|Publication number||US3760502 A|
|Publication date||Sep 25, 1973|
|Filing date||Dec 20, 1971|
|Priority date||Dec 20, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3760502 A, US 3760502A, US-A-3760502, US3760502 A, US3760502A|
|Original Assignee||A Hirsch|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (19), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [1 1 Hirsch 1 1 Sept. 25, 1973  DENTAL VENEER STRUCTURES 2,105,398 1/1938 Barrett et al 32/12 inventor: Arnold J sc 211 N. Ha r son 2,486,327 10/1969 Rothwell 32/12 St., Princeton, NJ. 08540 Primary Examiner-Robert Peshock  F'led: 1971 Atl0rney-Arthur L. Plevy  Appl. No.: 209,588
 ABSTRACT E C(i1. There is disclosed pie C01 ore d veneer Structures  F .ld 3%; l0 2 adapted to be emplaced upon the appropriate Surface 0 care of a crown accommodating a tooth. The veneers employ appropriate fastening means on a back surface  References Cited whereas the crown has corresponding coacting means UNITED STATES PATENTS on the veneer accommodating surface to enable easy 3,375,582 4/1968 Myerson 32/12 emplacement and removal of such veneers. 3,483,618 12/1969 Andrew 3,102,337 9/1963 14 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures Mintz 32/12 PATENTED3EP25|975 -3'.760.502
w" F i g- H. q ll nul INVENTOR.
W ARNOLD J. HIRSCH Fig.l2.
1 DENTAL VENEER STRUCTURES This invention in general relates to dental apparatus and more particularly to veneer coverings for use with crowns.
Basically, the :field of orthodontics employs a wide variety of devices or appliances necessary for performing correction to the structure and format of the teeth of a patient.
These devices include crowns which are metallic covers to be emplaced over a tooth in order to cover the same as to prevent decay, to be used as a structural member in regard to a set of braces or in general to supplant the function of the tooth by providing an artificial biting surface or restoring the anatomy of the tooth and so on.
Ofcourse, such crowns as created do not resemble a tooth insofar as color is concerned. Naturally, many individuals, such as teenagers, adults and so on object to the fact that this is the case and hence undergo a difficult adjustment process in the utilization of such appliances.
In typical prior crown devices, the common method employed in inserting such crowns is difficult and time consuming. The technique involves extensive grinding of teeth, formulating specific patterns and/or impressions of the teeth, transmitting this data to a laboratory to have the crowns customed tailored to such impressions. After this is done, the practitioner still has to secure the same to the patients prepared teeth. Such crowns may be coated or colored in an attempt to match the coloring of the patients teeth and so on. Such prior art techniques for laminating these crowns are known and are many.
A new technique for fabricating crowns and new crown structure has been described and is the subject of a copending application Ser. No. 871,589 and entitled SWAGED METAL DENTAL CROWNS" and filed for the applicant herein on Nov. 7, 1969.
This technique and novel structure can generally be referred to as a swaged crown.
These crowns differ from those present in the prior art in that the swaged crown according to that application has the features in that the top and sides of the crown conform with the tooth but do not conform with the undercuts of the tooth. In this manner, the swaged crown can be easily prepared by the unskilled technician and easily removed from both the die used in the preparation of the crown and from the patients tooth once emplaced.
In any event, the emplacement or utilization of any crown presents the problem of coloring thesame in order to conform to. a desirable tooth appearance.
It is of course realized that the prior art is also cognizant of the coloring problem and attempted to solve the same in many ways.
For example, in the case of crown castings undercuts in the castings are emplaced at the periphery for a veneer or tooth covering. In addition, plastic beads are used and. in the burnout of the casting pattern the undercut portion of thecasting is now a part of the casting and located at the part formerly occupied by the beads. If the veneer discolored after utilization by the patient the crown or castingwould have to be removed with great djfficulty. The; removal usually destroyed the crown and hence a complete new crown and veneer would have to be fabricated for replacement.
It is this aspect of the problem that this invention is concerned with.
his therefore an object of thepresent invention to provide a simple, economical and efficient structure which can be utilized in conjunction with crowns to afford coloring of the same while further permitting easy removal of the structure if discoloring or wear takes place of if replacement is desired for any reason.
The invention discloses a relatively thin veneer member of a planar configuration having an extremely thin width and dimensioned to be substantially congruent with a predetermined tooth format, said member has a relatively smooth front surface treated to provide a predesired tooth coloration and a back surface including fastening means located thereon, further means are included and are adapted to be coupled to a desired surface of a users tooth, said further means including a fastening member adapted to coact with said fastening means to secure said veneer member and firmly hold the same when said thin member is placed in congruency with said tooth.
A better understanding of the invention may be had by referring to the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment thereof and the drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a portion of the dentition in the lower left quadrant from the buccal aspect;
FIG. 2 is a front or buccal view of a bicuspid having a swaged crown shown in cross section emplaced thereon;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view ofa swaged crown having a series of wire loops on a front surface;
FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of a tooth including a swaged crown with a plurality of fastening means according to this invention;
FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of a crown accommodating a plurality of retaining means of an alternate embodiment;
FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 5 showing a different arrangement of retaining means;
FIGS. 7c are respectively a front, side and back view ofa preformed veneer according to this invention;
FIG. 8 is a front elevational view of a swaged crown emplaced on a tooth the crown having a treated surface according to this invention;
FIG. 9 is a front elevational view of a swaged crown having fastening means on a front surface;
FIG. 10 is an elevational view ofa veneer with corresponding fastening means to be used in conjunction with the crown of FIG. 9;
FIG. 11 is a side view of a crown fastening member; and
FIG. 12 is a side view showing a corresponding veneer fastening member.
Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown a lower left second bicuspid 11 which is situated between the lower left first bicuspid l3 and a first molar 15 of the same quadrant. The surface portion of front teeth facing or nearest the lips of a person are commonly referred to as the labial surface, while that surface portion of all teeth facing the tongue of the person is referred to as the lingual surface. Obviously, the labial surface is of primary concern in regard to asthetic or cosmetic qualities. Hence, when a tooth is to accommodate a crown or other artifice, any abnormal discoloration afforded thereby presents a problem to the user.
Basically, it can be seen from FIG. 1 that a tooth is not round or circular in cross section but is normally highly irregular characterized by a decided mesio-distal constriction at the gingival border.
The bicuspid 15, for example, flares out towards the occlusial surface 14 to a greater or lesser degree around the tooth and then curves inwardly towards the undercut surface generally shown at 16. The occlusial surface 14 of the tooth is also irregular in shape.
It is therefore obvious and as fully explained in the above-noted copending application that a proper fitting crown or band must be made especially for each tooth.
Basically, a crown, referred to as a swaged crown and fully described in the copending application is formed from a thin walled metal cap, designated as a crown blank, and a die member. The die member is formed by taking an impression of the tooth. The crown blank is then swaged so that the occlusial surface and occlusial one-half or incisial one-half crown surfaces are conformed to the die, while the undercut portions of the sides of the crown are not so swaged and hence remain relatively parallel one to the other. This feature affords easy crown emplacement and removal. An example of such a swaged crown 17 is shown emplaced upon a tooth 18 in FIG. 2.
In the figure, the crown is shown in cross section, but actualy is a cylindrical member with a swaged top conforming to the occlusial surface of the top and the onehalf occlusial surface, the portion of the crown corresponding to the undercut portion of the tooth remaining relatively cylindrical and corresponding to the original structure of the crown blank.
However, due to the fact that such crowns are usually fabricated from non-corrosive malleable metals, once emplaced they by necessity appear as metal-colored rather than tooth-colored.
Hence, it is apparent that the crown 18 in order to present the desired asthetic appearance must be colored accordingly.
The prior art recognized this problem and attempted to color" crowns, which word is now used in the generic sense, with cut or conformed veneer members. Each member had to be hand-carved" to conform to the labial surface of the crowned tooth. This was and is a time consuming operation. Bonding techniques dictated that the casting for the crown have veneer accommodating undercut portions for retention of the veneer used for coloring. Each veneer, as indicated, was then hand-fitted" at great expense and time to conform with the crown structure. The veneer was then fastened by a direct bonding technique and so on. However,
great difficulty was experienced by both the practitioner and patient in utilizing such techniques.
First, if the veneer discolored, it could not be easily removed. Secondly, if the prior art crowns had to be removed to treat the tooth, then the veneer would be destroyed as well as the crown. Thirdly, the bonding technique was at best marginal due to the poor bond formed between the veneer and the relatively smooth crown surface.
It would therefore be advantageous to provide preformed veneers capable of easy emplacement and removal and which can be reliably bonded to the surface of a crown, in particular that of the above-described swaged variety.
Referring to FIG. 3, there is shown a crown 20 with the top occlusial surface swaged to conform to that of a tooth. Also shown, for example, on the labial or buccal surface of the crown is a series of wire loops 31; which wire loops may be welded, soldered or direct bonded to the crown. The direct bonding can be accomplished by utilizing a direct bonding cement or a suitable epoxy compound. The purpose of the loops which are shown in a side view in FIG. 4 is to provide a working surface which will afford a better coupling between the preformed veneer and the treated surface of the crown. The wire loops as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 may be fabricated from a non-magnetic chromium alloy or alternatively from a suitable stainless steel and so on. Thus, this particular configuration forms an addition to a suitable surface of the crown enabling the practitioner to easily bond thereto a suitable veneer; or alternatively, to easily treat the corresponding surface of the crown with a typical coloring compound.
Referring to FIG. 5, there is shown a side elevational view of a tooth 32, a swaged crown configuration 33 and a series of small L-shaped brackets 34 which are placed on the labial or buccal surface of the crown in a configuration similar to that configuration shown in FIG. 3.
FIG. 6 shows still another embodiment of a series of T-shaped brackets 38 also positioned similarly to that shown in FIG. 3 and used for providing the same effect.
Referring to FIG. 7, there is shown a front view of a typical preformed veneer 40 according to this invention. The preformed veneer 40 is fabricated from a suitable acrylic, plastic or metal and such metal may possess a baked on enamel finish ofa predesired coloration to correspond to tooth color. Alternatively, a veneer can be fabricated from a plastic impregnated with metal filings or powder (iron, steel). This veneer structure can be directly welded to the surface of the crown, thereby eliminating the necessity for a bonding material such as a cement or epoxy.
Basically, the veneer 40 of FIG. 7 has a relatively smooth front surface necessary to provide cosmetic appeal. The veneer 40 is preformed in the sense that it can be fabricated separate and apart from the crown. Such veneers may be mass-produced and then roughly dimensioned by the practitioner in order to correspond with a typical surface ofa typical tooth. In this manner, such veneers can be preformed for bicuspid, incisor or other types of typical tooth configurations.
FIG. 7a shows a side view of the veneer of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7b shows a back view. It can be seen that the preformed veneer 40 is provided with indentations 41 which are dimensioned to correspond with the wire loops 31, the L-shaped brackets 34 or the "T- shaped" brackets 38. Hence, the veneer 40 is coated with a suitable epoxy or direct bonding cement as is the veneer accommodating surface of the crown. The technician then merely emplaces the veneer so that the bonding is afforded between the surface of the veneer and is retained by means of the increased surface area afforded by the above-noted or bracket-like configuratrons.
The concept of the preformed planar like veneer member shown in FIG. 7 alleviates time consuming efforts present in prior art techniques.
Referring to FIG. 8, there is shown a crown 51 of the swaged variety having a surface characterized by a plurality of fine scored lines. This line surface provides an increased surface area which can accommodate the direct bonding of a veneer as shown in FIG. 7. In this manner, the veneer 40 can easily be direct bonded to the metal crown 51 to provide a good contact and a relatively permanent connection. Due to the particular configuration of the swaged crown as described above, if any discoloration occurs in regard to the veneer, the entire crown together with the veneer may be removed easily without damage to the veneer.
Referring to FIG. 9, there is shown a swaged crown 61 emplaced upon a tooth 62. On the surface of the crown 61 there exist two rail-like members 63 and 64, each having a cross section as shown in FIG. 10. Basically, the members 63 and 64 are fastening or retaining members and are placed by the practitioner at a predetermined spacing on the surface of the crown 61. The members 63 and 64 may be positioned and bonded in place by means of an epoxy or direct bonding cement. An example of such a direct bonding cement may comprise a combination of an orthophosphoric acid plus an oxy phosphate powder. There exist other cements and epoxys which will suffice as well.
In any event, the rail members 63 and 64 are bonded to the surface of the crown. A veneer 65 as shown in FIG. is of a planar configuration and is preformed of a general shape to correspond with the shape of the particular type of tooth 62 having the crown 61 emplaced thereon. The front surface of the planar veneer is relatively smooth and treated to possess a typical tooth coloration. Shown secured to the back of the veneer are two fastening members 66 and 67. The member 66 is shown in the side view of FIG. 11. The membets are similarly bonded to the back surface of the veneer 65 or alternatively may be preformed thereon. The members 66 and 67 are of a corresponding configuration with respect to members 63 and 64 to thereby form a snap-type of arrangement. In this manner, the practitioner can now snap the veneer 65 onto the veneer accommodating members 63 and 64 located on, for example, the labial surface of the crown 61. It is of course noted that many other known types of fastening devices can be utilized to provide the desired action as depicted in FIGS. 9 and 10.
It can be seen that the snap-on veneers as well as the preformed veneers described above readily facilitate quick emplacement. The combination of either the snap-on veneer or the direct bonded veneer with the swaged crown allows the entire assembly to be easily emplaced and replaced. In the case of the snap-on veneer as shown in FIG. 10, for example, this component provides an extremely rapid procedure which will enable the patient to remove the veneers at his will without the direct assistance of a practitioner. This replacement capability of a snap-on veneer is of great advantage.
Another obvious advantage of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 is the fact that a patient may at special preferred times remove the snap-on veneer and replace the same with a veneer more suitable for a particular occasion.
It is therefore conceivable that such veneers may be fabricated from multi-colored plastics to obtain any desired tooth coloration completely at the will of the patient.
It is also noted that broken teeth or prepared teeth can be treated by a coping technique. In this manner a prepared tooth is treated and a swaged or cast copying crown is emplaced thereon. The tooth after treatment does not have any substantial surface which appears like a normal tooth configuration. Hence a veneer as described above, as for example in FIG. 7, can be emplaced on the coped tooth thereby providing the asthetic quality inherent in the appearance of a normal tooth. The technique and such veneer structures therefore are easily adapted to abnormally sloped teeth or broken teeth to enable the full restoration of asthetic quality in regard to labial views.
1. Apparatus for use in providing color to a desired surface of a tooth of a user, comprising:
a. a relatively thin planar member dimensioned to be substantially congruent with a predetermined tooth format corresponding to said tooth of said user, said member having a relatively smooth front surface treated to provide a predesired tooth coloration and a back surface including fastening means located thereon,
b. means adapted to be coupled to said desired sur face of said users tooth, said means including a fastening member adapted to coact with said fastening means to secure said thin member and firmly hold the same when said thin member is placed in congruency with said tooth.
2. Apparatus for use in providing color to a desired surface of a tooth of a user comprising:
a. a relatively thin planar member dimensioned to be substantially congruent with said surface of said users tooth and having a relatively smooth front surface treated to provide a desired tooth coloration and a back surface including a first fastening member,
b. means adapted to be coupled to said surface of a users tooth, said means including a second fastening member adapted to coact with said first fastening member to secure said thin member and firmly hold the same when said member is placed in congruency with said tooth.
3. Apparatus for providing a desired coloration for a tooth comprising in combination:
a. a dental crown member of a cylindrical configuration and having a closed top surface and an opened bottom end and of a diameter sufficient to accommodate said tooth, said crown having said top surface swaged to conform to the occlusial surface of said tooth, with a portion of the side surfaces near said top portion of said crown swaged to conform to the side surfaces of said tooth while said bottom portion of said crown near said opened bottom end remains cylindrical so as not to conform to the undercut portion of said tooth for easy removal, said crown further having a predetermined portion of said surface thereof corresponding to an exposed tooth surface,
b. means positioned on said corresponding surface of said crown adapted to provide a fastening mechanism, and
c. a planar veneer member dimensioned to be substantially congruent with said corresponding tooth surface and treated to provide said coloration, said veneer member having a relatively smooth front surface and a back surface adapted for coaction with said fastening mechanism on said surface of said crown, whereby when said veneer is placed in congruency with said surface of said crown it will be retained thereon to provide said desired coloration.
4. The apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said means positioned on said corresponding surface of said crown comprises:
a. a plurality of wire loops arranged about a portion of the periphery of said corresponding surface.
5. The apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said means positioned on said corresponding surface comprises:
a. a plurality of T shaped members symmetrically arranged on said corresponding surface.
6. The apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said means positioned on said corresponding surface comprises:
a. a plurality of L" shaped brackets symmetrically arranged on said corresponding surface.
7. The apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said means positioned on said corresponding surface comprises:
a. a longitudinal tubular member having a slot along the surface thereof, and
b. means securing said member to said corresponding surface of said crown with said slot positioned above said surface.
8. The apparatus according to claim 7 wherein said planar veneer member further comprises:
a. a rod-like member mounted on said back surface of said veneer and having a top portion adapted to neer may be snapped into and retained by said slot. 9. The apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said means positioned on said corresponding surface of said crown includesa plurality of thin-lined grooves on said surface.
10. The apparatus according to claim 3 further comprising:
a. a direct bonding means coupling said back surface of said veneer to said means positioned on said corresponding surface of said crown.
11. The apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said planar veneer is fabricated from a plastic impregnated with pieces of a conductive metal.
12. An article of manufacture for use in dentistry for providing a predesired coloration for a surface of a tooth, said tooth having fastening means secured to said surface, comprising:
a. a relatively thin planar member dimensioned to be substantially congruent with said surface ofa tooth, said member having a relatively smooth front surface treated to provide said coloration and having a back surface including fastening means thereon adapted to coact with said fastening means on said surface of said tooth.
13. The article of manufacture according to claim 12 wherein said surface of said tooth is the labial surface.
14. The article of manufacture according to claim 12 coact with Said Slot in Said longitudinal tubular wherein said thin planar member is fabricated from a member for insertion thereinto, whereby said veplastic. a:
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|U.S. Classification||433/222.1, 433/203.1, 433/218|
|Cooperative Classification||A61C5/08, A61C5/002|
|European Classification||A61C5/00F, A61C5/08|