 fibers, but pigment additions or other dulling agents may be desirable.
In general, the fibers useful for the purpose of the present invention have a tenacity of at least 1.8 grams per denier and a fiber elongation of at least 80%.
What is claimed is:
1. In a hair piece, wig or the like, comprisinga fibersupporting substrate and hair-simulating fibers, the improvement which comprises, as the predominant hairsimulating fibers, hot-drawn fibers of a blend of in excess of 70% but less than 90% by weight of nylon-6, and. less than 30% butmore than 1 0% of a polyalkyl methacrylate having a glass transition temperature in the range of about 50C. to about 1 10C., said blend characterized by a ratio of methacrylate polymer/nylon 5% ethyl acrylate.
3. A hair piece, wig or the like in accordance with claim 2 wherein said blend comprises about 20% by weight of the polymethyl methacrylate polymer and about by'weight of nylon-6.
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