|Publication number||US3753364 A|
|Publication date||Aug 21, 1973|
|Filing date||Feb 8, 1971|
|Priority date||Feb 8, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3753364 A, US 3753364A, US-A-3753364, US3753364 A, US3753364A|
|Inventors||Grover G, Runyan J|
|Original Assignee||Q Dot Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (52), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1 Runyan et al.
[ Aug. 21, 1973 1 HEAT PIPE AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FABRICATING SALE  Inventors: James E. Runyan; George M.
Grover, both of Santa Fe, N. Mex.
 Assignee: Q-dot Corporation, Santa Fe, N.
22 Filed: Feb. 8, 1971 211 Appl. No.: 113,394
 US. Cl. 72/71, 72/325, 138/38,
165/133, 165/184  Int. Cl. B2ld 53/06  Field of Search 72/71, 112, 118,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,645,954 7/1953 Pfingston 72/118 3,496,752 2/1970 Kun et a1. 72/324 Primary Examiner-Lowell A. Larson AttorneyRichard, Harris & Hubbard [5 7] ABSTRACT A unit for recovering thermal energy which utilizes a plurality of unique heat pipes, and the method and apparatus for fabricating the heat pipes is disclosed. The heat pipes are disposed horizontally and are filled with a volume of working fluid sufficient to cause the liquid phase to travel in'either direction by gravity. Circumferential capillary grooves in the side walls of the heat pipes transport the liquid phase vertically above the liquid level to increase the area of the liquid-vapor interface. Additionally, the solid metal strips which form the grooves provide a low impedance thermal path from the walls of the heat pipe to the liquid-vapor interface where evaporation and condensation occur. These two factors significantly increase the efficiency of the system. A divider plate having an X-shaped cross section separates the liquid phase from the high velocity vapor phase to prevent slugging under high energy transfer conditions. The divider plate is operative when the unit is disposed in either of two horizontal positions.
15 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures PATENTEU 10921 I973 SHEET 1 [IF 3 HIL I llllll WWI I 1 INVENTOR:
JAMES E. RUNYAN W %M%W ATTORNEY FIG.
PATENTED M82] 1973 SHEET 2 0F 3 FIG. 7
INVENTOR: JAMES E. RUNYAN ATTORNEYS HEAT PIPE AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FABRICATING SAME This invention relates generally to heat transfer devices and more particularly to a heat pipe, and to a method and apparatus for fabricating the heat pipe.
A large number of devices have heretofore been proposed which utilizes a sealed system containing a working fluid having both a liquid phase and a vapor phase at the normal operating temperatures. The liquid phase exposed to higher temperatures vaporizes while the vapor phase exposed to cooler temperatures condenses. Until very recently, devices of this type have either been able to transfer heat only in one direction by using gravity to return the liquid to the warmer end of the system, or have required capillary wicks to transport the liquid in all directions. Since the wicks are difficult and expensive to install properly, this type of device has found only very limited commercial application.
A co-worker in the field has recently discovered that thermal energy can effectively be recovered from the air being exhausted from an enclosure and transferred to fresh air being introduced to the enclosure on a year round basis by utilizing a plurality of bidirectional heat pipes. For example, in the summer, incoming hot air may be cooled by outgoing cool air, and in the winter, incoming cold air may be heated by outgoing warm air. In this system, a large number of relatively long, small diameter heat pipes are provided with fins to provide heat exchange with the two air streams. Initially, capillary wicks were provided to transport the liquid phase longitudinally of the tubes to provide reversibility and was provided around the entire circumference of the tube to increase efficiency. It was subsequently discovered that reversible heat pipe action could be achieved without the expensive capillary wicks by positioning the elongated tubes horizontally and permitting the liquid phase to stand along the entire lengths of the tubes so that the liquid would return from either end to the other by gravity. Although the elimination of the capillary wicks did decrease the efficiency of each heat pipe, this could be partially compensated by increasing the number of heat pipes in a unit. The additional heat pipes was economically competitive with the lesser number of heat pipes having the capillary wicks, but had the disadvantage of decreased efficiency, and increased size and weight.
This invention is concerned with an improved heat pipe particularly suited for use in units of the type described. The improved heat pipe employs c'ircumferem tially extending capillary grooves in the wall of the pipe which transport the liquid vertically to increase the area of the liquid-vapor interface and also provide a low impedance thermal path from the walls of the heat pipe through the metal lands to the liquid-vapor interface where evaporation and condensation actually occur.
In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the capillary grooves have a cross section characterized by a restricted opening for development of maximum capillary pumping force with minimum impedance to liquid flow to the point of evaporation and are fabricated by a continuous spiral cutting process in which material from the interior wall of the heat pipe is cut and folded back towards previously cut and folded material. The process utilized a novel tool which is effective, yet very simple and economical to manufacture.
In accordance with still another aspect of the invention, a longitudinally extending horizontally disposed plate is positioned in the heat pipe to minimize interaction between the liquid and vapor phases.
The novel features believed characteristic of this invention are set forth in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, as well as other objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments, when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a unit for recovering thermal energy from exhaust air which utilizes a plurality of heat pipes constructed in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view, broken in the center, of a single heat pipe constructed in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 3 is an isometric view disclosing details of the construction of the heat pipe illustrated in FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken substantially on lines 4-4 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged partial sectional view illustrating a preferred cross-sectional configuration of the capillary grooves of the heat pipe of FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 is a schematic side elevation of apparatus in accordance with the present invention for fabricating the heat pipes of FIG. 2; V
FIG. 7 is an enlarged view of a portion of the apparatus of FIG. 6, partially broken away to reveal details of construction;
FIG. 8 is a rear view of the cutting tool of the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a side view of the cutting tool illustrated in FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is an enlarged side view illustrating the method of forming the capillary grooves in accordance with the present invention utilizing the tool illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 9;
FIG. 10A is a sectional view related to FIG. 10 which shows the transposition of metal to form the capillary grooves in accordance with the method of the present invention; A
FIG. 11 is a plan view of the structure illustrated in FIG. 10; and,
FIG. 12 is a rear view of the structure illustrated in FIG. 10.
Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to FIG. 1, a unit for recovering thermal energy in accor-' dance with the present invention is indicated generally by the reference numeral 10. The unit 10 has a large number of bidirectional heat pipes 20, each of which is constructed in accordance with the present invention as illustrated in FIG. 2. The heat pipes 20 in the unit 10 are disposed horizontally for purposes which will presently be described and extends through both inlet and outlet air passageways 12 and 14 associated with a building or other enclosure 16 wherein the air is to be either heated or cooled by conditioning unit 15, de-' pending upon the season, to maintain a predetermined temperature within the enclosure. The passageways l2 and 14 may be disposed horizontally, vertically, or any desired angle.
A typical unit 10 might include from 60 to I00 heat pipes 20, one of which is illustrated in detail in FIG. 2.
The heat pipe 20 might typically be from 6 to 8 feet in length and from one-half to three-quarters of an inch in diameter. The heat pipe is typically fabricated of a copper tube 22 because of the excellent thermal conductivity and resistance to corrosion of copper. A plurality of conventional heat-exchanger fins 24 are mounted on the tube 22 in such a manner as to provide good thermal transfer from the fins to the tube. The ends of the tube 22 are sealed by caps 25 and 26. The interior of the tube 22 is first evacuated-through a fitting 28 in cap 26, then filled approximately one-third full with a suitable working fluid, such as refrigerant R12, which is represented by the liquid level 30. Then the fitting 28 is permanently sealed such as by crimping and soldering.
The interior wall of the tube 22 is provided with a large number of closely spaced circumferentially extending capillary grooves 32, preferably throughout its entire length. When the working fluid is refrigerant R12, the capillary grooves 32 may have a peak to trough depth on the order of 0.014 inches and a spacing on the order of 0.007 inches. As will presently be described, these capillary grooves may be a continuous spiral groove to facilitate manufacture, or may be separateannular grooves. The capillary grooves 32 preferably have a cross section characterized by an opening of reduced width, such as that shown in FIG. 5, where it will be noted that the opening 34 is narrower than the width of the groove at 36, for example. This crosssectional configuration provides optimum capillary action to transport liquid at the maximum rate. Additionally, the metal strips or lands which form the grooves provide a low thermal impedance path from the heat pipe walls to the liquid-vapor interface where evaporation and condensation occur.
A flow divider 40 extends for a substantial portion of the length of the tube 22. The flow divider has a horizontally disposed plate 42 which extends across substantially the entire diameter of the pipe. The flow divider 40 includes a similar plate 44 disposed at a right angle to plate 42. The resulting X-shaped cross section permits the heat pipe, and thus the unit 10, to be installed in either of two positions, yet still provides a horizontal divider plate. In addition, the X-shaped cross section insures proper positioning of the flow divider and can be economically fabricated by extrusion, and is relatively rigid.
In operation, assume first that the incoming air in passageway 12 is warmer than the outgoing air in passageway 14. In this case, the liquid phase at the ends of the heat pipes disposed within the passageway 12 will be vaporized. Since the surface 30 of the liquid phase is in the lower half of the tube, the vapor is free to travel through the upper half of the tube to the opposite ends of the heat pipes where it is condensed by the cooler air flowing through passageway 14. As the working fluid vapors are condensed, the liquid then returns along the bottom of the tube by gravity because the tube is substantially level. The efficiency of the tube can be reduced as desired for some applications by tilting the heat pipes so that a portion of the evaporator section is starved of liquid.
Although the capillary grooves 32 may be a continuous spiral, no longitudinal transport of the liquid is produced by these grooves. The capillary grooves 32 do, however, transport the liquid phase of the working fluid upwardly above the liquid level 30 to substantially increase the area of the liquid-vapor interface throughout its length. If the incoming air in passageway 12 is colder 4 than the outgoing air in passageway 14, then the right hand end of the heat pipes 20 become the evaporator sections, and the left hand ends become the condensing sections and the flow of the working fluid in the vapor and the liquid phases is reversed. As a result, no switching of the air flow or change in the operation of the device is required as the seasons change.
When high temperature gradients exist between the air in the passageways l2 and 14 such as will exist when the incoming air is below freezing and the outgoing air is between and F., the high volumes of vapor generated will flow at high velocity from the evaporator section to the condenser section. In heat pipes without the flow divider 40, this is likely to cause wave build-up in the liquid returning along the bottom of the tubes. When the waves become high enough to reach the top of the tube, the liquid is moved in slugs thus limiting the vapor velocity to that of the liquid slugs. This reduces the volume of vapor that is trans ferred to such a low level that any significant thermal transfer ceases.
The horizontal plate 42 of the flow divider 40 partitions the vapor in the upper half of the tube from the liquid in the lower half, thus tending to prevent wave build-up on the upper half with consequent slug flow of the liquid. The vertical plate 44 does not effect this operation, but acts as a stiffener and locator for the horizontal plate 42. In addition, the vertical plate 44 may become the horizontal plate if the unit 10 is rotated upon installation. Thus the unit 10 can be installed to accommodate either horizontally disposed or vertically disposed passageways l2 and 14. Of course, other orientations of the unit 10 can be provided if the plates 42 and 44 are appropriately positioned within the tubes. It will be noted that the edges of the plates 42 and 44 can extend into contact with the walls of the tube 22 without interrupting either the upward or downward flow of the liquid through the capillary grooves 32. This permits the divider 40 to be extruded as a continuous cross section without any openings or notches along its edges to permit the liquid to flow around the edges of the plate, although notches can also be provided if required.
The capillary grooves 32 of the heat pipes 20 can be fabricated in accordance with the method and apparatus of the present invention illustrated in FIGS. 6-12. As illustrated in FIG. 6, the unit 10, before the ends of the tubes 22 are sealed, is supported on the table 50 of a conventional lathe 52. The drive shaft 55 of a gear box 56 is placed in the chuck of the lathe. The gear box 56 has six output shafts 58 which extend through six of the tubes 22 of the unit 10. The shafts 58 may be supported by suitable guides (not illustrated). As the shafts 58 are rotated, the table 50 moves the unit 10 away from the drive mechanism 54 at a predetermined rate determined by the desired pitch of the spiral groove 32. As illustrated in FIG. 7, the end of each shaft 58 is journaled in a guide bushing 62 which is closely fitted within the tube 22 to precisely center the shaft. The bushing 62 slides through the tube 22 as the unit 10 is moved away from the drive mechanism 54 and is, therefore, made of a slightly deformable low friction material such as Nylon or Teflon. A tool holder 64 is inserted in a socket 66 in the end of the shaft 58, and is secured in place by a conventional quick connect coupling including the pin 68. A cutting tool 70 is secured within the holder 64 by a set screw 72.
The tool 70 which is shown in detail in FIGS. 8 and 9 has an elliptically curved cutting edge 78 formed by the intersection ofa planar surface 76 with the cylindrical surface 74 of the body of the tool. The set screw 72 engages a flattened surface 80 on the cylindrical body to position or index the cutting edge 78 at the proper angle so that the tool 70 will cut and shape the capillary grooves as will now be described in connection with FIGS. l012.
In FIG. 10, the surface 22A represents the interior surface of the wall of the tube 22. The cutting tool 70 is illustrated as moving away from the observer, i.e., into the page, relative to the tube wall.22. The tool70 is positioned such that the major axis of the ellipse formed by the intersection of the flat surface 76 and the cylindrical surface is pitched slightly forward of a right angle to the path of the tool as represented by angle a in FIG. 11. Thus, the flat surface 76 faces slightly rearwardly as illustrated in FIG. 10, so that cutting edge 78 engages the metal of the tube 22. The cutting edge 78 first engages the surface 22a at point 82 (also seen in FIGS. 11 and 12). As the cutting edge 78 proceeds, a strip of metal is plowed away from the main body of metal and transposed into the upright position illustrated in FIG. 10. The transposition of the material is illustrated in FIG. A where portions A, B, C and D of the surface 220 are successively moved to positions a, b, c and d, respectively, which are shown in dotted lines. The surfaces a, b, c and d are shown in solid lines in FIGS. 10 and 11.
Examination of FIGS. 10 and 10A reveals that the elliptical cutting edge 78 formed on the tool 70 produces grooves having a cross section with an opening that is significantly narrower than the width of the lower part of the groove for maximum capillary action. It will be noted that no metal is removed by the process. Instead, the metal is cut along a spiral line and folded upwardly to form the grooves. It will be noted that the shape of the bottom of the grooves corresponds approximately to the profile of the elliptical surface 76 when viewed from the rear of the tool as it moves through the metal. The curved profile of the upstanding tongues of metal on either side of the grooves results from the cylindrical surface of the tool body progressively forcing and displacing the metal laterally, thus maintaining the lower part of the groove open as the upper part is closed.
Since no metal is removed from the interior of the tubes, it is unnecessary to follow the cutting tool 70 with a cleaning fluid. Because the cutting operation is carried out within a heat exchange tube, the tube can be cooled by air in heat exchange relationship with the exterior of the tube. Cooling is, of course, enhanced by the fins 24 which are in heat exchange relation to the tube. In accordance with the method of the present invention, it is important to cut the grooves without using a liquid for lubricating or cooling the tube. If an oil or other liquid is used for these purposes, the capillary action of the grooves makes cleaning difficult. The residue of the liquid tends to interfere with further chemical treatment of the interior surface of the tubes and can ultimately effect the operation of the system.
After the grooves are dry-cut, the interior surface on the grooves 32 can be more easily processed by chemicals to oxidize the copper and improve the surface wetting characteristics of the device in a manner known in the metal finishing art.
The size, pitch'and cross-sectional geometry of the capillary grooves 32 can be varied to provide the optimum capillary action for different working fluids by varying the size, shape and orientation of the cutting tool. The optimum size and shape of the capillary grooves can be determined mathematically from information relating to surface tension phenomena available in the literature.
Although the invention described herein is particularly suited to seal heat transfer systems, the various features are also useful in heat exchangers generally. For example, the integral strips a, b, c, d, etc. form integral fins which decreases the thermal impedance in the path from the wall of the tube to the liquid-vapor interface without introducing a metal-to-metal interface which would otherwise form a thermal barrier as in more conventional wick installations. Similar fins can also be formed on the exterior surface of a tube to form capillary grooves. The capillary grooves may be used in any boiler or evaporator system having both liquid phase and vapor phase in the same chamber. The flow divider 42 is also useful in dual phase systems generally.
It should also be noted that a plurality of the cutting tools can be mounted in radially staggered relationship in a single holder 60 to make successive spiral cuts. Thus, if three cutting tools are used, for example, the pitch of the grooves would be tripled and the time required to cut the grooves reduced to one-third that required to cut a single spiral groove.
Although preferred embodiments of the invention have been described in detail, it is to be understood that various changes and substitutions can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
What is claimed is: l. The method for producing a capillary wick in a thermal transfer tube which comprises simultaneouslycutting and folding a series of circumferentially extending strips of material from the interior wall of the tube such that successive strips of the material form the side walls of circumferentially extending grooves.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the strips of material are cut as at least one substantially continuous spiral strip to form at least one substantially continuous spiral groove.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the spiral strip is deformed into a curved profile to produce a groove having a narrowed opening and therefore more efficient capillary action.
4. The method of claim 2 wherein each successive strip of material is progressively cut from the surface downwardly and is simultaneously progressively folded outwardly.
5. The method of claim I wherein each successive strip is cut at an acute angle to the interior surface of the tube and folded away from the cut to produce grooves of greater depth than the depth of the cut.
6. The method of claim 5 wherein each successive strip is also compressed to increase the width of the lower portions of the grooves formed between adjacent strips.
7. The system for producing a capillary wick in an elongated tube which comprises:
a drive shaft adapted to pass through the tube,
support means for supporting the tube,
drive means for simultaneously rotating the drive shaft and moving the support means to cause the drive shaft to pass through a tube supported by the support means at a uniform rate in relation to the rotation of the drive shaft,
tool holder means mounted on the drive shaft, and
a cutting tool mounted in the tool holder means for simultaneously cutting and folding a continuous strip of material from the inside surface of the tube to form a spiral capillary groove in the interior surface of the tube.
8. The system of claim 7 wherein the cutting tool includes a curved cutting edge defined generally by the intersection of a plane and a cylindrical surface, the plane being disposed at an angle to the axis of the cylindrical surface.
9. The system of claim 7 wherein the cutting tool comprises a cylindrical body having a planar face disposed at an angle to the axis of the cylindrical body to define an elliptically shaped planar surface having major and minor axes, one edge of the elliptical surface defining a cutting edge, the cutting tool being secured in the holder such that the profile of the elliptical cutting edge along the line of travel of the cutting tool relative to the tube is an elliptical shape having a minor axis substantially less than the minor axis of the elliptical planar surface.
10. The system of claim 9 wherein the planar surface faces away from the direction of travel of the cutting tool relative to the tube.
11. The system of claim 9 wherein the cutting tool and the tool holder includes mating indexing means for automatically positioning the cutting tool at the proper rotational position within the tool holder.
12. The system of claim 9 wherein the end of the drive shaft remote from the drive means is joumaled in a sleeve which slidably engages the interior surface in advance of the cutting tool to center the cutting tool as it rotates.
13. The cutting tool for producing a capillary wick in an elongated tube which comprises a generally cylindrical body having a generally planar face at one end intersecting the longitudinal axis of the body at an acute angle to form an elliptically shaped cutting edge having major and minor axes and means for moving the tip of the cutting edge through the surface of the material such that the profile of the cutting edge presented to metal to be cut is elliptical and has a minor axis substantially less than the minor axis of the cutting edge whereby the metal will be cut and folded away from the wall to produce alternate fins and grooves of predetermined cross section.
14. The cutting tool of claim 13 wherein a body is positioned with the generally planar face facing away from the direction in which the tool moves relative to the material being cut.
15. The thermal transfer device comprising a cylindrical tube of heat conductive material having a plurality of circumferentially extending fins formed integrally with the interior surface of the tube, each fin having a greater radial dimension than the width of the opening between adjacent fins, the adjacent fins forming capillary grooves for the liquid phase of a fluid to be vaporized by heat transferred through the walls of the tube, the fins having a cross sectional configuration characterized by one portion near the end which extends toward an adjacent fin to a greater extent than the portion of the fin near the root to form a capillary groove having a cross section characterized by a restricted opening.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1670216 *||Aug 1, 1927||May 15, 1928||David Savadow||Cutting and flanging device|
|US1761733 *||Dec 5, 1927||Jun 3, 1930||Wolverine Tube Company||Integral finned tubing and method of manufacturing the same|
|US2279548 *||Jun 11, 1938||Apr 14, 1942||Babcock & Wilcox Co||Liquid vaporizing tube|
|US2645954 *||Mar 30, 1949||Jul 21, 1953||Servel Inc||Thread forming method and apparatus|
|US3094158 *||Jun 27, 1960||Jun 18, 1963||Standard Products Co||Mechanism for forming prongs or barbs in sheet metal strips|
|US3162211 *||Dec 27, 1960||Dec 22, 1964||Barusch Edward J||Combination line penetrating valve device|
|US3430322 *||Feb 14, 1966||Mar 4, 1969||Schmidt Gmbh Karl||Method of forming a bearing|
|US3496752 *||Mar 8, 1968||Feb 24, 1970||Union Carbide Corp||Surface for boiling liquids|
|US3528494 *||Nov 7, 1966||Sep 15, 1970||Teledyne Inc||Heat pipe for low thermal conductivity working fluids|
|US3580269 *||Apr 29, 1969||May 25, 1971||Sealed Unit Parts Co Inc||Debrisless tap valve with backraked piercing element|
|US3602027 *||Apr 1, 1969||Aug 31, 1971||Trane Co||Simultaneous finning and reforming of tubular heat transfer surface|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4031602 *||Sep 14, 1976||Jun 28, 1977||Uop Inc.||Method of making heat transfer tube|
|US4044797 *||Nov 14, 1975||Aug 30, 1977||Hitachi, Ltd.||Heat transfer pipe|
|US4060125 *||Jun 16, 1975||Nov 29, 1977||Hitachi Cable, Ltd.||Heat transfer wall for boiling liquids|
|US4168618 *||Jul 7, 1978||Sep 25, 1979||Wieland-Werke Aktiengesellschaft||Y and T-finned tubes and methods and apparatus for their making|
|US4179911 *||Jul 7, 1978||Dec 25, 1979||Wieland-Werke Aktiengesellschaft||Y and T-finned tubes and methods and apparatus for their making|
|US4194384 *||Jun 8, 1978||Mar 25, 1980||Hitachi, Ltd.||Method of manufacturing heat-transfer wall for vapor condensation|
|US4326344 *||Nov 8, 1976||Apr 27, 1982||Q-Dot Corporation||Laundry drying system and method|
|US4353234 *||Dec 14, 1978||Oct 12, 1982||Carrier Corporation||Heat transfer surface and method of manufacture|
|US4621681 *||May 19, 1983||Nov 11, 1986||Q-Dot Corporation||Waste heat boiler|
|US4640347 *||Apr 16, 1984||Feb 3, 1987||Q-Dot Corporation||Heat pipe|
|US4672834 *||Sep 18, 1985||Jun 16, 1987||Scoti Alberto||Method for making extended heat transfer surfaces and a tool for putting said method into practice|
|US4872255 *||Dec 10, 1987||Oct 10, 1989||Kolektor P.O.||Method of manufacturing commutators|
|US4890454 *||Mar 30, 1989||Jan 2, 1990||Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm Gmbh||Wall surface structure having an improved radiant heat discharge capability|
|US4934679 *||Aug 26, 1988||Jun 19, 1990||Robert Bosch Gmbh||Positional fixation element for structural components|
|US5184674 *||Dec 26, 1990||Feb 9, 1993||High Performance Tube, Inc.||Inner ribbed tube and method|
|US5895868 *||Feb 12, 1997||Apr 20, 1999||The Babcock & Wilcox Company||Field serviceable fill tube for use on heat pipes|
|US5927136 *||Nov 6, 1997||Jul 27, 1999||Reynolds; David L.||Method of treating a tubular member|
|US6591899 *||Nov 21, 2000||Jul 15, 2003||Space Systems/Loral, Inc.||Spacecraft multi-directional loop heat pipe thermal systems|
|US6923362 *||Sep 30, 2002||Aug 2, 2005||The Curators Of University Of Missouri||Integral channels in metal components and fabrication thereof|
|US7284325||Mar 20, 2007||Oct 23, 2007||Petur Thors||Retractable finning tool and method of using|
|US7311137||Oct 25, 2004||Dec 25, 2007||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Heat transfer tube including enhanced heat transfer surfaces|
|US7509828||Mar 24, 2006||Mar 31, 2009||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Tool for making enhanced heat transfer surfaces|
|US7637012||Dec 29, 2009||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Method of forming protrusions on the inner surface of a tube|
|US7789127 *||May 8, 2006||Sep 7, 2010||Jiangsu Cuilong Precision Copper Tube Corporation||Heat transfer tubes for evaporators|
|US8162039||Apr 24, 2012||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Finned tube for condensation and evaporation|
|US8302307||Nov 20, 2009||Nov 6, 2012||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Method of forming protrusions on the inner surface of a tube|
|US8573022||Jun 7, 2007||Nov 5, 2013||Wieland-Werke Ag||Method for making enhanced heat transfer surfaces|
|US20040060965 *||Sep 30, 2002||Apr 1, 2004||Mishra Rajiv S.||Integral channels in metal components and fabrication thereof|
|US20040069467 *||Jun 10, 2003||Apr 15, 2004||Petur Thors||Heat transfer tube and method of and tool for manufacturing heat transfer tube having protrusions on inner surface|
|US20050145377 *||Oct 25, 2004||Jul 7, 2005||Petur Thors||Method and tool for making enhanced heat transfer surfaces|
|US20060112535 *||May 13, 2005||Jun 1, 2006||Petur Thors||Retractable finning tool and method of using|
|US20060213346 *||Mar 24, 2006||Sep 28, 2006||Petur Thors||Tool for making enhanced heat transfer surfaces|
|US20070034361 *||May 8, 2006||Feb 15, 2007||Jiangsu Cuilong Copper Industry Co., Ltd.||Heat transfer tubes for evaporators|
|US20070234871 *||Jun 7, 2007||Oct 11, 2007||Petur Thors||Method for Making Enhanced Heat Transfer Surfaces|
|US20080196876 *||Apr 18, 2008||Aug 21, 2008||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Finned tube for condensation and evaporation|
|US20090260792 *||Apr 16, 2008||Oct 22, 2009||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Tube with fins having wings|
|US20100088893 *||Nov 20, 2009||Apr 15, 2010||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Method of forming protrusions on the inner surface of a tube|
|US20130192329 *||Jan 29, 2013||Aug 1, 2013||Denso Corporation||Protrusion forming device and method for forming protrusion part for heat exchanger|
|US20140138058 *||Nov 20, 2012||May 22, 2014||Elwha Llc||Heat pipe having a channeled heat transfer array|
|CN1898520B||Oct 25, 2004||Jun 13, 2012||沃尔弗林管子公司||Method and tool for making enhanced heat transfer surfaces|
|CN101530931B||Feb 10, 2009||Apr 20, 2011||郑文春||Method for fabricating microgrooves as wick structures in heat pipes|
|DE2552679A1 *||Nov 24, 1975||Jun 16, 1976||Hitachi Ltd||Waermeuebertragungsrohr|
|EP0295919A2 *||Jun 16, 1988||Dec 21, 1988||THE BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY||Cold drawing technique and apparatus for forming internally grooved tubes|
|EP0307593A2 *||Jul 28, 1988||Mar 22, 1989||Robert Bosch Gmbh||Position securing element for components|
|EP1845327A1||Jun 10, 2003||Oct 17, 2007||Wolverine Tube Inc.||Method of manufacture for a heat transfer tube|
|EP2687766A2 *||Jun 27, 2013||Jan 22, 2014||Wen Yuan-Hung||Heat-dissipating device for hydraulic brake system|
|WO1989009107A1 *||Mar 22, 1988||Oct 5, 1989||Belorussky Politekhnichesky Institut||Cutting instrument for making a tubular element with transverse ribs for heat exchanger|
|WO1989009111A1 *||Mar 22, 1988||Oct 5, 1989||Belorussky Politekhnichesky Institut||Method of making a tubular element with transverse ribs for heat exchanger|
|WO2003104736A1||Jun 10, 2003||Dec 18, 2003||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Heat transfer tube and method of and tool for manufacturing the same|
|WO2005043062A2 *||Oct 25, 2004||May 12, 2005||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Method and tool for making enhanced heat transfer surfaces|
|WO2005043062A3 *||Oct 25, 2004||Jul 14, 2005||Wolverine Tube Inc||Method and tool for making enhanced heat transfer surfaces|
|WO2009128831A1 *||Apr 18, 2008||Oct 22, 2009||Wolverine Tube, Inc.||Finned tube for condensation and evaporation|
|U.S. Classification||72/71, 72/325, 165/184, 138/38, 165/133, 29/890.32, 165/104.26, 29/890.5|
|International Classification||F28D15/04, B21C37/15, B21C37/20|
|Cooperative Classification||F28D15/04, B21C37/207|
|European Classification||F28D15/04, B21C37/20D|