US 3755982 A
Building panels constructed with insulating characteristics and arranged in edge to edge relation to form a wall and including a key structure for anchoring the panels to a supporting foundation or the like and enabling assembly of adjacent panels by a sliding and pivoting movement with the joint between adjacent panels being filled with a settable and hardenable material thereby providing a seal and positive connection between adjacent panels. The panels may be constructed with various materials, with or without void areas, sectional or the like and the upper edge of the panels may be keyed together to complete the assembly thereof.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 1 Schmidt 51 Sept. 4, 1973 BUILDING PANELS  Inventor: Carl W. Schmidt, P.O. 801L372, Des Plaines, Ill. 60018 3,608,258 9/1971 Spratt 52/241 Primary Examiner-John E. Murtagh Attorney-Clarence A. OBrien and Harvey B.
 Filed: July 13, 1971 Jacobson  Appl. No.: 162,114
 ABSTRACT  [1.5. CI 52/295, 52/264, 52/309, Building panels constructed h insulating characteris 52/4381 52/586 52/741 tics and arranged in edge to edge relation to form a wall  T Cl E04! 2/10 E04b 2/34 E04g 21/00 and including a key structure for anchoring the panels  Field of Search 52/438, 295, 437, to a supporting foundation or the ik and enabling 52/24" 438 sembly of adjacent panels by a sliding and pivoting movement with the joint between adjacent panels being  References filled with a settable and hardenable material thereby UNITED STATES PATENTS providing a seal and positive connection between adja- 1,056,810 3/1913 McDonald 52/241 n p n ls. The panels may be constructed with vari- 1,753,451 4/1930 Tonnelier..... 52/564 ous materials, with or without void areas, sectional or 2,325,694 8/1943 Marsha l 52/241 the like and the upper edge of the panels may be keyed 2,543,576 1 52/262 together to complete the assembly thereof. 3,344,574 10/1967 Palfey 52/562 3,420,023 1/l969 Gregori 52/241 10 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures l1 1. I 3 20 28 f 1 26 1' F 1 32A 11 aa u PATENTED 3i 4 SHEEY 1 IF 3 Carl W. Schmidt INVENTOR.
ii/MM? BUILDING PANELS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of Invention The present invention generally relates to building structures and more particularly building panels which are preconstructed and are assembled with respect to a foundation, floor or the like by the use of a key device with the juncture between adjacent panels being completed by hardenable material.
2. Description of the Prior Art Building wall panels are conventionally constructed at the site of the building with framing being first erected and paneling attached thereto with such paneling including various wall boards, plaster and the like. Recent developments in building construction include the use of wall panels which have been preconstructed to particular modular dimensions at a factory or the like and then shipped to the building site for installation. When using such panels, there frequently exists a problem of connecting the panels to a foundation, floor or the like and also connecting the adjacent edges of the panels together in a rigid manner and in a manner to provide a continuity of the wall to maintain the integrity of the wall depending upon the type of wall structure desired.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide a building panel having a lower edge connected to a foundation by a longitudinal key thatis slidably and pivotally connected to the foundation so that the building panel can be assembled with the foundation by positioning the panel in a vertical or upright condition and sliding and pivoting it into engagement with the upper surface of the foundation with the key bridging the lower edge of adjacent panels for positively connecting the lower edge portions of the panels together and at the same time positively connecting the lower edge of adjacent panels to the foundation.
Another object of the invention is to provide building panels in accordance with the preceding object in which the adjacent end abutting edges of adjacent panels are provided with a vertical recess for receiving settable and hardenable material which serves to positively interconnect the abutting edges of adjacent panels and also serves as a seal therebetween thus rigidifying the panels in relation to each other when constructing a wall.
Still another object of the invention is to provide building panels in accordancewith the preceding objects in which the anchoring device which anchors the key to the foundation is in the form of an elongated rod disposed in the recess between the adjacent panels whereby the hardenable material will engage the rod thus reinforcing the wall structure formed by the building panels.
Still another important object of the invention is to provide building panels constructed of lightweight material having high insulating characteristics with the panels being of solid construction, hollow construction or sectional construction with means to retain the sections of the panels in assembled condition.
Yet another important object of the present invention is to provide building panels having key devices interconnecting the upper edges thereof in bridging relation to the juncture between adjacent panels thus further rigidifying and reinforcing the panels when installed to form a wall structure.
Still another important feature of the invention is to provide building panels which enable various building panel structures to be employed depending upon the characteristics desired for a wall structure formed when the panels are assembled thus providing a wall panel system which is substantially universal in utility with the building panels being relatively inexpensive to manufacture but yet well adapted for the purposes for which the same are intended.
These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a wall structure formed by the assembly of a plurality of building panels keyed to a foundation.
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the construction of FIG.
1 illustrating in broken line the manner of assembly of a panel with respect to the foundation.
FIG. 3 is a vertical sectional view, on an enlarged scale, taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 3-3 of FIG. 1 illustrating the structure of the panels and the association of the key and anchor therefor.
FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view, on an enlarged scale, taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 44 of FIG. 1 illustrating further structural details of the key and anchor therefor.
FIG. 5 is a fragmental sectional view of the upper portion of a pair of adjacent panels illustrating the association of the hardenable material and anchor rod associated therewith.
FIG. 6 is a fragmental perspective view illustrating a modified building panel or block and the assembly thereof.
FIG. 7 is a fragmental perspective view of two panels and the connecting strips therebetween to form an inexpensive and rapidly installed wall.
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of another form of building panel.
FIG. 9 is an exploded perspective view illustrating the connecting key between adjacent panels as disclosed in FIG. 8.
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of another type of connecting key.
FIG. 11 is a partial sectional view of another type of wall panel illustrating an insulating filler incorporated therein.
FIG. 12 is a perspective view of a sectional type of wall panel.
FIG. 13 is a fragmental perspective view of the two sections of the wall panels.
FIG. 14 is a sectional view illustrating one typeof connecting means for assembling the sections of the sectional panel.
. FIG. 15 is a perspective view of another type of wall panel especially adapted for a partition wall.
FIG. 16 is a plan view, portions in section, illustrating another wall panel.
FIG. 17 is a plan view illustrating another connection A between the adjacent edges of adjacent panels.
FIG. 18 is a fragmental perspective view of another rapidly installed and inexpensive panel.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now specifically to the drawings and particularly FIGS. 1-5, the building panel is generally designated by the numeral 20 and is of substantially rectangular configuration and may have any suitable dimensions so that when the panels are disposed in a. vertical or upright position and in edge to edge position, a wall will be formed with the panels extending between a foundation or floor structure 22 and an overhead structure or framing (not shown). Thus, the panels may be constructed of any suitable modular dimensions and the edges thereof may be perpendicular to the flat surfaces-or may be mitered to form corner joints as at 24 to correspond with the corners of a wall to form either inside corners or outside comers in the wall. The panel 20 is preferably provided with planar surfaces and as illustrated in FIGS. 1-5, each panel 20 is of solid construction and may be constructed of a lightweight insulating material with the insulating body being designated by the numeral 26 so that the panel may be constructed at a factory site and transported to the building site for assembly.
Each vertical edge of the building panel 20 is provided with a longitudinal recess 28 which is substantially semicylindrical in configuration and of substantially the same dimension from top to bottom edge thereof. It is pointed out that the shape and configuration of the recess 28 may vary but in each instance, the edges of the recess are spaced inwardly from the inner and outer edges of the panel so that when the panels 20 are arranged in abutting engagement, the portions of the edges of the panels outwardly of the recess will be in engagement so that the two recesses will form a vertically continuous cavity. As illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, the vertical recesses 28 being semicylindrical form a substantially cylindrical recess throughout the vertical height of the panels with the portions of the edges of the panels outwardly of the'recess being designated by the numeral 30 and being disposed in abutting engagement as at 32 in FIG. 3.
Also, each panel 20 is provided with a longitudinal recess 34 in the bottom edge thereof which slidably and telescopically receives an elongated key 38 which is in the form of an inverted channeLshaped member having a web 40 and a pair of depending flanges 42. The flanges 42 are disposed in engagement with the upper surface of the foundation 22 and the web 40 is provided with a longitudinally elongated slot 44 therein which slidably mounts the channel-shaped key 38 to an anchor rod or bolt 46 which extends through the slot 44 and is threaded into a suitable anchor 48 disposed in a recess in the foundation 22. A retaining nut 50 is mounted on the threaded rod 46 and the nut 50 has a washer 52 thereunder which is engaged with the upper surface of the web 40 of the channel-shaped key 38 as illustrated in FIG. 4. Thus, the anchor rod or bolt 46 serves to secure the key 38 to the foundation 22 and enables pivoting of the key 38 about a vertical axis defined by the anchor rod 46 and also enables longitudinal sliding movement of the key in retation to the rod 46 and in relation to the panel 20. As illustrated in FIG. 2, the panel 20 may be assembled with respect to the key 38 by pivoting the key 38 so that one end thereof is disposed outwardly of the foundation thus enabling the panel 20 to be slid onto the key 38 and then swung inwardly in the manner illustrated in broken line and the arrow in FIG. 2 so that the panel 20 may be oriented in vertical position along the upper surface of the foundation 22 adjacent the edge thereof thereby enabling the panels 20 to be sequentially assembled and the key 38 serves to bridge the joint between the lower edge portions of the panels 20.
As illustrated in FIGS. 1, 3 and 5, the anchor rod 46 extends vertically substantially throughout the height of the panels although the upper end of the rod 46 terminates below the upper edge of the panels as illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 5. To serve as a connection between and a seal between the edges of the panels 20, the recess defined by the two matching recesses 28 is filled with a settable or hardenable material 54 as illustrated in FIG. 5 thereby providing a continuous wall structure with the hardenable material forming a posi tive interconnection between the panels and a seal therebetween when the material hardens.
With this construction, a solid wall is provided and an effective seal between adjacent panels is provided thereby providing a wall structure that can be effectively employed as an exterior wall for various types of buildings.
FIG. 6 illustrates a panel structure similar to that in FIG. 5 with the panels generally being designated by numeral 56 with each of the panels having a top member 58 in the form of a flat surface or the like which has a semi-cylindrical recess 60 formed longitudinally therein. Each end of the panel is provided with vertical voids 57 which align with correspondingly shaped recesses S9 in the top surface 58 when the panels 56 are oriented in staggered relation as shown. The shape and size as well as the surface appearance may vary from a large panel to block size. The recesses 60 will be provided with a correspondingly shaped seal strip of foam plaster or the like to form a vapor barrier and also provide a self-aligning structure. After assembly, hardenable material will be placed in cavities 57 and will enter the recesses 59 thereby forming a lock in for the panels or blocks 56.
FIG. 7 shows an inexpensive panel 61 joined together by inner and outer wood strips 62 and 63 which bridge the joint between the panels. The adjacent panel edges have recesses 64 formed therein to receive hardenable material 65 therein. In this construction, the connector shown in FIG. 10 is employed at the bottom edge thereof and a panel 66 of insulating foam plastic or similar material may be mounted on the inner surface of the panels 61.
FIG. 8 and 9 illustrate another embodiment of the panel generally designated by the numeral 70 and which includes a vertical groove 72 in each edge thereof with offset edge portions 74 and 76 defining the walls of the groove 72 thus providing staggered lines of juncture 78 between adjacent panels 70 when assembled as illustrated in FIG. 9.
Alignment gauges or blocks 80 are provided in both the upper and lower ends of the panels with the alignment blocks being in the form of rectangular strips or the like and being received in recesses 84 at the upper and lower edge of each panel. The alignment blocks or gauges 80 bridge the juncture between adjacent panels 70 and are received in recesses in the top and bottom surfaces thereof respectively. Attached to the side surfaces of the aligning blocks are L-shaped lugs 86 which prevent the blocks or gauges 80 from dropping through the formed recess 72 which extends through the panel. This arrangement provides a faster assembly and provides a permanent alignment block for the panels and is especially useful where a wall is to be constructed as a partition wall or the like in which event the key 38 and anchor rod 46 illustrated in FIGS. l-5 are not used although the anchor rod could be used if so desired. The block 80 may be constructed of wood, aluminum or other material and one part of it is placed in one panel and the other panel is then slid onto the extending half of the alignment lug which serves as a key between the two panels. By constructing the block substantially four inches in length, two inches of the block will be received in each of the panels. The hardenable material is poured into the vertical recess defined by the vertical groove 72 which will completely embed the bottom block 80 and the top block 80 will also be embedded in the hardenable material thus forming a unitary structure for the wall panels when they are joined as illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 9.
FIG. illustrates an alignment block 90 which may be employed at the bottom when the anchor rod is to be used or when some other type of securing means is employed for securing the anchor block 90 to the foundation. The anchor block will have an opening 92 in the center thereof which receives the anchor rod or receives a suitable securing means through the center thereof. Also, the anchor block may be constructed of hollow material if desired and if the anchor rod is to be employed, the upper anchor block could also be provided with an aperture for receiving the anchor rod. The lugs 86 also serve as nailing lugs with nails being driven down through the lugs into the block thus eliminating bracing of the wall before the voids or recesses a cement penetrating nail or other securing means may 14 be shot through the bottom lug into the concrete foundation in a well known manner.
FIG. 11 illustrates another type of panel which is constructed of spaced parallel members 96 and 98 which have insulating material 100 therebetween and a partitioning strip or wood member 102 centrally therein with the insulating material being foam plastic which may be in the form of blocks or may be foamed in situ. The members 96 and 98 may be separate or interconnected peripherally by an integral connecting portion 104 defining a peripheral groove 106 for forming a void space between adjacent panels when assembled.
FIGS. 12-14 illustrate a sectional form of panel generally designated by numeral 110 in which each section is provided with a panel member 112 having foam insulating material 114 bonded to the inner surface thereof and provided with an anchoring eye 116 at a plurality of points adjacent the periphery thereof. As illustrated in FIG. 14, the panel member 112 are interconnected by turnbuckles 118 and the spacing of the insulating material 114 inwardly from the periphery of the panel members 112 provides a void space 120 which may be filled with a hardenable material thereby providing a connection and seal between adjacent panels.
FIG. 15 illustrates another form of panel 122 in which two generally channel-shaped members 124 and 126 are disposed in edge to edge relation with each of the members 124 and 126 including a central rib 128 defining two void spaces that are filled with insulating material such as foam plastic 130 or the like. The outermost flange of each of the members 124 and 126 designated by numeral 132 is provided with a filler strip 134 along the edge thereof which is in the form of a wood strip to provide a nailing surface for a cover panel 136 and to prevent chipping of the panel. The cover panel 136 may be of any suitable material depending upon the use of the panel.
FIG. 16 illustrates a panel 140 similar to that illustrated in FIG. 15 except that in this instance, the channel-shaped member 142 is provided with flanges 144 with strips 146 thereon of wood or the like for receiving a covering panel member 148 with the void space between the panel member 148 and the panel member 142 being filled with insulating material such as foam plastic 150 or the like. In this embodiment, the juncture between the covering panel members 148 is covered with a wood strip 152 thus concealing the juncture therebetween to provide a more attractive appearance where desired.
FIG. 17 illustrates the concept that various of the panels may be employed with the anchoring rod. For example, the anchoring rod 46' illustrated in FIG. 17 is the same as that illustrated in FIGS. 1-5 with the panels 20' being assembled with surface forming members 156 and 158 separated by insulating material 160 with the surface forming members being provided with a covering wood strip 162 to conceal the joint therebetween. In this construction, the void formed by the juncture between the panels will be filled by a hardenable and settable material.
The material from which the solid panel is constructed is nail penetrable, non-combustible, nonorganic, and a moisture proof cement mixture with the rated therein for external use and conventional facing for internal use. In addition, the panels may be constructed in block form employing the same principles of keying to the foundation and employing an elongated anchor rod and the hardenable material filling the recess and reinforcing the wall by joining the blocks. Various types of alignment means may be provided between adjacent blocks or adjacent panels and various structures may be provided for securing the sectional panels together such as springs, bolts or the like. Cover strips may be provided for the joints between adjacent panels orblocks or other types of connecting strips having a flange inserted between the joints may be employed. Further, the panels may be employed in multi-story construction as a curtain wall or other non-load bearing wall or structural components may be incorporated therein for serving as a load bearing wall. Essentially, the structure of the panels which facilitates the keying through a foundation or floor and the recess and anchor rod arrangement and alignment for the panels is employed in all of the variations of the panels and method of assembly thereof.
FIG. 18 illustrates another variation in the wall panel structure and includes a panel which has wood strips 172 attached to the edge surface of a longitudinal rib or projection 174 spaced inwardly from the edge of the panel 170. This structure is similar to that illustrated in FIG. 16 but when assembled with adjacent panels, a void will be disposed between the adjacent ribs and wood strips and an air gap will be formed between the ribs 174 on each panel which may be left as a void air space or filled with a foam plastic material. This structure also provides for rapid installation and forms a relatively inexpensive wall panel.
There are two basic variations in the assembly of the panels with the assemblies of FIGS. l employing the key 38 and the other panels employing the connector structures illustrated in H68. 9 and 10, Thus, only those panels illustrated in FIGS. 15 utilize the groove 34 in the lower edge thereof.
Many variations of the anchor structure illustrated in FIGS. 1-5 may be provided. For example, the retaining nut 50 may be eliminated by welding a piece of stock around the rod and tightening the rod into the anchor 48 until it tightens the key 38. Also, a threaded bolt can be shot into the foundation at the location of the slotted key and have it extend upward through the key for receiving an anchoring nut and washer to secure the key with the anchoring rod also being threaded to the threaded bolt that has been shot into the foundation.
Also the panels may be effectively aligned in other manner than the pivotal method defined inasmuch as after a single panel has been installed such as the corner panel illustrated in FIG. 1, other panels may be assembled by placing a key 38 into the recess 34 at the bottom of a panel and this panel is then slid onto the protruding aligned key 38 on the already installed panel thus automatically aligning the panel and automatically aligning the key member for receiving the anchor rod so that the key members and panels are installed which automatically aligns the panels and automatically positions the keys. This procedure is continued in a step-by-step manner.
The structure illustrated in FIG. 6 is a staggered block panel with it also being possible to arrange the panels of FIG. 6 in a stacked aligned position. These panels or blocks may be constructed of the two sections illustrated in FIGS. 12-14 or of monolithic construction. To provide an imitation stone effect, the size can be decreased so that one panel would imitate a single stone, rock or the like. Thus, when a plurality of these panels or blocks are formed into a wall, a finished stone wall will be formed with the stone being colored any desired color to provide an imitation stone wall having a realistic appearance of natural stone. The blocks or panels could be formed in a curved form and the simulated stone may be formed thereon in any of several manners. These panels may be used for attractive fences, patios and the like and in plain form may be employed for various purposes in the building construction industry. Thus, with this construction, the panel or block is constructed of a size to imitate one stone and yet maintain complete wall thickness plus insulation increases the efficiency of the building construction industry and also provides a saving in the installation as to both materials and time required.
In forming a simulated stone effect, the panels may be cast in an open mold with the desired pattern formed in the surface of the panel when casting the same. Then, when the panels are assembled, a suitable procedure may be employed for completing the overall effect of the simulated rock wall or the like by properly blending in the joints between panels.
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention.
What is claimed as new is as follows:
1. A building panel comprising a body having vertical edges and horizontal edges for assembly with other panels in edge to edge relation to form a wall structure, the vertical edges of said panels including a longitudinal recess therein to form a vertical passageway between adjacent panels when assembled, the lower horizontal edge of the panel including a recess therein, and a key received in the recess in the horizontal edge and bridging the juncture between adjacent panels, and an anchor rod extending through the key and adapted to be anchored to a supporting structure with the rod extending upwardly in the passage formed by the recesses in the vertical edges, and a filler of hardenable material in the passage formed by the recesses in the vertical edges for locking the panels together, forming a seal therebetween and permanently securing the anchoring rod and key to the panels, said key being in the form of an inverted channel-shaped member having a longitudinally elongated slot in the web thereof receiving the anchor rod whereby the key may be moved longitudinally thereby enabling sliding and pivoting of the key and panel in relation to the supporting foundation.
2. The structure as defined in claim I wherein said anchoring rod is threaded where it extends through the key, and means mounted on the threaded rod for locking the key to the foundation.
3. The structure as defined in claim 2 wherein said anchor rod extends substantially throughout the vertical dimension'of the panel, said recess in the vertical edges of the panel being substantially semi-cylindrical with the anchor rod disposed centrally thereof when assembled.
4. The structure as defined in claim 3 wherein said body is constructed of spaced facing members having foam plastic insulation material therebetween.
5. The structure as defined in claim 3 wherein said body is constructed of two separate assemblies, each assembly including a facing panel and a layer of foam plastic insulating material on one surface thereof, and means connecting the facing panels together for retaining the assemblies interconnected.
6. The structure as defined in claim 1 together with an alignment lug bridging the juncture between adjacent panels at the upper edge thereof.
7. A building panel comprising a body having vertical edges and horizontal edges for assembly with other panels in edge to edge relation to form a wall structure, the vertical edges of said panels including a longitudinal recess therein to form a vertical passageway between adjacent panels when assembled, the lower horizontal edge of the panel including a recess therein, and a key received in the recess in the horizontal edge and bridging the juncture between adjacent panels, and an anchor rod extending through the key and adapted to be anchored to a supporting structure with the rod extending upwardly in the passage formed by the recesses in the vertical edges, and a filler of hardenable material in the passage formed by the recesses in the vertical edges for locking the panels together, forming a seal therebetween and permanently securing the anchoring rod and key to the panels, said filler comprising a cementitious material poured into the passageway from the upper end thereof, said key being pivotally supported in relation to the supporting structure to enable the key to swing about a vertical axis coinciding with the anchor rod whereby the panels may be positioned on the key and swung to a position overlying the supporting structure.
8. The structure as defined in claim 7 wherein said supporting structure is a concrete foundation having an internally threaded hollow socket therein, said anchor rod having a threaded lower end extending through the key and threaded into the socket, and a retaining nut on the rod to secure the key in place.
9. The structure as defined in claim 8 wherein said key includes an elongated member having a slot therein to provide sliding movement of the'panel and key in relation to the anchor rod.
10. The structure as defined in claim 7 wherein said key includes an elongated member having a longitudinal slot therein receiving the anchor rod to provide sliding movement as well as pivotal movement of the panel and key in relation to the anchor rod and supporting structure, the lower end of said rod including means anchoring it to the key and supporting structure.