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Publication numberUS3755249 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 28, 1973
Filing dateNov 29, 1971
Priority dateNov 27, 1970
Also published asDE2158552A1
Publication numberUS 3755249 A, US 3755249A, US-A-3755249, US3755249 A, US3755249A
InventorsAshida T, Fujita Y, Hashimoto E, Moriyama K
Original AssigneeTeijin Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Permanently antistatic and melt-spinnable polyamide compositions
US 3755249 A
Abstract
Polyamide compositions having excellent melt-spinnability and durable antistatic property, while fully retaining the favorable properties inherent in polyamides, which comprises a polyamide containing as an antistatic agent one which comprises (A) a polyalkylene oxide-added secondary alkylamine and (B) a polyalkylene oxide-added tertiary alkylamine, the secondary alkylamine (A) occupying 5 - 50 percent by weight based on the sum weight the above compounds (A) and (B), and the antistatic agent being incorporated in an amount of 1 - 15 percent by weight based on the weight of the polyamide.
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United States Patent [191 Fujita et a].

[ Aug. 28, 1973 PERMANENTLY ANTISTATIC AND MELT-SPINNABLE POLYAMIDE COMPOSITIONS [75] Inventors: Yutaka Fujita; Takao Ashida;

Keiichi Moriyama; Eiichi Hashimoto, all of Iwakuni, Japan [73] Assignee: Teijin Limited, Osaka, Japan [22] Filed: Nov. 29, 1971 [21] Appl. No.: 203,030

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Nov. 27, 1970 Japan 45/104615 June 2, 1971 Japan 46/38467 June 4, 1971 Japan 46/39207 June 16, 1971 Japan 46/43175 [52] US. Cl.260/45.75 R, 260/32.6 N, 260/45.75 N, 260/45.75 K, 260/45.95 H, 260/78 S [51] Int. Cl C08g 51/58, CO8g 51/00 [58] Field of Search 260/32.6 N, 78 S, 260/45.75 N, 45.75 K, 45.95, D16, 15, DIG.

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 5/1967 Louis 260/32.6 4/1972 Crovatt et al 7/1971 Barie ct a1. 260/78 3,654,223 4/1972 Thompson 260/45.95 3,163,492 l2/1964 Thomas 260/45.75 3,573,244 3/1971 Wilken et a1. 8/172 3,189,575 6/1965 Horn 260/45.75

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 347,979 9/1960 Switzerland OTHER PUBLICATIONS Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 55, No.

16008(a) of Swiss Patent 347,979.

16007(i) and Primary Examiner-Donald E. Czaja Assistant Examiner-V. P. Hoke Attorney-Leonard W. Sherman, Edwin A. Shalloway et al.

[57] ABSTRACT 10 Claims, No Drawings PERMANENTLY ANTISTATIC AND MELT-SPINNABLE POLYAMIDE COMPOSITIONS This invention relates to polyamide compositions which show excellent melt spinnability and durable antistatic property, while fully retaining the favorable properties inherent in polyamides, e. g., high mechanical properties and dye affinity, etc. The excellent melt spinnability of the polyamide compositions of the invention is exhibited by evenness of melt-spun filaments, stable and smooth feeding of the molten polyamide compositions, good spinning conditions because of reduced adhesion of the molten polyamide composition to the surfaces around the exits of nozzle orifices, and reduced mutual adhesion among the as-spun filaments.

More particularly, the invention relates to the fiberforming polyamide compositions containing an antistatic agent, which is characterized in that the antistatic agent is composed of:

A. A polyalkylene oxide-added secondary alkylamine of the formula,

in which R stands for a hydrogen atom or methyl radical, n stands for a positive integer of not less than 10, and p stands for a positive integer, preferably a positive integer not less than 10, The mol number of added polyalkylene oxide groups equalling the p, and B. A polyalkylene oxide-added tertiary alkylarnine of the formula,

(CHgCHRO) H n ZnH (CH CHROLH in which R and n have the same definitions as given above, and q and r are each a positive integer, preferably (q r) is a positive integer not less than 15, the mol number of the added polyalkylene oxide groups equalling (q r), i. the above positive integers, n, P, q, and r satisfying the relationship below;

2.5, preferably 2.0 (p-l-q+r)/2n 0.5, preferably 0.8, i.e., (p+q+r)/2n is between 0.5 and 2.5 and ii. the secondary alkylamine of (A) above occupying 5 50 percent by weight, preferably 35 percent by weight, of the total of (A) plus (B), and the total of (A) (B) occupying 1 15 percent by weight, preferably 1.5 7 percent by weight, of the polyamide.

It is known that the photo-stabilizing effect of 2-(2'-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl) benzotriazole for synthetic resin products can be further promoted by the concurrent use with the above benzotriazole derivative of at least one antistatic agent of the formula,

where in, R represents aklyl radicals of 6 to 22 carbons, R" represents a hydrogen atom or methyl radical, m represents a positive integer of l 6, and n is 0 or 1, such as proposed in French Patent No. 1,581,994 which was published on Sept. 19, 1969.

The specified French patent disclosed, as the exemplary synthetic resins of which the photo-stability could be so conspicuously improved by the incorporation of the benzotriazole derivative and the specified antistatic agent, polyesters, polyolefins, and vinyl or vinylidene type polymers, and in its Examples, polystyrene was used to illustrate the effect of such incorporation. However, absolutely no disclosure was made as to the similar incorporation to polyamide resins. Again the compounds of the formula, R'CON[CH CHR"O),,,H],,' H are different from any of the compounds (A) and (B) employed in this invention. Furthermore, they have the action to depolymerize polyamides, and therefore can never be used to achieve the objects of the present invention. Again the scope of the compounds expressed by the formula, RN[CH CHR"O),,,H],; H of the named prior art could overlap with the scope of the compounds (A) and (B) of this invention. However, the only two specific compounds within the above formula disclosed in the prior art, which are also within the scope of the compounds (B), are N- octyldiethanolamine and N-dodecyldiethanolamine. Thus the prior art is entirely silent as to compounds (A), or the concurrent use of compounds (A) and (B).

Still another prior art (Belgian Patent No. 741,324 published on Apr. 16, l970) proposed to incorporate with a polyamide the compound (a) of the formula RIM-N in which R' stands for an alkyl or aralkyl of 4 to 25 carbons, and (x y) in the first formula and (x y z) in the second formula are 10, g and a sterically hindered phenol (b), for prevention of decoloration of polyamide fibers, especially Nylon 6 and 66 fibers, colored with anthraquinone dyes.

In the above prior art, the compounds expressed by the latter formula are entirely different from either of the compounds (A) and (B) employed in this invention, while the compounds of the former formula somewhat overlap with the scope of compounds (B). However, the prior art neither discloses nor even remotely suggests the utility of compounds (A), or the concurrent use of compounds (A) and (B).

There is also another prior art (U. S. Patent No. 3,541,041, patented on Nov. 17, 1970) which teaches the utilization of compounds represented by the formula,

in which R, stands for a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic radical having at least l2 carbon atoms,

R stands for an alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, or aralkyl radical,

R and R each stand for a hydrogen atom or alkyl radical, and

x, y and 2 each represent a whole number from 1 to 100, as the mold parting or releasing agent for polyamide molding compositions.

In the above proposal, the compounds of the first formula are entirely different from either of the compounds (A) and (B) employed in this invention. However, the compounds of the second formula could in some part overlap with the scope of the compound (B) of this invention. The prior art, however, again neither discloses nor suggests the utilization of compound (A) or the concurrent use of compounds (A) and (B).

We have been engaging in research work on the static charge-preventing effect of polyalkylene oxideadded alkylamines for polyamide, and discovered that the incorporation of the already specified compounds (A) and (B) in polyamide compositions under the conditions satisfying the specific requirements of this invention, can provide polyamide compositions which exhibit durable antistatic property and excellent melt-spinnability while fully retaining the favorable properties inherent in polyamide resins, such as good mechanical properties and high dye affinity, etc. We further discovered that the incorporation of either one of the compounds (A) and (B) or their concurrent incorporation under the conditions outside the scope of this invention can not provide such polyamide compositions having a durable antistatic property while exhibiting practical melt-spinnability.

Accordingly, the object of the present invention is to provide polyamide compositions which exhibit durable antistatic property and excellent melt-spinnability, without sacrificing the favorable properties inherent in polyamides, such as good mechanical properties, high dye affinity, etc.

Still many other objects and advantages of the invention will become more apparent from the following description.

In the specification and claims, the term, polyamide compositions" is used in the sense including the starting compositions for melt-spinning such as powder, granule, pellet, etc., as well as the filamentary products prepared from such compositions through meltspinning, such as filaments, staples, fibers, yarns, tows, slivers, etc., and fibrous structures made of such filamentary products, e. g., knitted fabrics, woven fabrics, non-woven fabrics, webs, mats, carpets, etc.

In the invention, the most preferred polyamides are polycaproamide and polyhexamethylene adipamide. Next come polyethanthoamide, polyundecanamide, polydodecamide, polyhexamethylene azelaniide, polyhexamethylene sebacamide, polyhexamethylene dodecamide, and polyxyleylene adipamide. Also preferred to a lesser degree are blend polyamides composed of two or more polyamides mentioned above, and blends of not less than 70 percent by weight of such polyamides or blend polyamides with other polymers such as polystyrene, polyethylene or polyesters com- 6 posed mainly of polyethylene terephthalate. Furthermore, copolymers containing the recurring structural units forming the foregoing polyamides as the recurring units of main molecular chains, such as copoly(caproamide-hexamethylene adipamide), copoly(caproamidehexamethylene terephthalamide), copoly(caproamidehexamethylene isophthalamide), copoly(caproamidexylylene adipamide), copoly(hexamethylene adipamide-terephthalamide), copoly(hexamethylene adipamide-sebacamide), or copoly(caproamide-hexamidehexamethylene adipamide-hexamethylene terephthalamide may also be used. It is again permissible that the polyamides are those prepared by polymerization under the addition of amines or carboxylic acids for stabilizing the melt viscosity.

The concurrent utilization of the two types of polyalkylene oxide-added alkylamines (A) and (B) as belowspecified is essential for the polyamide compositions of this invention. As demonstrated in the later-given Controls and Comparative Examples, omission of either one of the compounds or use of different combinations can never achieve the objects of this invention:

A. Polyalkylene oxide-added secondary alkylamine of the formula,

in which R is a hydrogen atom or methyl radical,

preferably hydrogen,

n is a positive integer not less than 10, preferably [0 30, and

p is a positive integer, preferably a positive integer not less than 10, more preferably 10-45,

the mol number of added polyalkylene oxide equalling p; and

B. polyalkylene oxide-added tertiary alkylamine of the formula,

in which R and n have the same definitions as those already given for compound (A), and q and r are each a positive integer, preferably (q r) is a positive integer of not less than 15, more preferably 15 50, the mo] number of added polyalkylene oxide equalling (q r).

In the present invention, it is again essential that the concurrent use of the compounds (A) and (B) is effected under the conditions satisfying the following requirements (i), (ii) and (iii), i. e.,

i. That in compounds (A) and (B), n, p, q, and r must satisfy the relationship below: 2.5, preferably 2.0 (p+q+r)/2n 0.5, preferably 0.8, ,i.e. (p-l-q-l-r)/2n is between 0.5 and 2.5

ii. That the secondary alkylamine (A) occupies 5 50 percent by weight, preferably 15 35 percent by weight, of the total weight of compounds (A) and (B), and preferably iii. That p, q and r must satisfy the following relationships:

p is between 10 and 45, and

(q+r) is between 15 and 50 Furthermore, it is necessary for the invention that the sum-weight of compounds (A) and (B) corresponds to l 15 percent, preferably 1.5 7 percent, of the weight of the polyamide.

If the carbon number of alkyl group in the polyalkylene oxide-added alkylamines (A) and (B), i. e., n, is less than 10, even if the above conditions (i) and (ii) and the required total content of (A) and (B) to the polyamide are all satisfied, the resulting polyamide compositions exhibit unsatisfactory durability in their antistatic property.

If the above condition (i) is not met, e. g., if (p q r)/2n is less than 0.5, excessively large amounts of (A) and (B) must be incorporated in the polyamide to impart the desired practical degree of antistatic property, at the cost of favorable physical properties of the polyamide. Also a tendency appears that the spinning operability is progressively impaired due to the molten polyamide composition adhering to, and consequently contaminating, the surfaces around the exits of nozzle orifices. In extreme cases, an appreciable amount of filaments break during the spinning, shortly after the melt-spinning operation is started.

If (p q r)/2n is greater than 2.5 in the polyamide compositions an increase in the rotation rate of the extrusion screw of the melt-spinning machinewill not result in the corresponding increase in the discharge rate of the malt. Thus stable and smooth feeding of the molten polyamide compositions to the nozzle head becomes impossible. Also the drawability of the molten polyamide composition as spun through the nozzle orifices is impaired, and evennness of nelt-spun filaments is damaged, more or less reducing the commercial value of the product. In extreme cases, the filaments have no practical value.

When the polyamide compositions fail to meet the foregoing requirement (ii), i. e., the secondary alkylamine (A) incorporated is less than 5 percent by weight based on the total weight of (A) plus (B), a unique phenomenon occurs that the extruded mass of molten polyamide composition in the vincinity of exit of spinning nozzle vibrates with short periods (irregular meltfracture phenomenon) during the melt-spinning, even if all other requirements are met. Such phenomenon hinders satisfactory spinning operation, and evenness of melt-spun filaments is reduced. If the secondary alkylamine (A) of more than 50 percent by weight of (A) plus (B) is incorporated in the polyamide, the as-spun filaments tend to mutually adhere to interfere with satisfactory spinning operation, even if all other requirements are fully met.

The objects of the invention can not be accomplished if the sum weight of (A) plus (B) incorporated to polyamide is outside the specified range of this invention, even if all other requirements are satisfied. That is, if the sum weight is less than 1 percent based on the weight of the polyamide, a practical degree of static charge-preventing effect cannot be obtained. Also, if it is greater than percent, the melt-spinnability of the polyamide composition is impaired, without the corresponding increase in the static charge-preventing effeet.

The above described requirements specified by the invention are the necessary combination of conditions for providing polyamide compositions having a durable antistatic property and excellent melt-spinnability, while fully retaining the inherent, favorable properties of polyamides, e. g., good mechanical properties, high adaptability to dyes, etc. Deviation from any one of the requirements, therefore, is fatal to the intended effects of this invention.

In the specified polyalkylene oxide-added secondary and tertiary alkylamines (A) and (B), the alkyl radical expressed as C,,H may be, for example, lauryl, cetyl, stearyl and behenyl. Also as the polyalkylene oxide unit in the compounds, (A) and (B), which is expressed as (CI-I CI-IRO), a polyethylene oxide unit, polypropylene oxide unit, and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymer unit in which ethylene oxide and propylene oxide are randomlyor block-copolymerized, may be named as specific examples.

The mixture of compounds (A) and (B) to be incorporated with the polyamide compositions of the invention may be formed by blending the two at such quantitative ratios as will satisfy the aforesaid requirement (ii). Or, by suitably selecting the reaction conditions for making those compounds, a satisfactory mixture can be formed as the product of single stage reaction. For instance, a satisfactory blend of (A) and (B) can be obtained by suitably selecting the reaction conditions of ring-opening addition polymerization of an alkylene oxide, e. g., ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide, to an alkylamine of not less than 10 carbon atoms. More specifically, for example, the intended mixture of compounds (A) and (B) can be obtained by reacting an alkylamine of not less than 10 carbon atoms with ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide in the presence of an alkali catalyst such as potassium hydroxide at a temperature of C. under an elevated pressure.

The incorporation of compounds (A) and (B) in the polyamide in accordance with this invention can be effected at only optional stage before extrusion of the molten polyamide to form, for example, pellets, filaments, etc.

For Example, the compounds (A) and (B) can be added at an optional stage of preparation of the fiberforrning polyamide inclusive of the polymerization step, e. g., to the monomer before the polymerization, at the initiation, midst, and at the last stage, of the polymerization. Or, they may be added to the molten polyamide after the polymerization but before the meltextrusion (extrusion through nozzle), or they may be mixed with the polyamide as solvent solutions.

The polyamide compositions according to the present invention show no substantial deterioration in the favorable mechanical properties and dye affinity inherently possessed by the starting polyamide, and furthermore no degradation in melt-spinnability which is apt to occur with addition of known antistatic agents. On the contrary, the compositions generally exhibit even better melt-spinnability compared with those of the starting polyamide, and still in addition, a satisfactory degree of durable antistatic property.

Thus the various drawbacks caused by electrification of polyamide filaments, for example, poor processibility of the filaments due to their entangling or separating tendency during knitting or weaving procedures, easy soiling with dust of cloths, carpets, etc., causing corona discharge, twining of the cloths around the wearers bodies, etc., can be eliminated. Furthermore, the antistatic property is not impaired by washings, but is substantially permanent.

Obviously, the polyamide compositions of the invention may further contain one or more of the conventionally employed additives for polyamides, such as coloring agents, e. g., dyes and pigments; delusterants such as titanium oxide; whitening agents, dyeabilityimproving assistants; light resistance agents, anti-flaming agents; etc.

Several examples of preferred additives for the polyamide in addition to the compounds (A) and (B) to form the polyamide compositions of still improved whiteness, dye affinity and light resistance will be hereinafter explained.

As such additives, nickel carboxylates may be named, which are suitably added within the quantitative range of 2 to 500 ppm based on the total sum of the polyamide, the secondary alkylarnine (A), and the tertiary alkylarnine (B). If desired, a greater amount can be used, but such is normally unnecessary. Incidentally, the above unit, ppm, refers to the nickel concentration in the salt, not the concentration of salt itself. The salt or salts may be added at any optional stage before melt-extrusion of the polyamide compositions, similarly to compounds (A) and (B), and may be added together with, or separately from, compounds (A) and (B).

As such nickel carboxylates, nickel salts of saturated or unsaturated aliphatic monoor di-carboxylic acids, nickel salts of alicyclic monocarboxylic acids, nickel salts of aromatic carboxylic acids and nickel salts of oxycarboxylic acids can be named. Specific examples include, for instance, nickel formate, nickel acetate, nickel laurate, nickel palmitate, nickel stearate, nickel oleate, nickel oxalate, nickel maleate, nickel naphthenate, nickel benzoate, nickel lactane and nickel citrate. Those can be used either singly or concurrently.

Among the above-named, particularly preferred nickel carboxylates are nickel acetate, nickel oxalate, nickel naphthenate and nickel benzoate.

Another example of preferred additives is chromic fluoride, which can be added in the amount preferably ranging from 0.001 0.1 percent by weight based on the sum of the polyamide, the secondary alkylarnine (A), and the tertiary alkylarnine (B). Excessive addition of chromic fluoride should be avoided because such may cause deterioration of whiteness. The suitable addition time described as to the nickel carboxylates equally applies to that of chromic fluoride.

As still other examples of preferred additives the concurrent use of the following (I) and (2) may be mentioned:

1. Phenolic anti-oxidation stabilizer with its. phenolic OH linked at its ortho'position with at least one tertiary butyl radical, which has the boiling point (at one atmospheric gauge) not lower than 250C., and

organotin compound )2- n-( )21 in which X and Z each is a member of the group consisting of alkyl, preferably alkyl radicals of l to 25 carbons; cycloalkyl, preferably cyclo-hexyl; aryl, preferably phenyl; and aralkyl, preferably benzyl; and X and Z may be the same or different.

The phenolic anti-oxidation stabilizer is preferably added in the amount ranging from 0.01 to 3 percent by weight based on the sum of the polyamide, the secondary alkylarnine (A) and the tertiary alkylamine (B). The preferred amount of the organotin compound to be added concurrently ranges from 0.05 to 1 percent by weight on the same basis.

Specific examples of the phenolic anti-oxidation stabilizer include 4 methyl-2,6-di-tertiary butylphenol, 2,4-dimethyl-6-tertiary butylphenol, 2,6-di-tertiary reinforcing 2. of the formula,

8 butyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol, octadecyl-fi-(3,5-ditertiary butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate, B-(3,5-ditertiary butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid amide, bis-(b 5-methyl-3-tertiary butyl-Z-hydroxyphenyl) methane, l 1 -bis( 2-methyl-5-tertiary butyl-4- hydroxyphenyl) butane, bis-(2-isopropyl-S-tertiary butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) methane, bis-(2-methyl-5- tertiary butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfide, l,l,3-tris(2- methyl-S-tertiary butyl-4-hydroxphenyl) butane, etc.

Addition of phenolic compounds having the boiling point below 250C. should be avoided, even if their phenolic OH groups are linked with a tertiary butyl radical or radicals at its ortho-position, because such compounds will evaporate off from the polyamide composition during the latters melt-spinning, and contaminate the vicinity around the spinning nozzle.

Also the specific examples of useful organotin compound include dimethyltin dilaurate, dimethyltin distearate, di-n-butyltin dilaurate, di-n-butyltin distearate, di-n-butyltin dibehenate, di-n-butyltin dinaphthate, din-butyltin dibenzoate, di-n-butyltin bis(phenylacetate), di-n-butyltin bis(B-phenylpropionate), di-n-octyltin dicaproate, di-n-octyltin dilaurate, di-n-octyltin distearate, di-n-octyltin dinaphthenate, di-n-octyltin dibenzoate, dicychohexyltin dilaurate, dicyclohexyltin disterarate, diphenyltin dilaurate, diphenyltin dibenzoate, dibenzyltin dilaurate, dibenzyltin distearate, and dibenzyltin dibenzoate, etc.

More than one of those stabilizers and organotin compounds may be used concurrently, and the suitable time of their incoporation in the polyamide is the same as that of the already described nickel carboxylates.

The norms of evaluating melt spinnability in this invention are evenness of melt-spun filaments (evenness); stable and smooth feeding of molten polyamide composition (feed-suitability); degree of deterioration in spinnability due to the adhesion and contamination of the molten polyamide composition leaving the nozzle orifices onto the surfaces around the orifice exits (cap-soiling property); and the degree of mutual adhesion among as-spun filaments (filament adherability).

The test methods and evaluation methods of the melt-spinnability and antistatic property of the polyamide compositions employed in this invention will be explained below. In the later given Examples, Conrols, and Comparative Examples, the compositions evenness, feed-suitability, cap-soiling property, filaments adherability and antistatic property were tested and evaluated according to the below-described methods. I. Melt-spinnability The following tests (a) to (d) are performed using a well-known extruder type melt-spinning apparatus in which an extruder having a screw diameter of 45 mm is connected to a gear pump having a volume of 0.675 cc/revolution through a throat portion, and filter parts are provided between the outlet of the gear pump and the spinneret.

Specification of the spinneret:

Number of holes l2 Hole diameter 0.4 mm Land length at the 0.2 mm

nonle portion The standards for the practice of spinning using the above-mentioned type spinning apparatus will be shown below as to the case of spinning a polyamide 9 composition consisting mainly of polycaproamide having an [1;] of 0.95 to 1.35.

Amount of extrusion at the gear pump Throat pressure (pressure exerted on the throat portion) Speed of rotation of the screw 12.1 glmin.

100 Kg/cm constant Spinning velocity Finishing oil Pick-up of the finishing oil Quenching conditions Spinning temperature (temperature of the polymer at the spinneret) the spinneret) (a) Evenness U% values which are parameters for yarn evenness are measured using USTER as to undrawn filaments of a polyamide composition melt-spun under the above-mentioned spinning conditions. U% values are evaluated according to the following grades.

U% l .0 or less Grades A(continuous drawing is possible for a time sufficient for practical purposes.)

More than 1.0 and up to 2.5 B (because of yarn breakage, a

continuous drawing operation must be interrupted frequently; not suitable for practical purposes) continuous drawing is impossible;

not practical) more than 2.5

USTER is a tradename of an apparatus for measuring yarn evenness produced by Zellweger Ltd., Switzerland, and is world famous. The USTER used consists of a false twister, a tester, a recorder, and an integrator which operate in the following manners.

Twister: Twists are applied continuously to the sample multifilaments.

Tester: It has electrodes, and continuously measures the variations in cross sectional area of the'sample multifilaments when the filaments are fed continuously between the electrodes, and converts them to variations in voltage.

Recorder: It records on paper the continuous variations in voltage indicated by the tester.

Integrator: it automatically indicates the mean deviation U percent expressed by the following equation.

Xi-Km X Xi: instantaneous value of the cross-section of the sample multi-filament. L length of the sample multi-filament over which the U% values are determined dl: differential of the length b. Feed-suitability The number of rotation of the screw necessary for extruding a molten polyamide composition of an amount sufficient for maintaining the throat pressure at Kglcm G. constant at the end of 24 hours after initiation of the melt-spinning described above is measured using the sample polyamide composition. The number of rotation is evaluated according to the following grades.

Number of screw rotation 60 r.p.m. or less Grades A (practical continuous spinning possible for long periods of time) B (practical continuous spinning hardly possible) exceeding 60 r.p.m. but

less than r.p.m.

120 r.p.m. or more C (practical continuous spinning impossible) Continuously spinnable period (hrs) Not lem than 24 Grade (evaluation) A (practical continuous spinning possible) B (practically imoperable unless the continuous spinning is occasionally interrupted) C (practical continuous spinning operation impossible) l2 les than 24 No longer than 12 d. Cohesion of filaments Determined how many filaments and/or multifilaments the sample multifilament (l2 filaments) are divided into. Evaluation is made according to the measured values.

Twenty five samples, undrawn multifilaments, are gathered and set with paraffin. The bundle is then cut with a microtome, and the cut sections are observed by an optical microscope (200 magnifications). Measurement is made as to how many single filaments or coagulated multifilaments the 25 multifilaments (300 filaments) are divided into. l/25 of the number of these independent filaments or independent multifilaments will be called the number of divided filaments. The number of divided filaments is evaluated according to the following grades.

Number of divided filaments Grades 8 or more A (releasin of the undrawn 3 or less ll. Antistatic property:

The drawn filaments obtained through the meltspinning and drawing of each sample polyamide composition incorporated with antistatic agent are washed for 30 minutes with an aqueous solution of 60C. which contains 2 g/l of Scoreroll 400 (tradename for polyethyleneoxide dialkylether: a non-ionic surface active agent produced by Kao Soap Co., Ltd.) and 1 g/l of sodium carbonate, thoroughly rinsed with water, and dried at 80C. Thus washed filaments are classified as one-washing samples, and those so washed times repeatedly as ten-washing samples. The specific resistance (Q) of each sample is measured at 20C. and 65 RH.

The measured values as to the land lO-washing samples are given concurrently with the results of similar measurements as to the polyamide containing no antistatic agent, as the means to evaluate the antistatic property and its durability.

lll. Fiber Properties 1. Tenacity and Elongation JlS L-l070 and L-l073. Using the sample multifilament having a length of 20 cm, the test is performed using a constant speed constant length type tester at a stretch speed of 100 percent stretch] min. 2. Youngs modulus JlS L-l073. Using the sample multitlament having a length of 20 cm, the test is performed using a constant speed constant length type tester at a stretch speed of 20 percent stretch/min. 3. Dye absorption This is the percent by weight of a dye, Supranol Cyanine G (acid dye, product of Farbenfabriken Bayer AG), absorbed by drawn filaments of a polyamide composition based on the amount of the dye initially used. The sample polyamide compositions having larger dye absorption are better in dyeability.

The amount of dye absorbed by the dyed drawn filaments can be calculated by measuring the optical density of a meta-cresol solution of the dyed drawn filaments at 620 mp.

The dyeing is performed after subjecting the drawn filament of the polyamide composition sample to the same washing as conducted for measurement of the specific resistance (ohm), dried, and weighed. The dyeing conditions are as follows:

Temperature: C. i 0.5C.

Time: 210 hours Goods-to-liquor ratio: 3: 1000 Dye aqueous solution: Supronal Cyanine G is dissolved in distilled water to a concentration of 10 by weight, and with the addition of a Michaelis type buffer solution, the pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted to 5.

incidentally, the intrinsic viscosities {1;} of polyamides given in this specification are invariably measured in meta-cresol solution at 35C. Also in the following Examples and Controls, percents and parts are by weight, unless otherwise specified.

Example 1 Three (3.0) parts of a polyethylene oxide-added stearylamine mixture composed of 27 percent of the secondary amine (A) and 73 percent of the tertiary amine (B) (p+q+r= 40; p+q+2/2n=l.l) were uniformly adhered onto the surfaces of Nylon-6 chips parts by weight) having an [1 of 1.02. Then, the amineadhered chips were introduced into an extruder having a screw diameter of 50 mm and melt-blended at a temperature of 260C. (average passing time: l min.), and extruded into water in ribbon form. The ribbons were cooled, cut, and dried to provide a polyamide composition as chips.

The undrawn filaments obtained through meltspinning of the above composition were drawn by means of a titanium pin, to ultimately provide a drawn fiber-formed polyamide composition of 39.0 deniers in size, composed of i2 filaments The melt-spinnability of the composition, antistatic property as well as durability thereof, and fiber properties of the drawn fiber, were as given in Table 1 below.

in Tahoe 1, similar properties of the starting polyamide and drawn fiber prepared therefrom, without the incorporation of specified compounds (A) and (B) (Control), and those of the polyamide compositions incorporated with antistatic agents outside the combination (A) and (B) of this invention (Comparative Examples), are concurrently given. in the Comparative Examples, 100 parts by weight of the polyamide compositions containing 3.0 parts by weight of the antistatic agents were similarly melted and formed into chips preceding the mclt-spinning operation.

Example 11 in this Example, an antistatic agent was added to e-caprolactam, which was then polymerized, and posttreated.

An autoclave equipped with a stirrer was charged with 100 parts by weight of e-caprolactum, 3.0 parts by weight of the same polyethylene oxide-added stearylamine as used in Examples 6 and 7, and 2.0 parts by weight of water, and the polymerization was performed by a customary method. The polymer obtained was made into chips, and extracted with a great quantity of ion-exchanged water for 12 hours to extract and remove from the polymer 10.8 percent by weight of an insoluble component consisting mainly of unreacted e-caprolactam. The chips having an [1;] of 1.03 after extraction were dried, and then the amount of the antistatic agent contained in the polymer chips was measured using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. It was found that 3.1 parts by weight of the antistatic agent was contained per 100 parts by weight of polycaproamide. Specifically, the amount of the antistatic agent contained in the polyamide composition of the present invention was determined by measuring the ratio of protons bonded to the carbon atom adjacent to the nitrogen atom of the amide group of the polycaproamide to proton bonded to the carbon atom adjacent to the oxygen atom of polyethylene oxide-added stearylamine.

The spinnability and fiber properties of th chips were determined in the same manner as set forth in Example 1. The results are given below.

Spinnability a. Grade A (U%)=().60) b. Grade A (number of screw rotation after 24 hours,

35 r.p.m.)

c. GradeA (continuous spinning possible for 39 hours) d. Grade A (number of divided filaments,

Fiber properties: Tenacity 5.88 g/de, elongation 50.2%, Youngs modulus 250 Kg/mm dye absorption 5.9% Antistatic properties After one washing 1.8 X 10" ohms After ten washings 2.0 X 10 ohms Example 12 to 19 In each of these Examples, hexamethylene diammonium adipate was polymerized by a customary method using an autoclave equipped with a stirrer, and polyalkylene oxide-added polyalkylamine or such amine and other additives were added at various stages.

5 The polymerization of hexamethylene diammonium adipate in accordance with the customary method is for instance as follows: Hexamethylene diammonium adipate was heated with stirring at 240C. for 2.0 hours under steam pressure. Then, in two hours, the heating l0 temperature was raised from 240C. to 280C, and also the pressure inside the autoclave was released to 1.2 Kg/cm g. Hexamethylene diammonium adipate was further heated and stirred for 1.5 hours at this temperature and steam pressure. The product was extruded in a ribbon form into water to make chips.

The antistatic agent and/or other additives were incorporated at the following stages.

L: Incorporated into hexamethylene diammonium adipate before the initiation of polymerization.

20 M: Incorporated immediately after reducing the inner pressure of the autoclave to 1.2 Kglcm G.

N: Heating under stirring was initiated at a steam pressure of 1.2 Kglcm G, and the antistatic agent and/or other additives were added after a lapse of 1.0 hour. (further 0.5 hour heating and stirring required until the completion of the polymerization). The polyamide composition was spun under quite the same conditions as shown in Example 1 except that the spinning temperature was 285C. U%, the number of rotation of screw after 2 hours from the intitiation of spinning, the time during which continuous spinning was possible, and the number of divided filaments which are the measures for melt-spinnability will be given later. These values can be evaluated in accordance with the grades provided with respect to polycaproamide.

The antistatic agents or other additives used, and the time at which these agents were incorporated are shown in Table 3. The properties of the drawn filaments of the sample polyamide compositions are given in Table 3'.

Tables 3 and 3 also give the results obtained with polyhexamethylene adipamide not containing the antistatic agent or other additives.

TABLE 3 Antistatic agent Other additives Amount f [A 1+[B1 mcor- Time of Amo m (ii) [A] porated addition 10 poly- Tirnn r Content polyamide of antiamide addition Run (\vt. 't. static plus f No. Compound [A] Compound [13] (i) (p+q+r)/2n percent) percent) 1 agent Type (AH-[B] dditi Ex; 12"... POE-added stearyl POE-added stearyl 1.2 30 4.0 L

sceondary amine tertiary amine 18 A). 0 (lo. 1.2 30 4.0 l "do .do 1.2 30 4.0 N 15 "do d0 1.2 30 4. 0 L Nickel acetate 0.01 L

tetrahydrate. 16"... POP-added stearyl POP-added stearyl 1.4 25 3.0 M Nickel naphtheuate. 0.02 L

secondary amine tertiary amine (36). 1, do do 14 3 3.0 L Chromie fluoride... 0.01 L

1.1-his(Q-methyl--t- O. 2

hutyl-i-hydroxy- 1b .do "do 1 4 25 5.0 L phenyl) butane.

l)i-nlm1 \'liiudi 0.1 L

laurate. Octadeevl-fi-(i-Sj-di- 0.3 N

ter[.l)l1t \'l-1- 10, POE-addcdlauryl POE-added lanryl 1.0 25 0.0 L hydrooxphenyl) secondary amine tertiary amine propionate. (20). (26). l)i n-0ct \'ltiu 0.1 X

diuaphrhenate. (uutrol 'llle numeral values in the pnrentheSeS show the added mol number of polyalkylene oxide, i.e. for the eomponnd [A]. p. and for compound {13]- -Au1ouuts of ([Al-Hlil) and other additives are expressed in terms 01 percentile ratios based on hexamethylene diammonium adipate used in polymerization.

wherein R and n are as defined above, and q and r are each a positive integer, and

i. n, p, q and r satisfy the relationship of the expression below:

(p-i-q+r)/2n is between 0.5 and 2.5

ii. the secondary alkylamine (A) occupies 5 50 percent by weight based on the sum weight of compounds (A) and (B), and

said antistatic agent is present in an amount of l 15 percent by weight based on the weight of the polyamide.

2. The polyamide composition of claim 1, wherein p, q and r satisfy the relationships:

p is between and 45 and (q-i-r) is between and 50 3. The polyamide composition of claim 1, wherein n, p, q, and r satisfy the relationship:

(p-l-q-i-r)/2n is between 0.8 and 2.0.

7. The compositon of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises, in addition to said secondary alkylamine (A) and said tertiary alkylamine (B), at least one nickel carboxylate in the amount of 2 500 ppm (as nickel concentration) based on the total weight of the polyamide, secondary alkylamine (A), and tertiary alkylamine (B).

8. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises, in addition to said secondary alkylamine (A) and said tertiary alkylamine (B), chromic fluoride in the amount of 0.001 0.1% by weight based on the total weight of the polyamide, secondary alkylamine (A) and teritary alkylamine (B).

9. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises, in addition to said secondary alkylamine (A) and said tertiary alkylamine (B),

1. a phenolic anti-oxidation stabilizer wherein the phenolic OH group is linked with at least one tertiary butyl radical at its ortho-position, and which has a boiling point not lower than 250C., and

2. an organotin compound of the formula,

( Sn h wherein X and Z are each a member selected from the group consisting of alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals, and X and Z may be the same or different.

10. The composition of claim 9, wherein said phenolic anti-oxidation stabilizer is incorporated within the quantitative range of 0.01 to 3 percent by weight based on the total weight of the polyamide, secondary alkylamine (A) and tertiary alkylamine (B), and the organotin compound, from 0.05 to 1 percent by weight on the same basis.

t k k

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Reference
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3819569 *Jun 28, 1973Jun 25, 1974Du PontAromatic polyamides stabilized with nickelous carbonate
US3887644 *Oct 18, 1973Jun 3, 1975Allied ChemAntistatic polyamide fiber
US3962176 *May 16, 1974Jun 8, 1976Bayer AktiengesellschaftAntistatic polyamide compositions which are stabilized against yellowing
US5116897 *Jun 27, 1990May 26, 1992Basf CorporationAntistatic composition
US5498474 *May 6, 1994Mar 12, 1996Hoechst AktiengesellschaftTertiary aliphatic hydroxyalkylamine antistatic agent; destackable
US8557170Jan 20, 2005Oct 15, 2013Rhodia OperationsProcess for the manufacture of nonwoven surfaces
CN1910220BJan 20, 2005Dec 8, 2010罗狄亚化学公司Method for production of non-woven surfaces
WO2005080471A1 *Jan 20, 2005Sep 1, 2005Rhone Poulenc ChimieMethod for production of non-woven surfaces
Classifications
U.S. Classification524/178, 524/407, 524/336, 524/351, 524/353, 524/249, 524/342, 524/330, 524/334, 524/396, 524/245, 524/343, 524/398, 524/244
International ClassificationC08L77/00
Cooperative ClassificationC08L77/00
European ClassificationC08L77/00