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Publication numberUS3755559 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 28, 1973
Filing dateAug 23, 1971
Priority dateAug 23, 1971
Publication numberUS 3755559 A, US 3755559A, US-A-3755559, US3755559 A, US3755559A
InventorsG Hewitt
Original AssigneeColgate Palmolive Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
High lathering conditioning shampoo composition
US 3755559 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 3,755,559 HIGH-LATHERING CONDITIONING SHAMPOO COMPOSITION Gordon Trent Hewitt, Upper Montclair, N.J., assignor to Colgate-Palmolive Company, New York, N.Y.

No Drawing. Continuation of abandoned application Ser. No. 816,395, Apr. 15, 1969. This application Aug. 23, 1971, Ser. No. 174,192

The portion of the term of the patent subsequent to Jan. 16, 1990 has been disclaimed Int. Cl. A61k 7/08; Clld 1 84 US. Cl. 424--70 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This disclosure relates to a stable, creamy-foam shampoo comprising a tertiary amine oxide, a higher alkyl betaine or sulphobetaine and a soap in the ratio of 2:1:1, respectively.

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of 11 to 18 carbon atoms. Soaps of dicarboxylic acids may also be used such as the soaps of dimerized linoleic acid. Soaps of such other higher molecular weight acids such as rosin or tall oil acids, e.g. abietic acid, may also be employed. Specific examples include triethanolamine myristrate, triethanolamine cocoate, potassium isostearate, potassium myristate and the like. The soap functions as an opacifier and thickener and contributes some conditioning properties to the instant composition. Since fatty acids are a natural ingredient of the skin, the usefulness of soap for cosmetic purposes as an ingredient of a shampoo is desirable.

The water-solu-ble tertiary amine oxide which constitutes the major ingredient of this composition may be represented by the general formula: R R R N O wherein R is a higher alkyl radical having from 10 to 18 carbon atoms, such as lauryl, decyl, cetyl, oleyl, stearyl, hexadecyl or an amide substituted group, such as RCONH(CH where RC0 is a long chain alkanoyl radical and n is a small whole number; R and R are each lower alkyl diminishing the natural lustre of the hair. Soap-containing shampoos in the past have had the disadvantage of dulling the hair due to the precipitation thereon of lime and magnesium soap or the like, especially in hard water which also reduces the foaming action of the shampoo. This has largely been overcome by the substitution of synthetic organic detergents for the soap. However, many synthetic detergents tend to remove the natural oils from the hair, leaving it'dy and diflicult to manage. A variety of conditioning agents have been added in an attempt to overcome the detrimental effects of natural oil loss and to improve manageability of the hair. The presence of said conditioning agents have had the disadvantage of adversely affecting the foaming action of the shampoo, whereby the foam volume and/ or foam stability were insufiicient to effect adequate cleansing of the hair. In addition, the conditioning action of aforesaid agents were in many instances inadequate and it was necessary to utilize the additional step of rinsing with a conditioning composition. a Accordngly, it is an object of the invention to provide a high-lathering shampoo with stable, creamy foam in the presence of hair soil.

Another object is to provide a shampoo which leaves the hair conditioned, i.e. lustrous, smooth and manageable. It has now been found that so ap can be combined with a tertiary amine oxide and a higher alkyl betaine or sulfobetaine in an alkaline aqueous medium to yield a cleansing and conditioning shampoo having high and stable foaming capabilities.

Soaps utilized in the composition include the water solu-' ble salts of higher fatty acids of naturally occurring vege'table or animal fats and oils. Examples are sodium, potassium, ammonium, monoethanolamine, diethanol amine, triethanolamine salts, morpholine, diglycolamine, etc. of fatty acids occurring in coconut oil, soy bean oil, castor oil, tallow, or synthetically produced fatty acids. The acid portion of the soap is advantageously that of-a fatty acid such as lauric, myristic, stearic, oleic, elaidic, isostearic, palmiti'c, undecylenic, tridecylenic, pentadecylenic or other saturated or unsaturated fatty acid radical such as methyl, ethyl, propyl or a substituted lower alkyl radical such as hydroxyethyl, hydroxyethoxyethyl, hydroxy polyethoxyethyl etc. Examples of suitable tertiary amine oxides include lauryl dimethyl amine oxide, coconut dimethylamine oxide, dodecyl dimethyl amine oxide,

and the like. The tertiary nitrogen may also be in the form of a cyclic compound such as cocyl morpholine oxide, cocyl imidazoline oxide, etc. The higher alkyl betaine or sulfobetaine utilized in the instant invention renders the soap and tertiary amine oxide compatible and is per se mildly antibacterial. The betaines may be represented by the following structural formula:

x B ut-Rorwherein R is a high molecular alkyl radical having from 10-18 carbon atoms or the amide radical RCONH(CH wherein R is a higher alkyl. radical, R and R are each alkyl radicals having from about 1 to 3 carbon atoms, R, is an alkylene or hydroxyalkyleneradical having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and X is an anion selected from the group consisting of SO =ai1d COO= radicals..R and R may be a mixture of a high molecular. alkyl radical and may contain one or more intermediate linkages such as ether or polyether linkages or non-functional substituents such as hydroxyl or halogen radicals which do not affect the hydrophobic characterof the radical..The ionic neutrality of the betaines over awide pH range permits both foaming and adsorption' thereof from the washing solu tion. Examples .of betaines useful herein include the high alkyl betaines, .such as coco dimethyl carboxymethyl betaine, lauryl dimethyl carbox'ym'ethyl betaine, lauryl dimethyl alpha-carb'oxy-ethyl betaine, cetyl dimethyl carboxymethyl betaine, lauryl bis-(2 hydroxyethyl) carboxy methyl betaine, stearyl bis-(2 hydroxypropyl) carboxymethyl betaine, oleyl dimethyl gamma-carboxy-propyl betaine, lauryl bis-(2 hydroxypropyl) alphacarboxyethyl betaine, etc. The sulfobetaines may-be represented by coco dimethyl sulfopropyl betaine, stearyl dimethyl sulfopropyl betaine, lauryl bis-(2 hydroxyethyl) sulfopropyl betaine and the like, amido betaines and amidosulfobetaines, wherein the RCQNH(CI -I radical is attached to the nitrogenatom of the betaine are also useful in this invention. It is sometimes preferable to use the sulfobetaine because of their better solubility and compatability with synthetic detergents, wherein the betaines are desirable in the preparations of an opaque composition because of their thickening properties.

The mixture of higher alkyl betaine, soap and tertiary amine oxide should be suitably proportioned at proper pH values in an aqueous solution to yield foaming cleansing compositions which yield a strong adsorption onto hair, scalp and skin. By suitably selecting the ingredients, clear aqueous solutions with low cloud points are obtainable at alkaline pH, preferably at pH 8-9. Although the proportions of ingredients can be varied over a wide range, it is desirable that the sum of amine oxide plus betaine should be greater than the amount of soap, and the preferred ratio is 2 parts amine oxide: 1 part betaine: 1 part soap. In general, the tertiary amine oxide ingredient constitutes the major detergent in the composition in amounts ranging from 5% to 40% and preferably to 20% by weight of the total. The amount of the betaine ingredient should be sufficient to effect compatability between the tertiary amine oxide and the soap, usually about 6% and preferably about one half the amine oxide content, and more specifically about 5% to 10% by weight of the total composition. The amount of soap is less than the sum of the amine oxide and the betaine, usually about 6% and preferably one half of the amine oxide content, and more specifically about 5% to 10% by weight of the total product.

Formulations embraced by this invention are stable, homogeneous aqueous shampoos which lather properly. These compositions have the dual function of washing and conditioning the hair, leaving the hair soft and more manageable after shampooing. The need for frequent combing is minimized and the act of combing the hair is accomplished with greater facility due to the elimination of tangled hair. The hair is rendered signficantly antistatic and exhibits good sheen or luster and curl retention. Other important advantages include a desirable modification of the foaming power so that there is achieved superior foam volume and stability in the presence of fatty acid soaps.

Foam tests on prototype hair conditioning shampoos have indicated that the foam stabilization contribution of alkanolamide so clearly beneficial in anionic-based shampoos, is not needed in the betaine-amine oxide-fatty acid soap compositions. Both foam volumes and foam consistencies of these novel compositions are superior to prior art formulations as evidenced by a higher volume of foam which was more stable, and slower to break down or drain out of the hair and scalp. In addition, other soap-containing shampoos are more susceptible to the eifects of hard water, rendering the instant products more versatile under myriad conditions. The unusual foam stability of the amine oxide and betaine in the presence of soap renders these ternary formulations useful as soap bars and as bubble bath compositions with foam which is not destroyed by the use of conventional bath soap.

The compatability exhibited by the betaine, soap and amine oxide ingredients, and the excellent protein adsorption of the betaine-amine oxide-soap complex at alkaline pH render these formulations particularly useful as conditioning shampoos. This is unexpected since prior art formulations containing anionic surfactants including soap and alkanolamides do not leave the hair conditioned and do not give evidence of any deposition and residual conditioning surfactants as is shown by the instant compositions, as demonstrated by the substantive deposition of Rubine W. S. dye by the shampooed and rinsed hair. Normally, substrate such as hair will not retain Rubine W. S. dye, a water-soluble anionic dye, unless first treated with cationic surfactants. However, it has now been found that untreated hair shampooed with the instant composition does retain the Rubine dye; illustrating the effective deposition of conditioning surfactants thereon. This substantivity can be exploited in the formulation of hair coloring shampoos by the addition of direct dyes and polyethylen imine to the instant compositions.

Various adjuvant materials may be added to these foaming, aqueous, detergent compositions such as small amounts of viscosity builders and conditioning agents inclusive of gums, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and alkanola'mides such as lauric myristic diethanolamide, monoalkanolamides, isopropanolamides. Other ingre dients may include alkaline or acid buffers to aid in the adjustment and maintenance of the desired pH of the finished product such as borax, various inorganic watersoluble phosphates, sodium hydroxide, citric acid, etc. Other additions include optical brighteners, bleaches, germicides, fungicides, bactericides, colorants, perfumes, etc. in minor amounts which do not interfere With the conditioning properties of the composition.

In the manufacture of the shampoo in aqueous forms, the soap component may be prepared in advance or in situ by dissolving the soap fatty acid in warm amine oxide plus betaine or sullfobetaine. The neutrailizing base such as triethanolamine, potassium hydroxide or the like is added until the pH is sufficiently alkaline, preferably 8-9. The resultant solutions are clear, moderately viscous shampoos and retain their clarity when cooled to 34 F. at pHs above 8.3. At pHs below 8.5 it has been found that the amine oxide and the soap are particularly inclined to precipitate, but the precipitation is definitely retarded by the presence of the betaine or sulfobetaine component.

The following specific examples are further illustrative of the nature of the present invention, and it is to be understood that the invention is not limited thereto. All parts are by Weight unless otherwise indicated.

The above ingredients are mixed together with agitation yielding a clear moderately viscous solution particularly useful as a high foaming shampoo.

EXAMPLE II In lieu of the triethanolamine myristate ingredient of Example I, 4% isostearic acid is added to a warm solution of the amine oxide and sulfobetaine and sufficient triethanolamine is used to obtain a pH of 8.6. This composition remains clear when cooled to 34 F. The resultant product is a superior, clear, foaming, conditioning shampoo.

EXAMPLE III To the composition of Example II is added 3.0% lauric myristic diethanolamide. This composition is more viscous than the solutions of Examples I and II, and remains clear when cooled to 34 F. This shampoo product is found to lather profusely and to wash and condition hair.

In addition to the usual and conventional soaps, as described above, there may also be employed other types of fatty carboxylates such as the (l) N-alkanoyl sarcosinates e.g.

wherein R is e.g. C to C (decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl, eicosyl, etc.); R is hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl e.g. methyl, ethyl, propyl, hexyl, octyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopentyl substituted cyclohexyls, etc.; x is 1 to 4 and M is a conventional cation, e.g., Na+, K and NHJ; (2) compounds of the type wherein R is alkyl or alkaryl of eg C to C in is 2 or 3, n is 1 to 50 and preferably 1 to 10 and t is 1, 2 or 3; M is a conventional cation e.g. Na+, K+ NH NHQCHZCHZOH,

NH (CH CH OH) N(CH CH OH) etc.

Although the present invention has been described with reference to particular embodiments and examples it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that variations and modifications of this invention can be made and that equivalents can be substituted therefor without departing from the principles and true spirit of the invention.

I claim:

1. A clear, aqueous, high-lathering shampoo composition for simultaneously cleansing and conditioning hair in a single operation which consists essentially of 5% to 20% by weight of a higher alkyl betaine having the structural formula wherein R is C -C alkyl or C -C alkyl amidopropyl, R and R are each alkyl or hydroxyalkyl radicals having from about 1 to 3 carbon atoms, R, is an alkylene or hydroxyalkylene radical having from 1 to 4 carbons, and X is an anion selected from the group consisting of SO and CO to by weight of a higher alkyl amine oxide having the general formula R R R N- O wherein R is C -C alkyl or C -C alkyl amidopropyl and R and R are each selected from the group consisting of C -C alkyl, C -C hydroxyalkyl and C -C hydroxyalkyloxyalkyl or R and R together with the amino nitrogen form a morpholino or imidazole group; from 5% to 20% by weight of a water-soluble soap selected from the group consisting of salts of a saturated C -C fatty acid; said salt being selected from the group consisting of sodium, potassium, ammonium, monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, diglycolamine, and morpholine; and the balance being water; said shampoo having a pH of from 8 to 8.6.

2. A composition in accordance with claim 1 wherein the amine oxide is lauryl dimethylamine oxide.

3. A composition in accordance with claim 1 wherein the soap is a triethanolamine soap.

4. A composition in accordance with claim 1 wherein said higher alkyl betaine is present in an amount of 5% to 10% by weight, said soap is present in an amount of 5% to 10% by weight, and the sum of said betaine and said amine oxide being greater than the amount of soap.

5. The composition in accordance with claim 4 wherein the ratio of amine oxidezbetainezsoap is 221:1.

6. A composition in accordance with claim 1 wherein the betaine ingredient is cocosulfobetaine.

7. A composition in accordance with claim 6 wherein the amine oxide is lauryl dimethylamine oxide and the soap is a triethanolamine soap.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES The Sulfobetaine Technical Bulletin, printed by Texi- Lana Corporation, 1966.

Fatty Amine Oxides by E. Jungermann and M. E.

Ginn, Soap & Chemical Specialties, September 1964, pp. 59-62.

Recent Advances in Fatty Amine Oxides by T. P. Matson, Journal American Oil Chemists Society, vol. 40, November 1963, pp. 640-642.

LEON D. ROSDOL, Primary Examiner D. L ALBRECHT, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

252-117, 545, 546, 547, DIGEST 13, DIGEST l4

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3928251 *Dec 11, 1972Dec 23, 1975Procter & GambleMild shampoo compositions
US3950417 *Feb 28, 1975Apr 13, 1976Johnson & JohnsonHigh-lathering non-irritating detergent compositions
US4087387 *May 10, 1976May 2, 1978Lever Brothers CompanyFoam cleaning composition
US4122043 *Oct 2, 1975Oct 24, 1978Polytrol Chemical CorporationAmidobetaine containing detergent composition non-toxic to aquatic life
US4132679 *Aug 4, 1977Jan 2, 1979Kao Soap Co., Ltd.Low irritant shampoo composition
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US5536451 *Jan 18, 1994Jul 16, 1996The Procter & Gamble CompanyLiquid hard surface detergent compositions containing short chain amphocarboxylate detergent surfactant
US5540865 *Jan 13, 1995Jul 30, 1996The Procter & Gamble CompanyHard surface liquid detergent compositions containing hydrocarbylamidoalkylenebetaine
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Classifications
U.S. Classification424/70.19, 510/427, 424/70.22, 510/494, 424/70.21, 510/129, 424/70.31, 510/126, 510/490, 510/125, 510/503, 510/430, 510/124
International ClassificationC11D1/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61Q5/12, A61K8/44, A61K8/361, A61Q5/02, A61K8/40, A61K2800/596
European ClassificationA61Q5/02, A61K8/40, A61K8/36C, A61K8/44, A61Q5/12