US 3754586 A
A method and apparatus for making shakes especially adapted for wood blocks having angular deviations of the grain.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Daniels Aug. 28, 1973 PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING split as a general continuation of the kerf. 1f, because SHAKES of irregularities in the grain of the wood, the cleavage plane along which the block is split deviates angularly  Inventor R? g g g from the kerf plane, when a second kerf is made into erdeen as 5 the other end of the block, the plane of the second kerf  Filed: May 10, 1971 is made to deviate from the plane of the first kerf in the same manner that the first cleavage plane deviates from  Appl' the first kerf plane. A second split is then made as a continuation of the second kerf. Subsequent kerfs and  US. Cl 144/326, 83/705, 144/13, splits are made along generally parallel planes until 144/162, 144/193 another planar deviation of the split plane is noted, and
 Int. Cl. 1327c 9/00 subsequent kerfs are angularly adjusted to make up for  Field of Search 144/13, 41, 162, such deviation.
144/193 326; 145/5 8 1n the apparatus. there is a block carrying frame rotatably mounted to a laterally movable carriage  Reterences Cited frame, so that the block is moved laterally into the saw UNITED STATES PATENTS as it is rotated 180 to form a kerf in one half of the 3,480,050 11 1909 Hughes 143/8 x l k- Then a splitter descends into the upwardly 3,396,764 8/1968 Ferguson 144/13 X facing kerf to form a shake blank. Upper and lower Primary Examiner-Andrew R. Juhasz Assistant ExaminerW. D. Bray Attorney-Graybeal, Cole & Barnard 5 7 ABSTRACT A method and apparatus for making shakes especially adapted for wood blocks having angular deviations of the grain.
A kerf is made part way into one end of the shake block generally parallel to the grain, and the block is then jaws grasp the block by the ends thereof. These jaws have independently operable teeth sets to advance the block into the cutting and splitting area at the proper angular relationship with respect to the saw.
1n the process of a second embodiment, between each of the partial saw cuts mentioned above, a complete end-to-end diagonal cut is made between adjacent kerf beginning portions so that shakes are formed as the block is being split.
17 Claims, 35 Drawing Figures PATENIEDMIG28 1975 3. 754.588
' sum 1 or 7 INVENTOR. DAVID H. DANIELS WM/2m ATTORNEYS 3 m 8 2 s u A D E T m M pl SHEET 3 OF 7 INVENTOR. DAVID H. DANIELS ATTORNEYS PATENYED Mli28 I075 SHEEI 0F 7 INVENTOR. DAVID H. DANIELS ATTORNEYS PATENIEflwcza ma 3.754.586
SHEET 5 BF 7 INVENTOR. DAVID H.DANIELS BY W ATTORNEYS N at v z 1 19; v
Pmmsnmza ms 3754.586
INVENTOR. DAVID H. DANIELS ATTORNEYS PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING SI-IAKES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates generally to a process and apparatus for making shake shingles from a block of wood, such as cedar wood.
2. Description of the Prior Art The most common prior art method of making shin gles is by a hand operation. Blocks about two feet in length are cut from a cedar log. A block is stood on end and split into blanks (shallow rectangular blocks about 1 inch to 2 inches thick). Each blank is made into two shakes by feeding the blank endwise into a saw to make a long diagonal cut the length of the blank.
There are a number of prior art patents which attempt to mechanize to a greater or lesser degree the making of shakes. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,396,764 to Ferguson provides two sets of gang saws in staggered relationship to cut a plurality of kerfs into opposite ends of the block. Then splitting plates are inserted into the kerfs to split off blanks which can then be sawed into a pair of shakes.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,407,855 to Ritchie illustrates a blank splitting device which is adapted to sense irregularities in the shake surface by providing resilient fingers to grip the surface ad properly center the blank to be split by a froe into two blanks of smaller dimension.
U.S. Pat. No. 2,705,028 to Johns illustrates a machine which can make the angled cut through a blank to form two shakes from a shake blank.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,079,961 to Stark is another machine designed to make an angled cut through a blank so as to form two shakes.
U.S. Pat. No. 2,612,916 to Bailey illustrates a machine for splitting blanks from a block by reciprocating the blank first against one splitting blade and then back against another, with a blank being cut during each reciprocation.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,315,717 to Hughes illustrates a more complex method wherein a blank is provided that is half again as long as the desired shake length. Kerfs are cut one-third the way into the block from each end thereof and moderately angled cuts are then made in the middle portion of the block. The blanks so formed are then split to make shakes.
Other patents illustrative of the prior art are U.S. No. 1,780,097 to Putman; U.S. No. 1,806,979 to Coski; U.S. No. 2,365,932 to Bierd; and U.S. No 3,171,450 to Boullet.
To the best knowledge of the applicant, none of the prior art attempts to mechanize or partially mechanize the making of shakes have had any great degree of commercial success. It is believed that one of the reasons for this is that these prior art attempts have not made compensation for the nature of the cedar wood from which the shakes are made. The grain of the block is quite often not parallel throughout, and many of these prior art devices will proceed through the block cutting and/or splitting, without being able to make allowances for such variation. The result is that many of the blanks and/or shakes are either not formed at all or improperly dimensioned and thus unusable.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved method and apparatus for making shake blanks and/or shakes, and a more particular object to provide such a method and apparatus which compensates for irregularities in the grain of the wood block from which the blanks and/or shakes are being made.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In the method of the first embodiment of the present invention, a first kerf is cut part way into one end of a block, and then the block is split the rest of the way as a continuation of the kerf. A second kerf and split are made in like manner from the opposite end of the block. After each such split any angular deviation of the split plane is ascertained (e.g., usually simply by visual inspection). In the event that the grain of the block does not run parallel to the cutting plane of the saw making the kerf, the relative position of the plane of the saw and the position of the block is adjusted angularly the same degree that the cleavage plane of the split is angled with respect to the plane of the prior kerf. Thus, blanks of uniform dimension can be made, in spite of the grain irregularities in the block.
The apparatus of the present invention provides a pair of independent stepping jaws which grip opposite ends of the block. These jaws are stepped to move the block into the cutting and splitting zone of the machine. By stepping the jaws independently in greater or smaller increments, the angle of the block relative to the saw can be adjusted so as to compensate for irregularities in the grain of the wood. The cutting action is accomplished by moving the frame on which the jaws are mounted laterally into the saw while rotating the frame 180. This moves the lower end of the block upwardly into the saw and through the remaining 90 to where the newly cut kerf is facing upwardly. A downwardly directed splitter moves into the kerf and splits off the forward portion of the block to fonn a blank.
In the method of a second embodiment, a first full length diagonal cut is made, a kerf is cut part way into the block to make a first kerf, and then a diagonal cut is made all the way through the block to produce a triangular wood piece with the kerf cut half way through the thin side. This is then split along the plane of that kerf to form two shakes.
A further improvement of the present invention is that the cutting edge of the splitter has a straight back face and a slanted front face. The result is that the initial portion of the cleavage plane is coincident with the front plane of the kerf and there is a second splitting plane coincident with the back edge of the kerf, so that there is no ridge or step between the cleavage plane and the sawed plane of the resulting shake.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIGS. 1A through 11 are semi-schematic drawings illustrating the process of the first embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 1A, IE, 1F and 1G are side elevational views of corresponding FIGS. IA, 1E, 1F and 16;
FIGS. 2A, 2B and 2C illustrate a pattern of shakes made according to the present invention;
FIGS. 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D illustrate the method of making angular adjustments in the first embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the apparatus of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a view taken at line 5-5 of FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a side elevational view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 4;
FIG. 7 is a rear elevational view thereof;
FIG. 8 is a view taken at line 88 on FIG. 6;
FIG. 9 illustrates in detail the splitter of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a semi-schematic drawing showing the path of a block of wood being cut according to the method of the first embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. ll, 12 and 13 illustrate the manner of angular adjustment of a block of wood in accordance with the method of the first embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 13A, I4, 15 and 16 illustrate the sequence of steps in a second embodiment of the method of the present invention; and
FIG. 17 and FIG. 18 illustrate a block of wood processed according to the second embodiment of the method of the present invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS It is believed a clearer understanding of the present invention will be attained by describing in order: (a) first, the method of the first embodiment of the present invention, (b) secondly, the apparatus by which the method of the first embodiment can be carried out, and (c) thirdly, the method of the second embodiment of the present invention.
a. Method of the First Embodiment Reference is made first to FIG. 1, wherein is shown the sequence in which a shake blank is cut from a block of wood according to the first embodiment. FIG. 1A illustrates a cedar block 10 having a first end 12, a second end 14, a front side 16, a back side 18, a first lateral face 20, and a second lateral face 22. The grain of the wood runs endwise (which is parallel to the front and back faces 16 and 18) so that the block 10 is split in an endwise direction.
FIG. 1A and FIG. 1A illustrate the block 10 positioned with its first end 12 directed upwardly and its front face 16 positioned a short distance (e.g., about 1 inch) forwardly of the plane of a rotating disc saw 26. The block is held by suitable apparatus, indicated schematically at 28.
The sequence of the first step is illustrated in FIGS. 1A through 1E, wherein the block 10 is moved laterally into the saw 20 and simultaneously rotated through 180. Thus, the block 10 moves laterally and rotates into the saw 20 so that a kerf 29 is out half way into the block 10 from the second end portion 14 of the block 10. When the cutting step is completed, the block is into the position shown in FIG. 1E, with the second end 14 now directed upwardly and with the kerf 29 in the upwardly disposed end of the block.
Next, a splitter 30, disposed in nearly the same transverse plane as the saw 26 descends into the kerf 29 to make a split along a cleavage plane 32 which is a continuation of the plane of the kerf 29.
As shown in FIG. 1H, the block 10 is again moved laterally and rotationally into the saw 20 to form a second kerf into he opposite end 12 of the block 10. This would then place the first end 12 in an upward position, and there would be a second splitting of the block 10 at the cleavage plane 36 as a planar continuation of the plane of the second kerf 34. (The sequence of cuts and splits from opposite ends of the block is illustrated in FIG. 2A.)
FIG. 23 illustrates a series of three shake blank 38 which are formed after a sequence of such cutting and splitting steps. It can be seen that each such blank 38 has at its upper half 40 a split face 42 on one side and a smooth sawn face 44 on its opposite side. On the lower half 46 of the one side, there is a smooth sawn face 48, and on the opposite side a split or shake face 50. Each of these shakes 40 is then passed through a saw in a conventional manner to make a lengthwise diagonal cut from the end edges adjacent the two smooth faces 44 and 48, so as to form two individual shakes as shown at 52 in FIG. 2C.
An important feature of the present invention is illustrated schematically in FIGS. 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D. Let it be assumed that a first kerf 290 has been cut and a continuing split 32a has been made in a conventional manner, and that the cleavage plane of the split 32a coincides with the plane of the kerf 280. After each split of the block any deviation of the cleavage plane from the plane of its related kerf is determined, usually by visual observation. Let it further be assumed that a second kerf 34a is cut from the opposite end of the block ltlla and that a splitter is inserted into the kerf 34a and a second blank is split off from the block 10a. However, it often happens that because of irregularities in the grain of the wood, the cleavage plane such as seen at 36a sometimes slants angularly from the plane of the kerf 34a.
It has been found that when this condition of angular splitting occurs in a block, this angular deviation will usually continue for the next several splits in the block. Hence, according to the method of the present invention, the next cut 54 into the block is angled with respect to the prior cut 34a so as to be generally parallel and spaced from the immediately previous cleavage plane 36a. When the block 10a is then split along a continuation of the kerf 54, the plane of cleavage 56 will generally be a planar continuation of the kerf 54, as shown in FIG. 3B.
As shown in FIG. BC the subsequent kerf 58 cut from the opposite end of the block is likewise made at an angle to the initial cuts 290 and 34a so as to be generally parallel to the immediately preceding plane of cleavage 56.
With reference to FIG. 3D, it can be seen that four blanks 38a, 38b, 38c and 38d are formed. When the blank 38a is cut diagonally from end to end, two shakes 52a and 52b of conventional size are formed. When the second blank 38b is cut to form shakes, the first shake 52c is of standard size, while the second shake 52d has a less than normal thickness in the area of its split face. If the angular deviation of the cleavage plane is not too great, this shake 52d will serve as a thinner grade of shake. Otherwise, the shake 52d must simply be discarded.
The third blank 380 may be considered a transitional blank wherein the adjustment is made for the angular deviation of the cleavage plane so that it becomes a planar continuation of its related kerf plane. When this third blank 38c is cut diagonally to form two shakes, the first shake 52e will have a cross section which deviates moderately from a triangle, but will in most instances be usable as a shake of a thicker grade. The other shake 52f will be of a triangular cross section and also will serve as a shake of a thicker grade.
The subsequent blank 38d is cut diagonally to form two shakes 52g and 52h. These two shakes 52g and 52h each have a triangular configuration and are each quite satisfactory for standard shakes.
Thus it can be seen that with the method of the present invention, even though the shake block has angular deviations of the grain running therethrough, it is still possible to make suitable shake shingles.
b. Apparatus of the Invention The apparatus by which the method of the first embodiment can be carried out is shown in FIGS. 4 through 8. In general, it comprises three main components which are indicated schematically above, the block holding and positioning apparatus 28, the saw 26 and the splitter 30.
The block holding apparatus 28 comprises a main stationary frame 60 comprising upper and lower beams 62 and 64, respectively, and vertical beams 66. A secondary frame 68 is mounted to the main frame 60 for lateral horizontal motion by means of lower rollers 70 that ride on the beam 64 and upper guide rollers 72 that track to the upper beam 62.
A third frame 74 is mounted to the secondary frame 68 for rotation about a longitudinal axis by means of a main longitudinal shaft 76 supported by front and rear bearings 78 and 80 bolted to the secondary frame 68. As seen in FIG. 8, the frame 74 has a configuration of a transverse plate and supports upper and lower jaw members 82 and 84 which are vertically movable with respect to the frame 74. The upper jaw 82 has right and left channel members 86 by which it engages the edge portions of the frame 74 for up and down motion, and has a crossbar 88 and two forwardly extending arms 90. At the forward end of the arms 90 is a transversely horizontally disposed spur roll 92. This spur roll 92 is mounted for rotation about a horizontal transverse axis 94 and is turned by a chain sprocket drive 96. The lower jaw 84 has a similar configuration to the upper jaw 82 and thus has two mounting arms 86a, a crossbar 88a, two forwardly extending arms 90a, and a spur roll 92a mounted for rotation about an axis 94a, and is rotated by a chain and sprocket drive 96a.
Each of the spur rolls 92 and 92a has a circular configuration with the individual biting elements or teeth arranged about the entire circumference. The upper spur roll 92 and the lower spur roll 924 are each mounted for rotation about transverse horizontal axis 94 or 94a which passes through the center axis of each of the spur rolls 92 or 92a. The upper spur roll 92 is arranged to grip the top end of the wood block, while the lower spur roll 92a is arranged to grip the lower end of the block.
Significant in the operation of the apparatus of the present invention is the manner in which the two spur rolls 90 and 92a advance a wood block into the cutting and splitting zone of the machine. Each spur roll 92 or 920 has an independent drive mechanism. The upper spur roll 92 has its chain and sprocket drive 96 which is driven through a ratchet mechanism 98 through increments of travel. The ratchet 98 is advanced through rotational increments by means of a dual tandem air jack 100, comprising an upper jack member 102 having a larger stroke and a lower jack member 104 having a shorter stroke (one-half to onethird the stroke of the jack 102). The stroke of the jack member 102 is adjusted to advance the block 10 I inch, which is the desired width of a shake blank. The other jack 104 is used for adjusting the angular position of the block and thus has a shorter length of travel. Conventional actuating mechanism, not shown herein, can be provided. The spur roll 92a has a similar ratchet drive 98a, driven by a dual tandem jack 1000 having a longer jack member 102a and a shorter jack member 104a.
The jack members and 100a each have separate control mechanisms so that each can be moved independently through separate increments of travel, which can be illustrated with reference to FIGS. 11, I2 and 13. In FIG. 11 the upper and lower spur rolls 92 and 92a are holding the block 10 level. In FIG. 12, the lower spur roll 92a has rotated trough two increments of travel, while the upper spur roll 92 has rotated through one increment to tilt the front face 16 of the block rearwardly. In FIG. 13, the lower spur roll 920 has been moved through one increment of travel, while the upper spur roll 92 has been moved through three increments of travel to cause the front face 16 of the block 10 to be tilted forwardly.
As mentioned previously, the upper and lower jaw members 82 and 84 are movable vertically on the frame 74 so that the jaws 82 and 84 can move apart to receive a block of wood 10 and then move toward one another to grip the wood block 10. The mechanism to accomplish this movement is illustrated in FIG. 8, wherein there is shown a crank arm 106 mounted to the frame plate 74 for rotational movement about a longitudinal axis at 108. A first actuating rod 110 is connected to the outer end of the crank arm 106 and to the upper jaw 82, while a second actuating rod 112 is connected to the inner portion of the crank arm 106 and to the lower jaw 84. A hydraulic jack 114, mounted to the frame 74, is connected to the crank arm 106. Extension of the jack 114 rotates the crank arm clockwise, as seen in FIG. 8, to open the jaws 82 and 84, while retraction of the jack 114 causes the jaws 82 and 84 to close toward one another.
As indicated previously, the function of the block holding apparatus 28 is to grip a wood block 10, move it into the proper position for cutting and splitting, and then move the block 10 both laterally and rotationally into the saw 20 and back to the original position of the block, but with the block rotated 180 so that the kerf 29 just formed is disposed upwardly. The lateral and rotational movement of the block is accomplished by moving the secondary translating frame 68 laterally and simultaneously rotating the third frame 74 as it is being carried laterally by the secondary frame 68. The drive mechanism by which this is accomplished is best illustrated in FIG. 7. The power input to this mechanism is through a shaft 130 which is powered by an electric motor 1 18 having a gear reduction mechanism 126 in a manner to rotate the shaft 130 and a sprocket 128 fixed thereto through one complete revolution. This causes a chain 132 to rotate a sprocket 142, mounted to the frame 68 at 116, to rotate a crank arm which is pivotally connected to a connecting rod 122 which is in turn connected to the upright beam 66 of the main frame 60. The connecting rod 122 is made as two telescoping pieces held together by a wing nut 124 so that the length of the rod 122 can be adjusted for modifying the lateral movement of the carriage frame 68. One complete rotation of the crank arm 120 moves the carriage 68 laterally toward the saw 26 and back to its original position.
It will be noted that the drive sprocket 128 is eccentrically mounted to the shaft 130. The reason for this is to move the wood block more slowly into the saw in the first part of the sawing operation when the loading on the saw is greatest. Thus, during its first 90 to 120 of rotation, the lower portion of the gear 128 is mostly walking" down the chain portion 132a immediately below to cause slower travel of the chain 132 and consequently slower rotation of the crank arm 120. Simultaneously it is providing slack in the chain portion 13211 immediately above. However, the slack in the chain portion 132b is taken up by an idler sprocket 134 mounted to a pivot arm 136 and urged by a spring 138 to push the chain portion 132b downwardly. Thus, the rotation of the sprocket 142 begins more slowly to cause the frame 68 to accelerate laterally into the saw more gradually.
A driven sprocket 140 is fixedly connected to the aforementioned shaft 76 for the rotating frame 73. It will be noted that the sprocket 140 is twice the diameter of the drive sprocket 128, so that for one complete revolution of the sprocket 128, there will be a half revolution of the shaft 76. The chain portion 1352b engages the sprocket 140 and extends laterally at 132C to engage the sprocket 142, back at 13211 to engage the sprocket 144 and then closes back to sprocket 128.
After the drive sprocket 128 has traveled through about 90 to 120 of rotation, at which time the carriage frame 68 in nearing its extreme end position of lateral travel and moved the block part way into the saw 26, the drive sprocket 128 is now causing the chain to move more rapidly since the center of rotation of the sprocket 128 is beginning to move forwardly to augment the action of its rotation about its center axis. During this time, the block 10 is being moved further upwardly through the saw 20. As the carriage frame 68 begins moving back toward its original position, the drive sprocket 128 is causing the drive chain 132 to move more rapidly, after which it tends to reduce the speed at which it is causing the chain 132 to travel at the completion of its revolution.
By the time the drive sprocket 128 has made one complete revolution, the crank arm 120 has completed one revolution so as to cause the carriage frame 68 to move to its furthest lateral position and back to its original position. Also, the shaft 76 with its rotating frame 74 has moved through one half revolution to move the lower end of the block 10 upwardly through the saw and to an upright position. The path of a point 131 on the bottom of the block 10 is shown in FIG. 10 at 134. It can be seen that the center 133 of the block translates laterally as the block rotates.
The aforementioned jack 114 to open and close the jaws 82 and 84, and the two dual tandem jacks 100 and 100a to operate the teeth sets 92 ad 92a are both mounted to the rotating frame 74. To provide power for the operation of these jacks, a slip ring assembly 146 is mounted to the rear face of the aforementioned driven sprocket 140. Also, to provide additional support for the rotatable frame 74, a circular track 148 is mounted to the carriage frame 68, and rollers 150- mounted to the rotational frame ride against the track 148 for added support.
The aforementioned disc saw 26 is mounted at a fixed location laterally of the block holding apparatus 28. The saw 26 is mounted to a shaft 152 which is in turn driven from a motor 154 by means of a belt drive 156.
The splitting apparatus of the present invention is best understood with reference to FIGS. 4, 5 and 6. The splitter itself 30, is positioned in a transverse plane just forward of the saw 28 and at a vertical location above the block carrying apparatus 28. The splitting apparatus comprises a main vertical support post braced to the aforementioned main frame 62 by means of a pair of support arms 162. The splitting blade 30 is hinge mounted to a carrying frame 164, with the angular position of the splitter 30 being controlled by a spring loaded positioning screw 166. The frame 164 is in turn mounted to a collar-like carriage 168 which by means of rollers 170 is mounted to the main post 160 for vertical motion.
The splitting apparatus also has a lower bracing plate 172 which moves upwardly during the splitting operation to engage the lower surface of the block 10 so as to support the block 10 against the downward force of the splitter 30 engaging the block 10. This bracing plate 172 is made as the forward plate of a rectangular frame 174 which in turn is connected to a vertical channel beam 176 and is also connected to a second collar-like carriage frame 178 mounted for vertical motion to the lower portion of the aforementioned main post 162. An air jack 180 mounted from a ground support location 182 is connected to the vertical beam 176 and provides enough force almost to move the support plate 172 upwardly to engage the wood block 10.
To move the splitter 30 downwardly into the block 10, the splitter 30 is connected to the lower end of a hydraulic jack 184, the upper end of which is connected to the upper end of the vertical channel beam 176. The length of travel of the jack 184 is greater than that of the jack 180. To operate the splitting apparatus, the jacks 180 and 184 are both actuated and initially only the jack 184 extends to cause the splitter 30 to engage the block 10. This relieves some of the weight on the splitter assembly to cause the jack 180 to extend to cause the support plate 172 to engage the lower end of the block 10. As this occurs, the upper jack 184 com pletes its extension to cause the splitter 30 to split of a shake blank.
The particular configuration of the splitter 30 used in the present invention has been found to be particularly advantageous. This can be illustrated with reference to FIG. 9, wherein it can be seen that the splitter 30 comprises a blade having a back face 192 and a front face 194. A pair of upwardly diverging triangular braces 195 are connected to the front face 194. It will be noted that the splitting edge 196 of the splitter 30 lies in the same plane as the rear face 192 of the splitting blade 190, with a front beveled surface 198 sloping upwardly and forwardly from the edge 196. Thus as the splitter 30 moves into the kerf 28, the blank 32 breaks off along a cleavage plane 32a that coincides with the rear sawn surface of the blank 32. The splitting edge 196 engages the rear edge of a quite small shoulder 200 at the lower end of the kerf. A thin slab of wood breaks off along a second cleavage plane 32b so that the shoulder 200 is eliminated for the next blank to be cut from the block 10.
To describe the operation of the present invention, initially the jack 114 is extended to open the upper and lower jaws 82 and 84, and a wood block 10 is placed endwise between the jaws 82 and 84. The jack 114 is retracted to move the jaws 82 and 84 together to clamp the block 10 therebetween.
Next the two jacks 100 and 100a are operated to rotate the upper and lower spur rolls 92 and 92a to ad vance the block 10 beyond the transverse plane occupied by the saw 20. Then the block translating and rotating drive mechanism is activated through the action of the electric motor 118 to cause the crank arm 120 to travel through one rotation and also to cause the sprocket 140 to travel through one half of a rotation. As described previously herein, this causes the carriage frame 68 to travel laterally toward the saw and then back to its original position. Simultaneously, this causes the rotating frame 74 to rotate through 180 to move the lower end of the block 10 into and through the saw 20 and then carry the block 10 through the remaining path of rotational travel so that the newly cut kerf in the block 10 is facing upwardly. The gripping teeth 92 and 92a are rotated by means of the jack units 100 and 100a to advance the block 10 so that kerf is below the splitter 30.
Next the jacks 180 and 184 of the splitting apparatus are actuated to cause the splitter 30 to descend into the kerf 29 to split off a shake blank 32, with the plate 172 engaging the block to provide vertical support.
In the event that the wood block 10 splits along a cleavage plane angled with respect to the plane of the kerf (as illustrated at 36a in FIG. 3a), then the angular position of the block must be adjusted with respect to the plane of the saw 26 so that the next kerf to be cut in the block 10 can be angled with respect to the previous kerf so as to be generally parallel to the immediately previous cleavage plane. This is accomplished by moving the spur rolls 92 and 92a through proper increments of travel as illustrated in FIGS. ll, 12 and 13. For example, if it is desired to slant the next kerf rearwardly into the block 10, then the upper spur roll 92 is caused to travel one or more increments further than the lower spur roll 92a so that the block is tilted forwardly as seen in FIG. 13. In this manner, the angular position of the block with respect to the plane of the saw 26 can be modified to keep the kerf properly aligned with the cleavage plane. In this manner, a series of cuts and splits at proper angles can be achieved as illustrated in FIG. 3C.
c. Method of the Second Embodiment.
The method of the second embodiment is best described with reference to FIGS. 13 through 18. An apparatus for carrying out this second embodiment is shown merely schematically in FIGS. 13 through 16, wherein there is a main frame 210 on which a carriage frame 212 is mounted for lateral motion, such motion being accomplished by a hydraulic jack 214. Right and left pairs of spur rolls 215 and 216, respectively, hold a wood block 10a therebetween. As in the prior embodiment, the spur rolls 215 and 216 are operable independently of one another so that the angular position of the block 10a can be adjusted. Mounted in a plane just forward of the location of the spur rolls 215 and 216 is a band saw 220.
In describing the method of the second embodiment, let it be assumed that a previous diagonal cut has been made on the front face 226 of the block 10a. By selective operation of the two spur rolls 215 and 216, the block 10a is positioned so that its left front corner (as viewed in FIG. 13) is very slightly forward of the saw 220. The carriage 212 is moved to the left a distance adequate to cut a kerf 228 half way into the block 10a (this being illustrated in FIG. 14).
As illustrated in FIG. 15, the carriage 212 is moved back to the right position to withdraw the saw 220 from the kerf 228. Then, as illustrated in FIG. 15, the block 10a is angularly adjusted (as seen in the top plan view of FIG. 15) slightly clockwise and moved very moderately forward (about one-eighth of an inch) to position the block for the next cut. Then, as illustrated in FIG. 16, the carriage 212 is moved to full left position so that the left saw 220 makes a diagonal cut completely through the block 10a. This forms a triangular block 230 which is split along the kerf 228 to form two shakes 232 and 234. The splitting can be accomplished by hand or by a suitable splitting mechanism.
Next, this same sequence of steps is repeated with respect to the right-hand side of the block 10a. The position of the block 10a is adjusted, and a kerf is cut halfway into the right side of the block 10a. After the angular position of the block 10 is again adjusted, a full diagonal cut is made.
If the grain of the wood is parallel throughout the block 10a, then a series of cuts and splits will be made in a regular pattern as illustrated in FIG. 17. However, if the cleavage plane deviates from the plane of the kerf, then, as in the first embodiment, it is necessary to adjust the plane of the subsequent kerf. The manner in which this is done can best be explained with reference to FIG. 18. In FIG. 18 it can be seen that the second cleavage plane 238 has split at an angle slanting forwardly. The full diagonal cut 240 would have already been made, and the splitting makes one shake 242 of a thicker grade, and (if the angular deviation is not too great) a second shake 244 of a thinner grade. Next, a kerf 246 is out half way into the shake, the position of the block 10a is adjusted, and a second adjacent kerf 248 is out half way into the shake at a moderate angle with respect to the kerf 246. Then the angular position of the block 10a is adjusted yet further, and a full diagonal cut 250 is made through the block. Then the block is split along two cleavage planes which are continuations of the kerf 246 and 248. The next partial kerf 252 is angled with respect to the lengthwise axis of the block 10a so as to be generally parallel to the immediately preceding cleavage plane 254.
Thus, it can be seen that usable shakes can be obtained from the wood block even with angular deviation of the grain of the wood.
What is claimed is:
l. A method of making shake pieces from a block of wood having a first and second end, a front side and a back side, and having a grain which runs generally from end to end of said block, said process comprising:
a. making a kerf part way into one end of said block along a predetermined first kerf plane,
b. splitting said block along a first cleavage plane as a continuation of the first kerf plane,
c. determining any angular deviation of the cleavage plane from the kerf plane,
d. making a second kerf into the other end of the block along a second kerf plane having a similar angular relationship with said first kerf plane as said first cleavage plane has with said first kerf plane, and
e. splitting said block along a cleavage plane as a continuation of the second kerf plane.
2. The process as recited in claim 1, including the further step of making subsequent kerfs and splits from opposite ends of said block, with said subsequent kerfs being generally parallel to said second kerf until a further angular deviation of a cleavage plane occurs and then adjusting the angle of a yet subsequent kerf to be parallel to the last deviating cleavage plane.
3. The process as recited in claim 1, further comprising moving said block into a cutting area, and making angular adjustment of the kerfs cut into said block by moving one end of the block further than the other.
4. The process as recited in claim 3, further comprising engaging opposite ends of the block by movable gripping means, and selectively operating said gripping means independently of one another so as to properly dispose the block in the cutting area 5. The process as recited in claim 1, wherein a kerf is formed into said block by moving said block linearly and rotationally through a saw.
6. The process as recited in claim 5, including the step of disposing the block with one end thereof positioned in a first direction, moving said one end linearly and rotationally through a saw and back to its original position while continuing rotation of said block through a full 180, and then splitting said block from said first direction.
7. The process as recited in claim 1, including making a cut from the one end of the block at a location adjacent the first kerf diagonally through the block to the other end of the block, and then making the aforementioned second kerf recited in claim 1.
8. The process as recited in claim 7, wherein the steps of claim 7 are accomplished by:
a. moving said block relative to the saw toward the saw to form a kerf part way therein,
b. moving said block and said saw out of engagement,
0. moving said block angularly with respect to the saw,
(1. moving the block and saw relative to one another to make a diagonal cut entirely through the block.
9. The process as recited in claim 7, further comprising the step of subsequent to making the second kerf partway into the other end of said block, making a third kerf partway into said block adjacent to the second kerf but angled with respect thereto, and then making a full diagonal cut through said block from the same end as said second and third partway kerf at an angle yet further slanted from the second partway kerf, whereby three shakes may be formed from that portion of the block between the two diagonal cuts.
10. The process as recited in claim 7, wherein said block is split along a cleavage plane as a continuation of the first kerf as the full diagonal cut is being made through the block.
11. A method of making shake pieces from a block of wood having a first end, a second end and grain running generally from end to end of the block, said method comprising:
a. disposing said block in a first position with its first end disposed in a first direction,
b. moving said block linearly and rotationally.
through a saw so as to form a kerf partway through the second end of said block,
0 disposing said block back in said first position with its second end disposed in said first direction, and
d. splitting said block as a continuation of said kerf from a path generally along said first direction.
12. The method as recited in claim 11, comprising the further step of again moving the block linearly and rotationally through a saw so as to form a kerf partway through said block in the first end thereof, disposing said block back in said first position but with its first end now disposed in said first direction, and splitting said block generally from said first direction along a cleavage plane as a continuation of said second kerf.
13. The method as recited in claim 11, comprising the further step of determining any angular deviation of the cleavage plane with respect to the kerf plane and adjusting the angular position of the block, and then moving the block linearly and rotationally through the saw so as to form a second kerf generally parallel to the cleavage plane previously formed in the block.
14. A method of making shakes from a block of wood having a first end, a second end and a grain running generally from end to end in the wood, said method comprising:
a. moving the one end of the block laterally in a first direction into a saw to make a first kerf into the first end of the block partway through the block,
b. again moving the block in the first direction into the saw to make a diagonal cut entirely through the block at an angle with respect to said first kerf, and
c. splitting the block along a cleavage plane which is a generally planar continuation of the first kerf.
15. The method as recited in claim 14, being characterized in that the block is split after the diagonal cut is made through the block.
16. The method as recited in claim 14, wherein said block is subsequently moved laterally in a second direction into a saw to make a second kerf into the second end of the block partway through the block, then making a diagonal cut from the second end of the block entirely through the block at an angle to a lengthwise dimension of the block oppositely slanted with respect to the first diagonal cut.
17. The method as recited in claim 16, comprising the further step of determining any angular deviation of the cleavage plane of the first splitting step, and making a subsequent kerf in said block at an angular deviation from the first kerf similar to any angular deviation from the cleavage plane to the first kerf.