US 3759522 A
A dice game comprises a plurality of dice with each side of each die having a segment of a pictorial puzzle, an arena and picture cards, both having matching grids with spaces of such size and number as to receive said dice, and score cards with numbered grids thereon to record points scored, errors made, disputes between players, and track puzzle segments. The game provides amusement and teaches and measures one's visual perception of small internal features of structures, such as historical monuments or buildings.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
[ 51 Sept. 18, 1973 United States Patent 1191 Hodan, m
1541 BOARD GAME APPARATUS FOREIGN PATENTS 0R APPLICATIONS  Inventor:
J p "Odin, "L 1590 Eben" 403,691 12/1933 Great Britain Apt. No. 5, Redwood City, Calif. 1,210,452 94061 10/1970 Great Britain ............III:
 Filed: Aug. 25, 1971 Primary Examiner-Delbert B. Lowe AttorneyCharles L. Botsford [211 App]. No.: 174,681
[5 7] ABSTRACT A dice game comprises a plurality of dice with each side of each die having a segment of a pictorial puzzle, an arena and picture cards, both having matching grids  US. 273/135 AA, 273/157 R  Int. Cl. A631 3/00  273/130, 134, 135,
Field of Search....................
with spaces of such size and number as to receive said dice, and score cards with numbered grids thereon to record points scored, errors made, disputes between players, and track puzzle segments. The game provides amusement and teaches and measures ones visual perception of small internal features of structures, such as historical monuments or buildings.
 References Cited UNITED STATES PAT ENTS Eschenbach........
273/157 R UX 273/157 R UX 273 134 GM UX C 2 Claims, 5 Drawing; Figures Wmn "an "-l .m w mmmo a le n wum 3 rf PGFBR 9004 5575 9999 1111 [III 422 111 0 5 4 3 2 PATENTEDSEH am;
a II II JOSEPH E. HODAN 111 B1 i I ATTORNEY EMP DEDUCT ONS ACHIEVEMENT RECORD BOARD GAME APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This device relates to a highly competitive dice game for amusement and for teaching and measuring visual perception of small internal features of structures such as historical monuments and buildings. The game can be played by an individual, by a group of individuals, and by teams. i
2. Description of the Prior Art Numerous pictorial representations have been located upon the surface of blocks and cards to form amusement games, such as puzzles. Typical of these are Parks, U.S. Pat. No. 1,964,007; Gable, U.S. Pat. No. 2,201,724; De Bracht, U.S. Pat. No. 1,709,660; Eschenback, U.S. Pat. No. 1,676,641; and Yonemoto, U.S. Pat. No. 1,339,251.
None of these references, however, discloses a device using six-sided dice with a different view of a pictorial representation, which combines the competitivefeatures of a dice game with the visual perception features of a puzzle, the device being highly competitive, providing amusement and teaching and measuring visual perception of small internal features of a structure.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The device according to the invention, referred to as the P.H.D. game (Perception-Historical-Dice), is a highly competitvegroup or individual dice game that tests and enhances each player's visual perception of the small internal features of structures, such as histori cal monuments and buildings.
Basically, the device comprises a plurality of dice, with a separate view located on every side of each die, each view on one die being one segment of a total of six different pictorial representations of historical monuments orbuildings. A surface is provided over which a pattern of parallel and perpendicular lines are located to form squares of a number and size corresponding to the number and size of the dice. A plurality of cards are also provided, with pictorial representations of structures, such as historical monuments or buildings, located thereon A pattern of parallel and perpendicular lines are located over each pictorial representation to form squares corresponding in number and shape to the size and number of dice.
A plurality of score cards are provided for recording points scored or errors made when a die is placed in a correct or incorrect square on the surface. Also provided is a time-keeper for precisely measuring and indicating a predetermined period of time in which each player may take his turn. Finally, markers (also referred to as credits) are provided of various colors, shapes and sizes to indicate points scored and errors made by the players.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a simplified isometric drawing of a pair of dice, each side thereof having a view located thereon which is a segment of a pictorial representation of a structure.
FIG. 2 is a simplified isometric drawing of a card containing a pictorial representation of a structure such as a historical monument or building, with a pattern of parallel and perpendicular lines located thereon to form a plurality of squares corresponding in shape and number to that of the dice.
FIG. 3 is a simplified isometric drawing of a surface, with a pattern of parallel and perpendicular lines located thereon to form a plurality of squares corresponding in number and shape to that of the dice.
FIG. 4 is a simplified isometric drawing of a score card for recording points scored and errors made.
FIG. 5 is a simplified isometric drawing of a card containing a plurality of pictorial representations of different structures.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. 1, a plurality of small cubes, such as cubes l0 and 12, are provided. Each of the six surfaces of the cube has a different view located thereon. Each view is a segment of a pictorial representation of a structure, such as a historical monument or building. Preferably, the small cubes are similar in size and shape to dice used in games of chance, and hereinafter are referred to as dice."
Suitably, up to 40 dice are provided, which whe placed together in a predetermined manner, form a desired pictorial representation. 1
Referring to FIG. 2, a plurality of cards, such as card 20 containing a pictorial representation 22 of a structure, are provided. The structures typically are historicalbuildings or monuments. Hereinafter, the card 20 is referred to as a historical challenge card. A pattern of parallel and perpendicular lines 24is located upon the pictorial representation 22 to provide squares '26 that correspond in shape and number to the size and number of dice. Preferably, each historical challenge card 20 contains a pictorial representation of a different structure of which the structure in FIG. 2 is an. ex-
Referring to FIG. 3, a surface 30 on which the dice are placed is provided. Located over the surface 30 is a pattern of parallel and perpendicular lines that provides a plurality of squares 32 arranged in rows and columns and corresponding in size and number to the size and number of the dice. For convenience, the squares 32 are numbered sequentially. Hereinafter, the surface 30 is referred to as the arena."
Suitably, the arena 30 is located within a container 34, and preferably is at an elevation different from that of the container surface, thereby providing a recessed area. Dice placed on the numbered squares in the recessed area tend to remain in place.
In order to measure precisely, and to indicate the end of, a predetermined period of time, one or more timekeepers 36 are provided. The timekeepers 36 can be relatively simple, such as a sand-glass running for a short period of time, for example, three minutes. Suitably, additional recessed areas 37 are provided along the upper surface of the container 34 for placement of the timekeepers when not in use. Additional recessed areas (not shown) are conveniently located along the bottom of areas 37 and correspond to the circumference of the timekeepers 36, in order to provide seats into which the timekeepers can be positioned upright when in use. i g
A slot 38 located along one portion of the container upper surface enables insertion of'a historical challenge card for reference by the players during a game. Suitably, a lid or cover (not shown) is provided, with a soft felt-type surface along the inside portion thereof onto which the dice are rolled during a players turn. Hereinafter, reference is made to this surface as the rollway." It shall be appreciated, however, that the rollway can also be located along the upper surface of the container rather than in the inside portion of the lid. The lid or cover when placed over the container 34 functions to keep the pieces together and thereby provides a self-contained unit.
Suitably, markers 40 and 41 are provided for indicating points scored, errors made, and so forth. These markers, also referred to hereinafter as credits, can be of various sizes, colors, and shapes as desired. Additional recessed areas 42 and 44 are provided along the container upper surface for storing the markers or credits 40 and 41. Hereinafter, recessed area 42 is referred to as the achievement credit bank and recessed area 44 is referred'to as the protest credit bank.
Referring to FIG. 4, a plurality of cards, such as card 50, are provided for recording points scored and errors made during the course of the game. Each card 50 is divided into two sections, one section 52 referred to hereinafter as the achievement record and the other section 54 referred to hereinafter as deductions.
Section 52 contains a plurality of squares arranged in rows and columns and numbered sequentially. The shape and number of squares correspond to the size and number of the dice. As a player scores points during the game, credits 40 from the achievement credit bank 42 are placed sequentially in the squares of the achievement record 52 to record these points.
Section 54 contains a smaller number of squares arranged in rows and columns and numbered sequentially. When errors are made, a player uses a deduction credit 41 from bank 44 to indicate the square containing, the number of deduction points which are subtracted from the players achievement record 52.
Referring to FIG. 5, a card 60 containing a plurality of pictorial representations of different structures is provided. This card hereinafter is referred to as the challenge master. The challenge master 60 allows multiple pictorial representations to be used during a game. Located over each pictorial representation are parallel and perpendicular lines that provide a plurality of squares arranged in rows and columns and corresponding to the number and shape of the dice.
OPERATION As used hereinafter, a game comprises one or more challenges, and the winner of a game is the player with the highest total points adjusted by a correction factor explained below. A challenge is the primary unit of play, and is typically completed when some or all of the dice are'placed in the arena in the correct order, de-
pending upon the type or number of challenge cards used. A challenge may be played using one historical challenge card such as shown in FIG. 2 or a challenge master such as shown in FIG. which contains more than one pictorial representation of a structure. If one challenge card is used, the challene card is placed into the slot 38 (FIG. 3). Each player receives a score card as shown in FIG. 4 containing an achievement record 52 and a deduction record 54, credits 40 and 41 from the achievement credit bank 42 and protest credit bank 44 (as they are needed), one deduction credit to indicate the cumulative number of points lost due to errors, and a time-keeper 36 for each turn of play. Note that an individual may play solitaire, or a group of individuals may play independently, or teams of two players each may form to compete against other teams. All players or teams complete within the arena.
All of the dice are transferred from the arena 30 to the rollway along the inside portion of the lid (not shown), and either a selected historical challenge card 20 or the challenge master 60 is placed in the challenge slot 38. If only one challenge card 20 is being used by a person, group, or team, it is placed in the challenge slot 38. On the other hand, the challenge master 60 is placed in the challenge slot 38 when more then one challenge card 20 is needed. Players may then use the single challenge cards as study aids during the game. Timekeepers 36 are positioned upright into small recessed areas (mentioned above), and either one may be used to provide each player or team approximately 3 minutes for a turn of play.
All dice rolls are made within the rollway in the lid. The dice remain in this area until they are placed within the arena 30. An approximate three minute turn consists of a player positioning any dice that his last opponent rolled, and also the addition of taking one dice roll himself. As soon as the dice are rolled, one must make sure that the dice are all laying flat on the rollway. If dice are stacked or a die is on edge in any way, a player should sweep them flat with his hand. Only the top view of the dice is used, and a player is never allowed to change the view on any rolled dice.
A player or team spokesman begins a turn by saying, Start," at which moment a sand-glass timekeeper 36 is inverted. A turn ends by either the player or his next opponent declaring Complete," or Stop. As perception speed increases, a player may declare Complete" before the end of his 3-minute turn.
ACHIEVEMENTS A player claims one achievement credit 40 from the achievement credit bank 42 for each die correctly positioned within the arena 30 during his turn of play. Such achievement credits 40 are then positioned upon the players achievement record 52, matching the same numbered squares within the arena 30. An achievement credit 40 is claimed only for the most recent or final deductions. Once an achievement credit 40 is placed upon a players achievement record 52, even during the same three minute turn, such action becomes final in determining the position of the die within the arena 30. A repositioning of this die ends with a deduction for the original placement.
PROTES'IS When a player questions during his turn of play the location of a die in the arena 30, he states Protest and then removes, rotates, or relocates in the arena the die in question. The player who received an achievement credit 40 on his achievement record 52 for the die being questioned has this achievement credit removed and replaced by a protest credit 41 on the player's achievement record 52. A protest credit 41 of the same color is also placed upon the die in question, now in a new position within the'arena 30.
More than one unresolved protest may involve the location of a single die during a challenge. Each protest is clearly marked by its own pair of color matched protest credits. If the die in question is removed from the arena 30, a protest marker is placed on top of it. The
questioned die is isolated (see paragraph entitled lSO- [.ATED DICE) from future dice rolls until the protest is resolved. No achievement credit is gained by a player who removes a die in protest from the arena 30; however, an achievement credit is earned by any new arena position or rotation of the die in question.
A player may remove a die being protested from the arena 30 only to find that the new arena position for the protest die is already occupied. This situation arises when more than one challenge card is used for a challenge, and two or more dice could occupy the same numbered square in the arena 30. If the player can not reposition the protest die within the arena, he receives no achievement credit. This is the only situation (other than blank dice) during any challenge that a player is permitted to exchange another die in the arena when he is not protesting its location. This die from the other challenge card is removed from the arena 30 and it is placed in permanent isolation for the rest of the challenge. The player does not lose the achievement credit he had earned for the die, now removed from both the arena and the rest of the challenge. Had this new arena position for the protest die been occupied by another protest die, then both dice would be stacked on the same numbered square in the arena with both of their protest credits on top. One of the protests should be resolved as soon as possible. Again, this is the only situation where more than one achievement credit may be gained by players using the same numbered square in the arena 30. This exchange move is only a means by which a player gains by finding a mistake in the arena that another player has made. A player is not permitted to move his own arena die and then make this exchange move.
A player is never allowed to protest his own error (by placing a protest credit on a die for which he has received an achievement credit). He may only move his own die to an empty square within the arena 30, and he receives an achievement credit for the new position of the die. The achievement credit received for the placement of the same die before this move is removed, and the player receives a deduction. Again, a player is not permitted to move his own misplaced arena die into an occupied numbered square in the arena in any exchange move. Instead, he takes a deduction and the die is moved into isolation and eventually back into the rollway.
A player may protest a die positioned correctly within the arena 30. Players using different challenge cards may protest, when an opponent positions a die belonging to the challenge card of another player. The die may, or may not, have been rotated within the same numbered arena grid. The protesting player receives an achievement credit and the player who made the original placement receives a protest credit. The protest is resolved by comparing the die to the proper challenge card. i
All protests must be resolved duringor at the close of each challenge. The two players or teams involved in each protest should gain insight and greater perception as the arena gains more positioned dice. If the protest credit on the players achievement record 52 shows the agreed or final position of the die in question, then this protest credit is removed and replaced by an achievement credit. If the protest credit does not shown the agreed or final position, then the protest credit is removed and replaced by a deduction. After the protest on the achievement record 52 is resolved, the corresponding protest credit is removed from the protest die. Any resolved protest becomes a final action between two players. One of the players will lose an achievement credit and also gain a deduction credit.
ISOLATED DICE A die becomes isolated from the turn or challenge when it is removed from the arena 30 in a protest without being rotated or relocated by the player. Removal from the arena 30 become necessary to make room for another die because the player cannot find a position for the protest die. The die may not be a part of the arena action for this challenge.
The die remains in isolation until each player has had a chance, during his own turn, to position the die within the arena 30. Still in isolation, the die is then returned to the rollway for the next dice roll, and the protest is resolved as a deduction. The player who originally received the achievement credit for the die's position within the arena 30 now has a deduction.
Had the isolated die been returned to the arena 30 in a new position after its removal, the player who made the removal would place an extra deduction credit (matching the same numbered grid position of the die) on his achievement record. Note this is not a deduction; because the deduction credit is being used to track the numbered square, this die will be moved to within the arena 30. Tracking is done when an isolated die is returned to the arena by a player other than the one who placed the die into isolation. The player has no other record of his action other than tracking the die he once removed from the arena.
If the die is again protested, removed and isolated by another player, and returned to the rollway, the player who made the first removal can take the extra deducton credit off his achievement record 52. The player has received neither a deduction nor an achievement credit for his action. Had the protest die returned from isolation to remain in the arena 30 as a real part of the challenge, then the extra deduction credit would be removed (with the player's agreement) at or near the end of the challenge. Final action would be a deductionrfor the player, who moved the die (by protest) into isolation.
INCOMPLETE CHALLENGES As used hereinafter, a round occurs when each individual player has had a turn. After a number of rounds, the players may agree that the challenge cannot be completed with the dice left in the rollway. Usually,
there will be very few dice remaining in the rollway at this time. The problem is solved as follows: Blank Dice i There are four blank dice views out of a possible 240 views. Since only the top views of rolleddice are inspected by players, any blank rolled on the rollway may replace any blank view within the arena 30. The ex change can be made at any time without gain or loss to any players, and there is no isolation involved in the action. Arena Errors Spend a part of each turn inspecting the arena 30 for errors, which may be protested, or for protests involving isolation. Note that when a die goes into isolation, all of the other players must agree before the die is returned to the rollway. They show their agreement by not returning the die to the arena 30.
If neither of the above solutions helps in completing the game, the problem is ended at this time. Players may even decide that they want to vote on ending the problem.
One Last Contest With the problem now ended by agreement, the players or teams are allowed One Last Contest. A player must position at least one die within the arena 30 from the dice remaining in the rollway. During this last 3 minute turn, he may inspect and use all six sides of the remaining dice. This is the only time that six views of a die are used in a challenge. An achievement credit will be gained for each correct placement, and a deduction is recieved for each misplaced die. If no achievement credit is earned, the player received one deduction. Turns are taken in playing order, but no player or team is required to try this One Last Contest.
SCORE AND DEDUCTIONS The achievement record 52 is used to record a players total score at the end of a challenge. Each player receives one point for each achievement credit on his card 50. From this score is subtracted the total value of his deductions. Each deduction is worth two points, and is recorded by moving the large deduction credit to the next higher square with the addition of each new error.
The player or team with the highest score wins each game. If more than one challenge is played to make a game, a player adds his scores together.
P.H.D. ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL A players average score for all of the challenges played during any game is his P.H.D. Achievement Level. Each player takes his total score and divides it by the number of challenges played.
For example; a player may score (+l6+l8), or a total of 54 points in a game of 3 challenges. Therefore, 54 divided by 3 equals 18, and the P.H.D. Achievement Level becomes 18/3. This means that the player has been able to obtain an average score of 18 for each of three challenges played.
Players of an unequal ability may complete with each other fairly if they know their own P.H.D. Achievement Level. The point difference'between achievement levels is added to each challenge score of the player having the lower average achievement level. For example, an l8/3 player competes with a 14/5 player. The difference between their levels is 4 points. When the 14/5 person plays three challenges and scores (l6+l2+l4), or a total of 42 points, he receives corrected scores (20+l6+l8), or a total of 54 points for the game.
Now both players must try to increase their own level of achievement to win the next game. Note that games are based on corrected scores, but only real point scores make up each player's or team's new P.H.D. Achievement Level. I
When a game is played by teams, no player should use the team earned achievement points to change his own P.H.D. Achievement Level. Team players do not compete with each other for points. When the new l6/4 team plays the next game, the teams P.H.D. Achievement Level will change as if there was only one player. 'For example, the 16/4 team earned (20+l 8+1 6), or a total of 54 points in a game of 3 challenges. When the real 54 points are divided by three the result is a P.H.D. Achievement Level of l8/7 for the team. The number of individual challenges is added together for a total of (4+3) or 7 challenges.
SOLlTAlRE CHALLENGES Each type of challenge listed below has at least six versions as a player may use from l-6 challenge cards. There are no P.H.D. Achievement Levels for Solitaire. A player competes with himself in terms of errors made and time required for each challene played. Variations are listed as necessary for each type of challenge. Progressive Additional 6 card version: Limit dice rolls from l-3 in number.
Rotational Complete the arena task in numerical order by filling in arena squares No. I, then No. 2, and No. 3, No. 4, etc. If no placement of dice is made after 3-6 dice rolls, go on to the next numbered arena grid without returning.
Fragmentary Complete (in any order) either the odd or the even numbered arena squares as (No. 1, No. 3, No. l 1, etc.) or (No. 2, No. 4, No. 12, etc.). Double (in all versions) both the number of achievement credits and deductions earned after each challenge is played.
Closure Play this type after the dice have been positioned in Fragmentary. Complete the remaining odd or even numbered arena grids. Double (in all versions) both the number of achievement credits and deductions earned after each challenge played. Additional version: Play as in Rotational.
Expansive After the first die (any die) is positioned within the arena, each additional placement must connect with at least one side of a die already positioned within the arena.
GROUP CHALLENGES Group challenges can be played by 2-6 players or by 2-6 (two-player) teams. Variations are listed as necessary for each type of challenge.
Collective There are six versions, as players use from l-6 challenge cards. All players (or teams) play with the same challenge cards.
Separative There are five versions, as groups will use from 2-6 challenge cards. Each player (or team) will compete, while playing with his own set of challenge cards. All players (or teams) must use an equal number of challenge cards for these challenges. Players may divide the challenge cards as follows: 2 players (or 2 teams) receive 2 or 3 challenge cards per player. 3 players (or 3 teams) receive 2 challenge cards per player. 4-6 players (or 4-6 teams) receive I challenge card per player.
SPECIAL GROUP CHALLENGES both the number of achievement credits and deductions earned after each challenge is played. Additional (separative) version: Players (or teams) divide evenly with some playing the odd numbered arena squares while others play the even numbered arena squares. Closure Play this type after the dice have been positioned in a Fragmentary challenge. Complete the remaining odd or even numbered arena grids. Double (in all versions) both the number of achievement credits and deductions earned after each challenge played. Additional two versions: Play as in Rotational. Expansive After the first die (any die) is positioned within the arena, each additional placement must connect with at least one side-of a die already positioned within the arena.
1. A visual perception teaching, measuring, and
amusement device comprising:
a plurality of dice, each die containing six different views, each view being a segment of a separate pictorial representation of a different structure;-
a substantially flat surface 'capableof supporting the dice, with a pattern of spacedparallel and perpendicular lines located upon the surface to form a plurality of squares of a size and number corresponding to the size and number of dice;
means for identifying each square on said surface;
a plurality of cards, each card containing a pictorial representation of a structure shown by the assembled dice, with a pattern of spaced parallel and perpendicular lines located upon the pictorialrepresentation to form a plurality of squares of a size and number corresponding to the size and number of dice;
a second plurality of cards, with a first pattern of spaced parallel and perpendicular lines located upon a portion of each card to form a plurality of squares of a number corresponding to the number of dice for recording points, and a second pattern of spaced parallel and perpendicular lines located upon another portion of each card for recording errors;
means for identifying each square of said first and second patterns on each card of said second pluraly;
means for measuring a predeteznnined time period;
whereby when said dice-are selectively arranged adjacent one another in rows and columns on said surface, a pictorial representation corresponding to the pictorial representation of a selected card is formed.
2. The device of claim 1 further defined by markers of various sizes, shapes, and colors for placement on said squares of said first and second patterns.
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