|Publication number||US3757163 A|
|Publication date||Sep 4, 1973|
|Filing date||Mar 30, 1972|
|Priority date||Mar 30, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3757163 A, US 3757163A, US-A-3757163, US3757163 A, US3757163A|
|Inventors||Gibbons C, Kerr W, Maddocks R|
|Original Assignee||Eastman Kodak Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (13), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [1 1 Gibbons et al.
[451 Sept. 4, 1973 WEB TREATMENT APPARATUS AND METHODS  Inventors: Carl B. Gibbons; William C. Kerr;
Roger H. Maddocks, all of Rochester, NY.
 Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company,
22 Filed: Mar. 30, 1972 21 Appl. No.: 239,816
Related US. Application Data  Division of Ser. No. 804,470, March 5, I969.
 US. Cl 317/2 R, 250/49.5 TC, 317/262 A [5 1] Int. Cl. H05f 3/04  Field of Search 317/2 R, 2 A, 2 H,
317/3, 4, 262 A; 250/495 TC  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,474,292 10/1969 Carter 3l7/2 R Primary Examiner-James D. Trammell Assistant ExaminerHarry E. Moose, Jr. AttorneyRobert F. Cody [5 7] ABSTRACT A web with a plastic surface is dislcosed as being exposed to an a.c.-produced corona thereby to increase its printability and coatability. As a result of such treatment the web surface undesirably acquires patterns of charge. A circuit technique is disclosed for so erasing such charge patterns that the web surface is assuredly left substantially uncharged.
6 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates in general to web handling apparatus and methods; and in particular the invention provides new and improved ways to assure proper adhesion of materials such as coatings to plastic surfaces; e. g. the surface of a plastic web; or the surface of a plastic coated web; etc.
2. Description Relative to the Prior Art It is well known that the surfaces of synthetic plastics such as polyolefins (e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene and the like) and polyesters (e.g. polyethylene terephthalate) are naturally resistant to printing and other coatings; and that the corona-treatment of such surfaces will minimize such resistance. The amount of corona-current which flows through a surface has a direct bearing on the adhesion quality of such surface; and for substantial current to flow through a surface, such current should be alternating rather than direct because direct currents are self-extinguishing, i.e. they merely charge up a surface.
As used herein alternating currents and voltages are any such currents and voltages which vary, such for example as sinusoidal and pulsating currents and voltages.
In corona-treating a web by means of alternating voltages, it is usual though not necessary to employ an array of treating electrodes, thereby to assure that the whole face of the web will be corona-treated.
FIG. 1 indicates this expedient; and is presented at this point in the specification to facilitate an appreciation of the problem( s) which has been solved by means of the invention.
FIG. I shows, in a partial side elevational view, a web 10 (e.g. paper) which is coated with a plastic 12 (e.g. polyethylene). The web 10 passes over a grounded roller 14, and moves in the direction indicated. An array of electrodes l6, 18, 20 corona-treat the plastic coating 12 with an alternating voltage (e.g. about 16 kv, at a distance d of 0.02 inches); and such electrodes l6, 18, 20 cooperate toassure that the whole face of the web is corona-treated. v
To dissipate any corona-produced voltage which may be stored on the coating 12 of the web 10, it had been considered to roll up the web, or to ground both sides of same. It was found however that rolling the web left it charged to about 250 volts; and grounding the web left it charged to about 700 volts. While stored voltages of such magnitudes could be handled in many instances, it was found that in coating such a coronatreated web, the coating took on a striped pattern, rather than be evenly distributed across the whole face of the web. A study was made to find out why the coating followed a particular pattern; and it was determined that the last of the electrodes 20 to corona-treat the web I not only charged the web in accordance with the aforementioned pattern, but often augmented such pattern by redistributing the charges placed on the web by the other electrodes 16, 18. FIG. 2 is presented at this point in the specification to illustrate the effect of a charge pattern on a web which is to be coated. The corona-treated web moves in the indicated direction past the mouth 21 of a coating hopper 22. Ideally, the
coating solution 26 should flow onto the web in the manner indicated by the dotted line 24. However, because of the charge-pattern 23 produced by the electrode 20, ions within the coating solution 26 realign in accordance with such charge-pattem, causing surface modulation of the coating solution 26 as it leaves the mouth 21 of the hopper 22. The amplitude of such modulation increases as the coating solution 26 nears the web 10 and, attendantly, the coating solution 26 gets deposited on the web in accordance with the indicated charge pattern 23.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is the intent of the invention to apply a strong d.c. field to a web which has been corona-treated with an alternating voltage. Such a dc. field does not coronatreat the web further; but serves merely to apply charges to those web areas which have little or no charge. In other words, any charge pattern which might have appeared on the web prior to its being d.c. flooded gets lost within such flood".
In many instances where the coating solution 26 is not a light-sensitive one, stored web voltages such as the above-mentioned 250 and 700 volts are not especially troublesome. When the coating solution 26 is light-sensitive, however, it is desirable to discharge the web prior to its reaching the coating hopper 22, whereby arcing will not occur between the web and the coating solution 26. One way to assure such discharge is in accordance with the invention to treat the web successively with equal d.c. fields, the first of one polarity and the second of the opposite polarity. While such a technique is useful, it has been found further that the best way to assure equal intensity d.c.- treatment of a web is to have such fields formed as part of the same series-arranged circuit: A strong direct voltage is applied from a source, e.g. by means of a roller, to one face of the web; a first electrode disposed at the opposite face of the web sees such voltage, and such first electrode is electrically shorted to a second electrode. The second electrode is disposed closer to the hopper, but is on the same side of the web as the first electrode. Opposite the second electrode, and in contact with the web, e.g. by means of a roller, is the electrical return for the direct voltage source. With such an arrangement, whatever charges are applied to the web atone point thereof for charge-pattern canceling purposes are-intrinsically, removed from the web prior to coating thereof; and so, the web has virtually no charge at its coating point.
The above-described technique presupposes that the resistivity of the web and its plastic coat is'greater than about 10 logohms per square centineter, ie.. that virtually no direct current flows within and along the web, and that all current entering at the first d.c.-treatment point is returned to the source via the second d.c.- treatment point. For application of the invention with respect to webs with resistivities less than about 10 logohms per square centimeters, a variation(s) of the above-described series-disposed circuit is indicated.
An object of the invention is to provide improved apparatus and methods for treating plastic surfaces.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved techniquefor removing charge patterns from a plastic surface.
Another object of the invention is to provide apparatus and methods for use in applying light-sensitive coatings to the plastic surfaces of webs.
The invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 3 through of which FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating how corona-produced charge-patterns can be eliminated from a web, such web being so handled that it can fairly easily be coated with a light-sensitive solution,
FIG. 4 is a diagram similar to the diagram of FIG. 3 but indicating how a procedure thereof may be obviated if the web-coating concerned is not (especially) light-sensitive, and
FIG. 5 illustrates a presently preferred technique(s) for so removing corona-produced charge-patterns from a web that the web is left substantially uncharged. whereby the web may be directly coated with a light-sensitive solution.
The corresponding parts of FIGS. 3 through 5 are all similarly numbered, the part numbers of FIGS. 4 and 5 being, however, primed and double-primed respectively.
Reference should be had to FIG. 3: A stock roll 28 of polyethylene-coated paper web 30 is fed over an electrically grounded roller 32. An alternating voltage is applied from a source 34 thereof to a plurality of electrodes 36, 38, 40. Such electrodes are so disposed opposite the grounded roller 32 that substantial aternating currents may flow through, and thereby coronatreat, the web 30. As indicated above, the electrode 40, being the last to see any given point on the web, causes patterns of charges to appear and reside on the surface of the web 30.
The web is passed over an electrically conductive roller 42, to which a source 44 of direct voltage (approximately 9,000 15,000 volts) is connected. Such an expedient so deposits charges on the web 30 that the patterns thereof disappear (although by this expedient the web is left highly charged). To reduce appreciably such charge (say to about 250 volts, as indicated above), whereby the web 30 could fairly safely be coated with a light-sensitive coating, the web 30 is rerolled 48; after which it is unrolled for coating by means of a hopper 50; and again re-rolled 52 after coat- To avoid the re-roll and unroll procedure of FIG. 3, the charged web 30', after it is exposed to the dc. field at the roller 42, may be passed between electrically grounded rollers 54', whereby a fair amount of charge is bled off the web 30'. Such a practice, while solving one significant cost-consuming web handling problem, leaves the web fairly highly charged (about 700 volts as indicated above); and obviously such a web could not be coated with a light-sensitive solution very easily.
The method(s)/apparatus of FIG. 5 removes chargepatterns from a corona-treated web, without necessitating the re-roll and unroIl procedure, and which method(s)/apparatus leaves the web substantially uncharged: FIG. 5 indicates a switch 60" which, in its position 1, provides the above features for webs of resistivities greater than about logohms per square centimeter; for web resistivities less than about 10 logohms per square centimeter, the switch 60" is placed in its position 2.
In essence, the presently preferred application of the invention indicates the disposition of electrodes 62" and 64" (which may themselves be web rollers) opposite the charge and discharge rollers 42" and 54" respectivelyg and the electrical shorting of such electrodes by a lead 66". Thus, the charge-discharge circuit is turned into a series circuit, with the electrode 42" being electrically as much of one polarity as the electrode 54" is of an opposite polarity. Since the rollers 42" and 54" are connected electrically to the opposite terminals of the source 46", the charge which is added to the web 30 by the roller 42" is necessarily the same as the charge which is removed from the web 30" by the roller 54".
For instances where the web 30" is a resistivity less than approximately l0 logohms per square centimeter, e.g. when such web 30 is provided or formed with an antistatic agent or coating, some leakage current may flow from the source 46" through the web 30", and back to the source 46" without flowing via the electrodes 62" and 64". If such were to occur, the charge applied to the web via the roller 42" would probably be greater than that removed via the roller 54". To compensate for this charge differential, the invention suggests that the switch 60 be closed (position 2), whereby a compensation current equal to the leakage current may be applied through a currentcontrolling rheostat 70" to the electrode 64".
The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to preferred embodiments thereof, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In a system for improving the adhesion characteristics of an electrically non-conductive surface, said system including an alternating voltage corona-producing power source, and means for use in exposing said surface to said corona, the improvement comprising a. first means for applying a direct voltage of one polarity to said surface after said surface has been exposed to said corona, and
second means for applying to said surface, subsequent to the application of voltage thereto by said first means, a direct voltage of a polarity opposite to that applied to said surface by said first means, the voltages applied bysaid first and second means being approximately thesame, wherebythe charge-patterns produced on said surface by said alternating voltage power source are so erased that the said surface is left substantially uncharged.
2. The system of claim I wherein a. said surface is the surface of a web, and
b. said first and second means are so disposed that the charge applied to said web by said first means is necessarily substantially the same as that removed from the web by said second means.
3. The system of claim 2 wherein a. said web has a resistivity greater than approximately 10 logohms per square centimeter.
b. said first means comprises a first pair of electrodes disposed on opposite sides of said web, and
c. said second means comprises a second pair of electrodes disposed on opposite sides of said web,
and wherein said system includes d. means for electrically connecting together one electrode from each pair thereof, said connected electrodes being disposed on the same side of said web, and
6 e. a source of direct voltage, said source having first 6. A system for removing patterns of charge from a and second terminals, the first terminal being elecweb comprising .trically connected to the free electrodes of one pair a. a first pair of electrodes disposed on opposite sides thereof, and the second terminal being connected of said web, to the free electrode of the other pair thereof. 5 b. a second pair of electrodes disposed on opposite 4. The system of claim 3 wherein at least one of said sides of said web, first pair of electrodes, and at least one of said second c. means for electrically connecting together one pair of electrodes is in direct contact with said web. electrode from each pair thereof, said connected 5. The system of claim 2 wherein said web has a resiselectrodes being disposed on the same side of said tivity less than approximately 10 logohms per square 10 web, and centimeter, and wherein said system includes means for d. a source of direct voltage having first and second compensating for charge currents which may flow terminals, the first terminal being electrically conwithin said web, thereby to assure that the charges apnected to one free electrode and the second termiplied to and removed from the web are substantially nal being connected to the other free electrode. identical.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4189643 *||Oct 5, 1977||Feb 19, 1980||Xerox Corporation||Treatment of paper for improved electrostatographic fusing|
|US4271451 *||Jul 20, 1976||Jun 2, 1981||Hercules Incorporated||Method and apparatus for controlling static charges|
|US5400208 *||Oct 5, 1993||Mar 21, 1995||Eastman Kodak Company||Web edge discharging system|
|US5805407 *||Sep 5, 1996||Sep 8, 1998||Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.||Charge eliminating apparatus for a moving web|
|US6368675||Apr 6, 2000||Apr 9, 2002||3M Innovative Properties Company||Electrostatically assisted coating method and apparatus with focused electrode field|
|US6475572||Apr 6, 2000||Nov 5, 2002||3M Innovative Properties Company||Electrostatically assisted coating method with focused web-borne charges|
|US6666918||Jul 26, 2002||Dec 23, 2003||3M Innovative Properties Company||Electrostatically assisted coating apparatus with focused web charge field|
|US6716286||Jan 22, 2002||Apr 6, 2004||3M Innovative Properties Company||Electrostatically assisted coating method and apparatus with focused electrode field|
|US20130118119 *||Nov 9, 2012||May 16, 2013||Fuji Seal Europe B.V.||Sleeving device and method for arranging tubular sleeves around containers|
|DE10352978A1 *||Nov 13, 2003||Jun 9, 2005||Ahlbrandt System Gmbh||A method for coating a continuous band of material by application of an aerosol spray has an additional alternating current electrode creating a corona discharge|
|DE102005041848A1 *||Sep 2, 2005||Mar 22, 2007||OCÚ PRINTING SYSTEMS GMBH||Method for treatment of surface of paper, which is to be printed, by electrographic printing or copying device, involves transferring of toner image on paper in transfer station|
|EP0762810A1 *||Sep 5, 1996||Mar 12, 1997||Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.||Charge eliminating apparatus for a moving web|
|WO1989005477A1 *||Dec 3, 1987||Jun 15, 1989||Eastman Kodak Company||High speed curtain coating process and apparatus|
|U.S. Classification||361/213, 250/324, 361/221|
|International Classification||H05F3/00, H05F3/04|