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Publication numberUS3755057 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 28, 1973
Filing dateAug 23, 1971
Priority dateAug 23, 1971
Publication numberUS 3755057 A, US 3755057A, US-A-3755057, US3755057 A, US3755057A
InventorsH Scott, L Ave
Original AssigneeH Scott, L Ave
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Synthetic fur
US 3755057 A
Abstract
A synthetic fur product and method of making such product which comprises coating synthetic hair fibers with a heat-settable composition containing a hardening and adhesive agent in aqueous media, either with or without the addition of separate water-proofing agents, flame-retardant agents, softening agents, and the like, and then applying heat to the coated hair to set the coated hair in the selected condition. Then the treated hair fibers are formed into long and short hair wefts, the two lengths and "belly" hair. The wefts are then stitched or otherwise adhered to a backer. In another form, only one length of hair fiber is used to form the wefts and these are stitched to a woven mat which has been treated similarly to the wefts.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

[ 1 SYNTHETIC FUR Howard L. Scott, 56th St. and Lancaster Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 19131 [22] Filed: Aug. 23, 1971 '21 Appl. No.: 173,885

[76] Inventor:

[52] US. Cl. 161/67, 156/72, 156/93,

161/19,161/63,161/403 [51] Int. Cl. D03d 27/00, D04h 11/00 [58] Field of Search 161/48, 50, 52, 19, 161/62-67, 403; 156/72, 93, 68; 69/22; 112/412 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,334,006 8/1967 Koller 161/62 2,115,967 5/1938 Schifrin 161/63 X 3,174,451 3/1965 Heiks 151/62 X 3,509,004 4/1970 Becker 151/67 X 2,449,416 9/1948 Schifrin 161/63 2,815,558 12/1957 Bartovics et al. 161/63 2,988,800 6/1961 White 161/63 "Juan [451 Aug. 28, 1973 Salick 156/72 X Roller 161/65 X Primary Examiner-William A. Powell AttorneyArthur A. Jacobs [5 7] ABSTRACT A synthetic fur product and method of making such product which comprises coating synthetic hair fibers with a heat-settable composition containing a hardening and adhesive agent in aqueous media, either with or without the addition of separate water-proofing agents, flame-retardant agents, softening agents, and the like, and then applying heat to the coated hair to set the coated hair in the selected condition. Then the treated hair fibers are formed into long and short hair wefts, the two lengths and belly hair. The wefts are then stitched or otherwise adhered to a backer. In another form, only one length of hair fiber is used to form the wefts and these are stitched to a woven mat which has been treated similarly to the wefts.

6 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures Patented Aug. 28,1973

F/GQZ INVENTOR HOWARD L. SCOTT ATT RNE'Y PVT:

FIG.

mm. U

' SYNTHETIC FUR This invention relates to synthetic fur, and it particularly relates to a process for making synthetic fur from synthetic hair-like fibers.

Many processes have heretofore been used to make synthetic furs which resemble natural furs, such as mink and the like. However, these prior processes have all been unduly expensive and complex and the resulting products have rarely had a sufficiently close resemblance to the natural product. Furthermore, they have generally had a tendency to rapidly deteriorate under conditions of use, especially when exposed to moisture, and quickly became so shoddy inappearance that they could no longer be used.

It is one object of the present invention to overcome the above and other defects of prior-produced synthetic furs by providing a relatively simple and inexpensive process producing such synthetic furs, whereby the resultant furs are very natural in appearance and are adapted to retain such appearance under all normal conditions of use.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a process of the aforesaid type which utilizes relatively of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a fragmentary top plan view showing the construction of a fur embodying the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view showing one fiber weft unit of the fur of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 3-3 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is a top plan view of another form of the pres-. ent invention.

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary perspective view taken generally along the line 5-5 of FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary perspectiveview showing individual stitching of the fiber wefts.

FIG. 7 is a schematic view of a mechanism for forming the fiber wefts used in this invention.

Referring now in greater detail to the various figures of the invention wherein similar reference characters refer to similar parts, there is shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 a fur pelt, generally designated 10, comprising a backer sheet 12, made of fabric or the like (see FIG. 3), to which is stitched a series of fiber hair weft units 14 (see FIG. 2). Each weft unit 14 consists of a long weft 16 and a short weft l8 sewn together as at 20.

The wefts I6 and 18 are constructed of a plurality of synthetic hair fibers made'of a synthetic polymer such as nylon or the like, the fibers being stitched together at 22. The fibers in each weft 16 and 18 are of curled and chemically-treated construction as will hereinafter be more fully described.

After each weft unit 14 is constructed, they are each stitched, as at 13, to the backer 12 in closely adjacent relationship (as seen in FIG. 3). In the resultant pelt, the short wefts l6 constitute the so-called belly hair while the long wefts l8 constitute the surface hair which gives the fur its surface appearance.

It is to be understood, in this respect, that the widths of the long and short wefts are somewhat exaggerated in the drawings for greater clarity, while, in actuality, they are each of the thickness of several hair strands,

so that, when assembled, there are so many wefts to each inch that .the overall appearance of the surface formed by the long weft hairs is similar to that of natural fur such as mink.

In FIGS. 4 and 5 there is shown an alternative construction of the fur pelt wherein the pelt, generally designated 100, comprises a backer 102 upon which is sewn, glued or otherwise adhered a wovenmat 104 constructed of synthetic fibers. The mat 104 is similar in appearance and construction to the so-called pebbleweave type of carpeting. This mat 104 is treated in the same manner as the wefts 16 and described above, as will be hereinafer more fully described.

Sewn to the mat 104 are a series of closely spaced synthetic fiber hair wefts 106 similar to the wefts 16 described above. In this form of the invention, the mat 104 constitutes the belly hair while the wefts I06 constitute the surface hair.

In the form of the invention shown in FIGS 1, 2 and 3, the wefts l4 and 16 are sewn together firstto form weft units and these units are then sewn to the backer. In FIG. 6, an alternative construction, generally desig nated 200, is shown, wherein small individual wefts, in dicated at 202 and 204, are individually stitched to the backer 206 by hand stitches 208.

vAs indicated above, it is important to provide the hair fibers with a wavy or curled appearance to simulate the hair fibers of natural fur. This may be accomplished in any manner desired. One manner of accomplishing this is by means of the apparatus shown in FIG. 7.

The apparatus of FIG. 7 comprises a heated tube 300 having a wave-like hollow interior. The heat may be ap plied electrically or in any other desired manner. Hanks of the fiber, which have been first chemically treated in the manner hereinafter described, are forced, under pressure, through the tube and, when extruded therefrom, have a curled or wavy set, as indicated at they are cut into predetermined size by a rotary knife 306. Although not shown, the knife 306 is reciprocated toward and away from the platform 304 in timed intervals corresponding to the length of the hanks desired. The mechanism for operating the knife in such timed relation is not shown since any standard mechanism may be used and the specific mechanism, by itself, forms no part of the present invention.

The severed hanks 308 are then moved by an endless belt conveyor 310 onto a mat 312 carried on an endless belt conveyor 314 which conveys the mat 312 and the hanks 308 to a stitching or other treating station.

The apparatus illustrated in FIG. 7 is used primarily for the construction of furs such as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, the mat 314 corresponding to the mat 102 and the hanks 308 corresponding to the tufts 104. How'- ever, it is also possible to use a modified form of such apparatus for the fur shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3. In such modified apparatus (not shown), the mat 312 would correspond to the backer l2 and two mold tubes 300, two knives 306 and two conveyors 310 would be used, one set of mechanisms for each size tuft. The two conveyors 310 would then be timed to deposit their tufts alternately on the mat or backer 308 on conveyor 314.

If desired, only the mold tube 300 may be used to curl or wave the hair fibers and these fibers may then be cut and assembled by hand or by any other feasible mechanism.

As the curled hanks are extruded onto a platfonn 304 In order to provide satisfactory body for the hair fibers as well as permanent curl or wave, certain types of hardening agents are used. Such hardening agents comprise:( l) p,p'-methyl-enedianiline; (2) a copolymer obtained by polymerizing a mixture of (a) about 05-25 percent by weight of itaconic acid, (b) 3-4 percent by weight of at least one polymerizable compound selected from the group consisting of acrylonitrile, alkyl esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids having from 1 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl group, phenyl methacrylate, cyclohexyl methacrylate, p-cyclohexylphenyl methacrylate, methacrylonitrile, methyl vinyl ketone and vinyl chloride, and 35-965 percent by weight of vinylidene chloride, the proportions being selected to total 100 percent; (3) water-insoluble copolymers obtained by the emulsion copolymerization of about 0.5-6 percent by weight of either N- methylolacrylamide, N-methylolmethacrylamide, or mixtures thereof with about 0.5-25 percent by weight of either acrylamide or methacrylamide, and having a molecular weight of 100,000 to 10,000,000; (4) copolymers of acrylonitrile and styrene produced by Pennsylvania Industrial Chemical Corp., under the trade name Piccoflex and (5) Arolon 363 (Archer Daniels Midland Co. a solution of a water-soluble, oxidizing resin containing about 50 percent by weight solids, having a viscosity of SX (Gardner I-Ioldt at 25 C.) and a pH of between 6.9 and 7.3 at 25 C.

Another effective hardening and adhesive agent, which may also serve as a flame retardant, is one or more of the Geons" produced by the BF. Goodrich Co. These include Geon 652, a vinyl chloridevinylidene chloride copolymer; Geon 575 X 43 and Geon 577, which are vinyl chloride polymers plasticized with alkyl aryl phosphate plasticizers at levels of 25 and 35 parts per hundred polymer respectively; *Geon 576, a vinyl chloride polymer plasticized with 35 parts dioctyl phthalate per 100 parts polymer; Geon 151, Geon 354," Geon 352 and Geon 351," the first of these being an unplasticized vinyl chloride homopolymer and the last three being unplast-icized vinyl chloride copolymers: Geon 450 X 167, Geon 450 X 20, Geon 450 X 3, Geon 450 X 23, Geon 460 X i, all of which are vinyl chloride-acrylic latexes; and Geon 552," a vinyl chloridelbutadieneacrylonitrile polyblend latex.

The hardening agent is utilized in a proportion of about lO-80 percent by volume of the total composition, said composition including water as at least one of the other ingredients.

It is also desirable to provide an adequate degree of flame-retardancy to the fur. A highly effective flameretardant agent is sodium bicarbonate, and is used in a proportion of about l-20 percent by volume, preferably about l-6 percent by volume, of the total composition.

Other effective flame-retardant agents (which are also effective adhesive agents) are tris(2,3- dibromopropyl) phosphate, hexabromobenzene and hexabromobiphenyl. Each of these compounds is used in a 10-25 percent by weight concentration, preferably about 15 percent, in an appropriate solvent. The solvents comprise most aromatics, and some chlorinated straight chain hydrocarbons.

Among the preferable solvents are perchloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and polyvinyl chloride. These compounds may, furthermore, be used by themselves or in admixture with either one or both of the others. In any event, they are preferably used (either as a single component or as a mixture) in a proportion of about 10-25 percent by volume of the total composi- 1011.

It is preferable to apply the composition, including the hardening agent and the flame-retardant agent, to the hair fibers as by spraying, dipping, rubbing, or the like, and then to immediately dry the treated fibers at a temperature of about l20-250 F.

As indicated above, the hardening and adhesive agent may be used by itself in aqueous media or it may be used together with the flame-retardant agent in said aqueous media (in the aforesaid range of proportions), The composition, in either case, is prepared by simple admixture, preferably under agitation, at room temperature and pressure.

Although, as stated above, the hardening and adhesive agent may be used by itself to obtain a satisfactory coating composition, it has been found that the addition of a very small amount of a softening agent materially enhances the appearance and quality of the finished product. This softening agent is generally utilized in a proportion of about 0.1-0.5 percent by volume of the total composition.

Among the softening agents preferably used'is an aqueous dispersion of N-methylol stearamide, wherein the compound is present in the dispersion in a concentration of about" 20-45 percent byweight, preferably about 25-30 percent by weight.

Another softening agent, which has a water-repellent function as well, is an aluminum complex (commercially available as DuPonts Aluminum Complex 101), which is a coordination of complex aluminum and myristic acid and which has the following structure:

In this complex, the aluminum groups anchor to the treated surfaces while the myristic group orients outward.

Yet another softening agent is a Werner type chr'omium complex having the structure:

R is either C ll, or C ll This product is commerically available as DuPonts 5 Quilon S" or "Quilon M, the first being the stearic acid complex and the second being the myristic acid complex.

Another commercially available chrome complex that may be used as the softening agent is that identitied as DuPont's Quilon C. This is a Werner chromium complex, usually in isopropanol solution, that differs from Quilon S and Quilon M through partial polymerization. The chromium atoms polymerize through olation bridges to form groups. Oil drying, hydrolysis and condensation occur to the, point where the polymer iscondensed through -O- bridges with the surface as follows:-

If a separate water-repellent agent is used,it is preferably one which is preferably used in a proportion of about 1-50 percentby volume, consists of (a) a wax This product,as used herein, is a polytetrafluoroethylene having a molecular weight of between about 1,000,000 to 10,000,000, and a viscosity greater than 10 poises at 380 C. Also utilizable is a vinylidene fluoride resin having a molecular weight of between about 300,000 and 600,000 and having the structure:

spraying, dipping, rubbing, etc, and the coated hair is passed through the heated tube 300 to effect a curing and simultaneous curling, thereby forming a relatively permanent set. The heat required for this purpose is bepolymer emulsion wherein'the ratio of wax to polymer is about 3:1, the polymer beinga copo'lymer which consistsof (1) about 15-90 percent by weight of anamino group containing comonom'erhaving the structure:-

where R and R are selected from the group consisting of lower alkyl and cycloalkyl that include R R rand R is selected from the group consisting of H and CH,,

tween 120-250 F. depending on the type of hair or fiber being processed and on the type ofcomposition used.

When a mat, such as shown atl04 is used to form the belly. hair, the mat 104 is merely coated withthe above-described composition and then cured at the above-described temperature prior to attachment of the treated fibers forming the surface hair.

, 1 The following examples illustrate the invention, withand (2) 10-85 percent by weight of a comonomer having the structure:

where X is a member of the group selected from. H and CH and Y is a member selected from the polar group consisting of nitrile, aliphatic acyloxy having from 1-18 carbon atoms and alkox'ycarbonyl having from 1-18 carbon atoms, said copolymer having an intrinsic viscosityin benzene at 30 C. of from 0.04-0.5.

Other products that may be used as the waterproofing or water-repellent agent are such commerically available products as Zonyl RP" (DuPont), which is an anionic fluoro compound having a density at 77 F. of 8.85 lb/gal., a viscosity at 77 F. of 8.85 lb/gal., a viscosity at 77 F. of 10 centipoises, a pH of 7.0 complete solubility in water. Also Nalan RF" and Nalan RD" (DuPont), Zelcon SL (DuPont), Ze-

pel" (DuPont) and other similar water-dispersible. products, as, for example, Scotchgard" (Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co.).

The slipping agent, utilized in a proportion of about 0.1-10 percent by volume may be any one of a number of fluoro resins. Among these resins is a product produced by Dupont under the name of "Teflon P-TFE."

produced.

out, however, limiting it except as claimed:

' EXAMPLE 1 75 percent" by volumeof p,p' -methylenedianiline was mixed, at room temperature and pressure, with 3.5 percent by volume of sodium bicarbonate and with 21,5 percent water, the mixture taking place under agitation until a monogeneous-cream-like substancewas EXAMPLE 2 47.5 parts by weight of ethyl acrylate, 3 parts by weight of a non-ionic dispersing agent (a 70 percent -thanol containing an average of about 35 oxyethylene units in the molecule) and 100 parts by weight of water were cooled to 15 C. and then agitated. Then 0.085 parts by weight of ammonium persulfate and 0.08 parts by weight of sodium hydrosulfite were added. As soon as the temperature began to rise, 2.5 parts by weight of itaconic acid, dissolved in 44 parts by weight of water, was added over a period of 8 minutes. As polymerization proceeded, the temperature rose in 17 minutes to a maximum of 56 C. The dispersion was stirred until it reached room temperature.

, percent by volume of the above dispersion was mixed, under agitation, at room temperature and pressure, with 0.3 percent by volume "Aluminum Complex 101, 2 percent by volume sodium bicarbonate, 4 percent by volume of the wax-polymer emulsion described above, 1 percent by volume of Teflon P-TFE," and 16.7 percent by volume water. Agitation was continued until a heavy grease-like cream was obtained.

EXAMPLE 3 The same ingredients, proportions and procedures 7 were used as in Example 2, except that a 25 percent by weight aqueous dispersion of N-methylol stearamide was substituted for the Aluminum Complex 101.

EXAMPLE 4 To a solution of 300 parts of Z-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and 700 parts of octadecyl methacrylate in 1,000 parts of molten paraffin wax, maintained at 75 C., in a suitable vessel equipped with an agitator, are added parts of 2,2 -azodiisobutyronitrile in small increments over a period of 6 to 10 hours. After the last addition of the polymerization initiator, the reaction mass is held at 75 C. for 2 hours, and the temperature is then raised to 100 C. and held at that temperature for about k hour. The charge is then diluted with 2,000 parts by weight of molten paraffix wax, to give a wax:- copolymer ratio of 3:1. All parts herein are by weight.

Into 100 parts by weight of the above-wax-copolymer composition, melted by heating to between 65 and 70 C., 4 parts by weight of glacial acetic acid are stirred. The wax-copolymer mass is then slowly added to 294 parts by weight of water kept under vigorous agitation with a high shear mixer, and maintained at 65 to 70 C. Agitation is then continued for a sufficient time to complete the emulsification. The resulting product is then cooled to room temperature. The product has a molecular weight of between about 20,000 and 80,000 and a viscosity of about 16 centipoises at 80 F. (Brookfield).

12 percent by volume of the above emulsion was mixed with 67.5 percent by volume of p,pmethylenedianiline, 0.5 percent by volume Teflon P- TFE having a molecular weight of about 1,500,000, and 20 percent by volume lanolin. The mixture was thoroughly agitated at room temperature and pressure until a homogeneous, grease-like cream was produced.

The products of each of the above examples were applied to a hank of nylon fiber, by brushing them onto the fibers and then each hank was cured and curled at a temperature of 150 F. The resulting hanks were then cut into short and long" wefts. Individual long wefts were stitched to individual long wefts to form weft units. A series of such weft units were stitched, in close parallelism, to a woven backer sheet to form a fur pelt.

The invention claimed is:

l. A synthetic fur product comprising a backer sheet, a first layer of synthetic fibrous material attached to said backer sheet, and a second layer of synthetic fibrous material attached to said first layer, at least said second layer comprising a series of curled fiber wefts arranged in generally parallel relationship, the fibers of each layer being coated with a treating composition which has been cured in situ, said treating composition comprising a hardening and adhesive agent in aqueous media, the hardening and adhesive agent being in a concentration of about 10-80 percent by volume, and being selected from the group consisting of (l) p,p'- methylenedianiline; (2) a copolymer obtained by polymerizing a mixture of (a) about 0.5-25 percent by weight of itaconic acid, (b) 3-4 percent by weight of at least one polymerizable compound selected from the group consisting of acrylonitrile, alkyl esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids having from 1 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl group, phenyl methacrylate, cyclohexyl methacrylate, p-cyclohexyl phenyl methacrylate, methacrylonitrile, methyl vinyl ketone and vinyl chloride, and (c) 35-965 percent by weight of vinylidene chloride, the proportions being selected to total percent; (3) water-insoluble copolymers obtained by the emulsion copolymerization of about 0.5-6 percent by weight of either N-methylolacrylamide, N-methylolmethacrylamide, or mixtures thereof with about 0.5-25 percent by weight of either acrylamide or methacrylamide, and having a molecular weight of 100,000 to 10,000,000; (4) copolymers of acrylonitrile and styrene; (5) a solution of a water-soluble, oxidizing resin containing about 50 percent by weight solids, having a viscosity of SX (Gardner Holdt at 25 C.) and a pH of between 6.9 and 7.3 at 25 C. and (6) vinyl chloride polymer latexes.

2. The product of claim 1 and including a flameretardant' agent, said fire-retardant agent being present in a proportion of about 1-25 percent by volume and being selected from the group consisting of sodium bicarbonate, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate, hexabromobenzene, and hexabromobiphenyl.

3. The product of claim 1 and including a softening agent, said softening agent being present in a proportion of about 0.1-0.5 percent by volume and being selected from the group consisting of N-methylol stearamide, a complex of aluminum and a higher alkyl acid having from 13 to 17 carbon atoms, and polymers of said complex.

4. The product of claim 1 and including a softening agent, said softening agent being present in a proportion of about 0.10.5 percent by volume and being selected from the group consisting of N-methylol stearamide, a complex of aluminum and a higher alkyl acid having from 13 to 17 carbon atoms, and polymers of said complex.

5. The product of claim 1 and including about l-50 percent by volume of a wax-polymer emulsion wherein the ratio of wax to polymer is about 3:1, the polymer being a copolymer which consists of (1) about 15-90 percent by weight of an amino group containing comonomer having the structure:

ll R2 0 R:

where R, and R are selected from the group consisting of lower alkyl and cycloalkyl that include R and R and R is selected from the group consisting of H and CH and (2) 10-85 percent by weight of a comonomer having the structure:

where X is a member of the group selected from H and CH and Y is a member selected from the polar group consisting of nitrile, aliphatic acyloxy having from l-18 carbon atoms and alkoxycarbonyl having from 118 carbon atoms, said copolymer having an intrinisic viscosity in benzene at 30 C. of from 004-05.

6. The product of claim 1 and including about 01-10 percent by volume of a polytetrafluoroethylene having a molecular weight of between about 1,000,000 to 10.000,000 and a viscosity greater than 10 poises at 380 C. also utilizable is a vinylidene fluoride resin having a molecular weight of between about 300,000 and 600,000 and having the structure:

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4065334 *Dec 30, 1975Dec 27, 1977Clifton ClayFur and hides in the fine arts
US4770927 *May 15, 1986Sep 13, 1988Chemical Fabrics CorporationReinforced fluoropolymer composite
US5049429 *Aug 31, 1989Sep 17, 1991Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.Fur-like pile fabric having conical shaped piles comprising guard hair-like fibers and down hair-like fibers
US5249323 *Jul 14, 1992Oct 5, 1993Asami CorporationMethod of fabric-to-fabric bonding and seamless quilt formed thereby
EP0048609A1 *Sep 21, 1981Mar 31, 1982Toray Industries, Inc.An artificial fur and a method for manufacturing the same
WO1997034135A1 *Sep 23, 1996Sep 18, 1997Hansche Betty R & EfMethod of leak detection in a heat exchanger combustion chamber
WO2000044969A1 *Jan 15, 1999Aug 3, 2000Paeivi PorrassalmiArtificial fur and method for its manufacture
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/96, 156/93, 428/921, 428/298.4, 428/422, 428/89, 156/72
International ClassificationD04H11/00
Cooperative ClassificationY10S428/921, D04H11/00, D10B2501/044
European ClassificationD04H11/00