Construction of artificial-stone or concrete pavements
US 375999 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 2 sheets-Sheena. P. H. JACKSON.
CONSTRUCTION 0F ARTIFICIAL STONE-0R CONCRETE PAVEMENTS. No. 375,999. y Patented Jan. 3, 1888.
N. PErEns, Pham-Lilhognphar. washington. D. C.
(No Mdem 2 sheets-sheet 2. P. H. JACKSON.
CCNSTEUCTICNACE ARTIFICIAL STONE 0R CONCRETE PAVEMENTS.-
N. PETERS. Piwtn-Lnhagmphu. wnshingwn. D, C.
f UNITED STATES PATENT Ormeso PETER` H. JACKSON, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA.
CONSTRUCTIONV OFy ARTIFICIAL-STONE OR CONCRETE PAVEMENTS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 375,999, dated January 3, 1888.
` Application filed October 27, 1886. Serial No. 217,372. (No model.)
.T 0 all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, PETER H. Jackson, of San Francisco, State of California, have invented certaimnew and useful Improvements in the Construction of Artificial-Stone or Concrete Sidewalks, Floors, Roofs, &c.; and l declare the following to be a full, clear, and ex` act description thereof, sufficientV to enable any person skilled in the art to which my invention belongs to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying draw,- ings, forming part 'of this specification.
The invention relates 'to artificial-stone or concrete sidewalks, floors, or roofs.
The object of' the invention is to strengthen and render more durable sidewalks, floors, roofs, and similar bodies constructed of articial stone, concrete, or like material.
The invention consists in the combination of a sidewalk, floor, roof, or similar body constructed of articial stone, concrete, or like material, with a series of arches, the footings` of the arches being connected by ties provided with sleeves and skewbacks at their ends, and means whereby the skewbacks are forced against the material, the span of the arch decreased, and the structure strengthened; furthermore, in a sidewalk, floor, roof, or likeV body constructed of articial stone, concrete, or like material, with a series of arches, -the footings of the arches being connected by ties provided with sleeves and skewbacks at their ends, and intermediate of their ends with adjusting devices; furthermore, of a sidewalk, floor, roof, or like body constructed of artificial stone, concrete, or like material, with a -series of arches, and having embedded in the footings ofthe arches ties provided with sleeves and skewbacks at their ends, the ends of the ties being screw-threaded and provided with keys, whereby the skewbacks may be thrust against the material;` and, finally, in various novel details of construction whereby the effectiveness of the structure is insured and the object of the invention is attained.
To resist the tensile strain, one or more nietallic ties are built in at or near the bottom of the arch and alongl its length, with their ends projecting through. The ties are united to theinclosing material by hydraulic or other strong cement, or are held by the plastic material of which the arch is composed. That over it. By this arrangement for ordinary use plain bar, rod, plate, or band iron, or other. shaped metal made at rollingmills may be used as tie metal at or near the bottom of the arch without the usual expensive preparation of corrugating, roughening, indenting, or forming raised portions or irregular surfaces on the metal, or by'cross-stops or by pins or any other preparation of the tie to make it hold over its length to the inclosing material when cemented to it. j
Plain bar, rod, plate, or band iron or steel ties,` without the preparation described for holding, and Without the arrangement of the end abutting plates or skewbacks, but only cemented along the bottom of the arch, will not hold from sliding through the inclosing material when subjected t0 severe y'tensile strain. y y
A metallic tie at the bottom of an arch and extending along its length to be subjected to transverse strain must of necessity be cemented to the inclosing material practically over its length and more securely held at the center of its length, which is the place subjected to the greatest transverse strain, to preventits breaking away in its connection to the top when the arch is undergoing deflection.
With metallic ties that have been prepared over their length to hold to the inclosing material of the arch at the bottom, as described, and with the assistance of the skewbacks or abutting plates and the means for forcing them against the ends of the arch, the holding of the tie to theinclosing mate rial islargelyincreased and is adapted to places of severe trial, as that of arches of slight 'rise and long span.
In front of buildings area-spaces have to be provided between them and the sidewalk. In iioors openings are left for stairways, and for IOO pavements and platforms over excavations the ends of the arches have to be supported, and for this purpose girdcrs are used either at one or both ends. XVhere one end of the arch is supported by a girder and the other end by a wall or other support, the end without the girder-support requires skewbaeks, &c., as described, the other end of the arches abutting against the side of the girder, the girder rcsisting the thrust of the arch and supporting their ends, the side ot' the girder taking the place of the abutting plates or skewbacks, the ends of the ties passing through the girder, with the nuts, keys, or wedges tightened on the outside, thus firmly holding the girder to the arches, and should the girder be of two or more metal beams it firmly holds them together, being held in place b v the lies, which pass through them, and by filling in the space between the beams with artificial stone, concrete, or other plastic material, when hardened, any number of" beams l'orming the girder become as one in support of the load and prevent leakage from the top between the beams forming the girder.
When the metallic ties are cemented to the inclosing material along their length, they are incorporated with the mass as long as they hold to it, and any pulling force applied at the end of the tie and compressively resisted by the abutting end ofthe arch, which is the fulcrum, is not tensilely felt by the tie in the inclosing material while held to it. Should the tie not be straight or bent, any amount of pulling iorce on the end ot' the tie would fail to change it as long as the inclosing material held it in its bond. In order to produce tensile strain on the tie at a suitable distance from the ends, I use tubes or sleeves that will fit closely on the tic, one being slipped over each end of the tie with the outer end against the abutting plate, skcwback, or side ot' girder, the tie passing through them, the iuclosing material at the end of the arch being cemented to the sleeves and the tie being l'rce to slide on the inside. After the concrete or other material of the arch has become hard and strong and the tie tensilely strained inside of the sleeves, that part of' the bottom of the arch between the inside ends of the sleeves is compressed and the arch strengthened. These sleeves or coverings of the tic may be of any shape to conform to the shape of the tic, and are preferred to be ot' metal, or may be of any other material that will separate the tie from the material of the arch and permit it to slip through it, such as thick cloth, paper, blacklead, clay, &c.
Figures l to 4, inclusive, represent arches extending in a cross direction, and in the bottoms between and at their ends along their length are metallic ties embedded and cemented to the inclosing material with skewbacks, sleeves, &c.
Fig. l is a longitudinal section of an arch, A, on the line G H, Fig. 2.
a, is a metallic tie built in the material at the bottom between the arches and along the length, extending through the sleeves d d at the ends, and through abutting plates b b,and having screw-threadson its ends, with the nuts ZX dx, when screwed up, pressed against the abutting plates and ends ot' the arch.
Fig. 2 is a perspeetlve view, of which Fig. l is the longitudinal section, showing the ends` of the arches A with the ties, sleeves, and abutting plates as described for Fig. l.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sect-ion of an arch from J K, being on the line M Not Fig. 4. At one end is shown agirder composed of two metallic beams, o o, which may be of one, two, three,or more beams, as required for strength, or maybe of any other form or kind ofgirder. This girder supports the ends of the arches A, which abut against it, the metallic tie a passing through the webs of both beams 0 o, and when the nut on the outside is screwed up after the arches are formed and become hard and strong it presses the girder' against the end of the arches, making an abutment and taking the place ot' abutting plates or skewbacks. t d are the sleeves or coverings of the ties. Upon the other end of the arch is an abutting plate, I), with the wedge or tapering key d2 forced into the slot in the tie and pressing against the abutting plate b, serving the same purpose as the nut on the other end of the tie. A section of illuminating-tile, L, is shown extending out from the front ot' the building,upon which one end rests, tothe side` walk and over on the girder covering the areaspace, the space V between the beams o o being filled in with concrete or like plastic material.
Fig. 4 shows aview cut off on the line J K of Fig. 3,-in order that the ends ot the arches may be seen.
In Figs. 5, 6, 7, and 8 the arches with ties extend the long way instead of crosswise, as in the preceding figures. pass through thc sleeves at the ends of the arches, and by screwing up the nuts or forcing thekeysagainst the abuttingplatessk ewbaeks, or girder the arch is cambercd and the bottom or intrados of the arch is compressed, increasing the strength of the arch, which could not be done if the sleeves or coverings of the tics were omitted.
Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section of the arch A on the line C D of either Fig. 6 or 7, shown with the girder composed of two metallic beams, 0o, the tieapassing through them, and the space V between the beams filled with artificial stone, concrete, or other plastic material, when hardened uniting the beams as one, and by screwing up the nuts dx dX itshortens the tie between the nuts and eambers the arch. bX is a skewbaek. In many cases access cannot be had to the end nuts or keys to tighten and strain the ties by reason of the ends being covered by masonry or brick-work, and to overcome this over the strut c, between it and the under side of the arch, is shown the tapering key or wedgef, which,when forced in, increases The metallic ties L IOO IlO
vmeans of the sleeves d don the ties a, as well as the key f over the strut e. Y
Fig. 7 is a perspective View of a direct arch, or arched only in one direction over-its length from the line E F, Fig. 5, and exten'dingwto the skewback bx.
shorten it. c Fig. 7L is a longitudinal section of turn'- buckle n and skewback.
Fig. 7" is a longitudinal section of a recessed skewback, bx, holdingan immovable nut, dx. The nuts on opposite ends act on reverse The distance between nuts is shortcned by turning the tie a in the middle of its length b y tongs, thereby cambering the arch, producing compression at the intrados.
Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section representing the same construction as Figs. 6 and 7 on the line C D, and having a girder, p, of L shape o n one end and an abutting plate, b, at the other. The strut e'has a tapering key, h, at the bottom between it and the tie.
Fig. 9 is an enlarged view of the parts. The tie a is shown with the nut d on one end, and at the other end a tapering key, d2, driven through the tie. The strut e shows some of the dierent methods for increasing the distance between the tie and the crown of the arch. One is shownwith the tapering keyf at the top, and another is shown to be with screws g g, passing through the top of the strut and pressing against a plate, which forces up the archk Another is shown with the key h between the tie and the under part of the strut.
The strut may be made in two pieces in heighty having a tapering screw, key, or Wedge n is a turn-buckle on the tie to between, by which the distance between the tie and archmay be increased, as in the other methods.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, isv.
l. The combination ofasidewalk, door, roof', or similar body constructed of artificial stone, concrete, or like material, with a series of arches, the footings of the arches being connected by ties provided with sleeves and skewba'cks at their ends, and means, substantially as described, whereby the skewbacks are forced against the material, the span of the arch decreased,and the structure strengthened.
2. A sidewalk, iioor, rool", or -similar body constructed ofartiticial stone, concrete, or like material, with a series of arches, the footings of the arches being connected by ties provided with sleeves and skewbacks at their ends, and intermediate ot' their ends with adjusting de` vices, substantially as described.
3. A sidewalk, floor, roof, or like body of artificial stone, concrete, or like material,with
a series of arches, and having embedded in f the footings of the arches ties provided with sleeves and skewbacks at their ends, the ends of the ties being screw-threaded and provided with keys, whereby the skewbacks may be thrust against the material, substantially as described.
4. A sidewalk, floor, or root` constructed withA artificial stone or concrete, arches with longitudinal ties to resist the tensile strain, with the ends extending through sleeves or coverings, by which that part ofthe ties may slide independent of the material which'it passes through, -in combination with screws, nuts, keys, wedges, turn-buckles, or the like, by which tension on the tie may be increased and the material acted upon compressed, substantially as herein described,A
PETER H. JACKSON.
JAMEs B. LANE, WM. MEYER.
It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. 375,999, granted January 3, 1888-, upon the application of Peter H. J aokson, of San Francisco, lalifornia, for an improvement in The Construction of Artificial Stone or Concrete Pavement,77 errors appear in the printed specification requiring correction as follows: In line 40, page 1, the Word and 7 should have been printed or and on page 3, line 75, the Words having nuts, or being should have been inserted before the Word provided 5 and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record ofthe ease in the Patent Office.
Signed, oountersigned, and sealed this 14th day of February, A. D. 1888.
[SEAL] D. L. iarAvvKnvs.l
v Acting Secretary of the Interior.
BnN'roN J. HALL,
Commissioner of Patents.