|Publication number||US3761195 A|
|Publication date||Sep 25, 1973|
|Filing date||May 4, 1971|
|Priority date||May 4, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3761195 A, US 3761195A, US-A-3761195, US3761195 A, US3761195A|
|Original Assignee||M Eskeli|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (8), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1191 Eskeli 1451 Sept. 25, 1973 COMPRESSING CENTRIFUGE Assistant ExaminerAllen. M. Ostrager  Inventor: Michael Eskeli, 6220 Orchid Ln, Attorney-Wm. T. Wofford, Robert A. Felsman, James Dallas Tex. 75230 C. Falls and Arthur F. Zobal  Filed: May 4, 1971  ABSTRACT 21] App| 140 124 Method and apparatus for compressing dry or wet gases wherein the gas is compressed in a high speed rotor and discharged from said rotor in essentially com-  US. Cl 415/1, 415/80, 415/83, pressed State to a secondary rotor Where the kinetic em 415/147 ergy of the fluid stream is converted to work; this work  Int. Cl. FOld 1/06, FOld 1/22 can be then used to decrease the work input to the  Fleld 0f Search 415/147, 80, 83 mary rotor, resulting in an improved efficiency for the machine. Dry gases, such as air, may be compressed;  References C'ted also, wet gases or vapors, with a predetermined amount UNITED STATES ATEN S of liquid, such as gas-liquid mixture of propane, may be 1.034,1s4 7/1912 Alberger 415/147 mp ss d and liquefied within the said primary rotor 2,321,276 6/1943 Bolt 415/147 with the fluid being a liquid when reaching the second- 2.33 ,625 11/1943 Heppner 415/147' -ary rotor and being discharged as a liquid from the ma- FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS g F g liquid be addeld to atdry 53 pre e ermine amoun or examp e, wa er a e 0 7,637 4 1908 G B t 6O 27 1,033,790 4/1953 415/1 47 am to absorb m heat durmg compress'on and thereby decrease primary rotor speed. Primary Examiner-Martin P. Schwadron 13 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures L W t Q 1e 4 r Pmmmmsm BJGIJQ INVENTOR.
BY mdmze PATENTED SEPZS i975 SHEET 2 BF 3 INVENT OR.
l COMPRESSING CENTRIFUGE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates generally to devices for compressing gases; either as a dry gas or as a wet gas with an amount of liquid fed to the compressor with the gas.
The art of compressing gases has seen variety of devices. One large group of such devices uses centrifugal force to accelerate the gas in an impeller, then throwing the gas to the diffuser where said gas is compressed by converting the kinetic energy imparted to the gas by the impeller, to pressure.
The main disadvantage of these conventional compressors is their poor efficiency.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a sectional view of one form of the compressor.
FIG. 2 is an end view of the same compressor shown in FIG. 1, as well as an embodiment of invention.
FIG. 3 is an end view of another form of the compressor and FIG. 4 is a sectional view of the same compressor, as well as an embodiment of this invention.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS It is an object of this invention to provide a method and an apparatus to compress gases, either dry, or gases containing liquids, in which the gas is compressed within a rotor to approximately to its final pressure, after which the gas is passed from the rotor via suitable openings to a section where the kinetic energy contained by the the gas is converted to work with only minor changes in the pressure of the gas. After the kinetic energy is absorbed by the secondary rotor, the gas is passed to the machine gas outlet in compressed condition and at a pressure that is higher than the inlet pressure of said gas.
It is also an object of this invention to provide means for compressing gases with suitable properties, wherein the gas is liquefied within the primary rotor, after which the liquid is passed from the primary rotor to the secondary rotor wherein the kinetic energy of the liquid is converted to power; after'theliquid has been slowed to a suitable velocity, it is passed to the outlet from said compressor in liquid form.
Referring to FIG. ll, therein is illustrated a sectional view of one form of said compressor. 10 is a stationary compressor casing, 11 is the primary rotor, equipped with openings 16 on the periphery and with vanes 24 defining cavities within the rotor for assuring that the fluid within said rotor will rotate at same velocity as the rotor. Gas is admitted to said primary rotor via hollow shaft opening 13; said gas may be dry or may have a predetermined amount of liquid with it. After compression of the fluid by centrifugal action within the primary rotor, said fluid leaves the rotor through openings 16, and is passed to openings 17 in the secondary rotor. The rotational velocity of the secondary rotor is maintained to convert the kinetic energy contained in the fluid, to work, in said secondary rotor. In passage 17, vanes are placed to to deflect the said fluid stream; the design of these vanes and sizing of the passages is conventional and is not further described herein. 14 is the In FIG. 2, an end view of the same compressor is shown. is the stationary housing, 11 is the primary rotor, 14 is the secondary rotor, 24 are vanes in the primary rotor, 16 are openings at the periphery of the primary rotor, 17 are deflection vanes, or buckets, in the secondary rotor, 18 is the annular space for collecting the fluid, 19 is the fluid outlet, is the work output secondary rotor, 15 is the work output shaft, 18 is an 6 shaft, 23 is the bearing housing, 22-is stationary housing support, and 25 is an indicator arrow to show the direction of rotation of said primary and secondary rotors.
In FIG. 3 an end view of a second form of the compressor is shown; the main differece being the method of converting the kinetic energy contained by the fluid, to work. 33 is the secondary rotor housing, 30 is the primary rotor, 38 are primary rotor vanes, 43 indicates the direction of rotation for the primary and secondary rotors, 36 is a fluid passage in the secondary rotor, 37 is a fluid passage in the primary rotor, 32 is a hollow shaft for fluid input and for work input into said primary rotor, and 39 is a support for the compressor.
In FIG. 4, a sectional view of the compressor shown in FIG. 3, is illustrated. 33 is the secondary rotor housing. The fluid to be compressed enters the compressor via hollow shaft 32 and passes to primary rotor 30; vanes 38 within said rotor are used to accelerate the fluid to the velocity of said rotor. The fluid leaves the said primary rotor via openings 37, and passes to secondary rotor passages 36, where the kinetic and rotational energy of said fluid is converted to work; the said fluid then is passed out from the compressor via hollow shaft 35. 40 is a bearing, 42 is a shaft seal, and 39 and 41 are shaft bearing supports.
The function of the compressor illustrated in FIG 1 and FlG.2, is as follows: Gas or gas-liquid mixture, is passed to the primary rotor 11, FIG.1, where the gas is compressed by centrifugal action within the rotor. Work is supplied to said rotor via shaft 13, causing said rotor and shaft to rotate at high speed. The rotational speed is determined by the density of the gas and by the amount of compression desired. The fluid leaves the rotor via openings 16 at the periphery of said rotor; these openings are designed and sized to retain the fluid within the said primary rotor until the desired amount of compression is reached. After leaving the primary rotor, the fluid will have essentially the same velocity as the primary rotor periphery has; this high velocity fluid is then deflected in the vanes 17 of the secondary rotor. The speed of the secondary rotor is chosen to convert most of the kinetic energy contained in the fluid stream to work, without any major changes in the pressure of the fluid. In the illustrations, one row of vanes or buckets are shown; more than one row may be used, with stationary bucket rows between the moving rows, if desired. The shaft 13 of the primary rotor is connected to a power source, such as an electric motor, and the shaft of the secondary rotor is connected to a load, or may be connected to the primary rotor shaft via a suitable powertransfer device, such as a gearbox.
The function of the compressor shown in FIG. 3 and FIG. 4 is similar to that described above; the main difference being in the method of converting the velocity of the fluid leaving the primary rotor, to work. After leaving the primary rotor, the fluid enters into passages 36 in the secondary rotor, where fluid stream is deflected in a curving passage, and passed to the center and out through a hollow shaft. The conversion of kinetic energy to power in the said passage 36 of secondary rotor 33, functionally is similar to passages in inward-flow, turbines, or commonly known as Francis turbines. In this type arrangement, there is some pressure loss for the fluid in said passage 36 due to centrifugal forces; however, this pressure loss is not significant due to lower angular speed of the secondary rotor; also, by suitable design of these passages said pressure losses can be minimized.
In the compressing centrifuge described hereinbefore pressures are lowest near the center of the primary rotor and build up so that the pressure is higher near the discharge passageways. Ordinarily, the pressure near the periphery of the primary rotor is higher than the pressure in the casing, or discharge of the compressing centrifuge, to accommodate a pressure drop of the fluid passing through the nozzles, or discharge passageways, of the primary rotor. The fluids passing through the discharge passageways may attain high velocities. There may be employed any of the conventional methods of converting to velocity the pressure drop of the compressed fluid flowing out of the discharge passageways. For example, the primary rotor discharge passageways may be sized and shaped to provide for isentropic expansion of the fluid passing therethrough so that the higher than ordinary velocities can be attained. The proper design for such discharge passageways, or nozzles, to effect isentropic expansion is well known and is discussed in standard texts and references such as KENTS MECHANICAL ENGINEERS HANDBOOK, Power Volume, J. K. Salisbury, editor, 12th edition, Wylie Engineering, Inc., New York, 1950, chapters 4-03 and -02. As discussed therein, the discharge passageways may be slightly converging although the degree of convergence is small for effecting isentropic expansion; the discharge passageways may be nonconverging; or the discharge passageways may be diverging, as illustrated by passageways l6 and 37 in FIGS. 2 and 3.
The compressors shown can be used to compress either dry or wet gases. The compression of dry gases is essentially as described above; and include gases such as air, methane, and others. The compression of gases such as propane, ethylene or other similar gases, where the fluid may exist in both liquid and vapor form at ambient temperatures, can be advantageously accomplished with the compressor described in this invention. The vapor is passed to the compressor via the hollow shaft, with a suitable amount of liquid; the purpose of the liquid is to help condense the vapor, and at the same time absorb the heat of compression and the heat of vaporization of the vapor that is being liquefied within the primary rotor. The fluid in this type of usage will be all liquid when leaving the primary rotor; normally, the primary rotor would have a layer of liquid within, although this liquid layer is not mandatory. That is, the amount of liquid may be less than the amount necessary to provide a liquid layer. On the other hand, an amount of liquid that is greater than the minimum amount necessary to create the liquid layer may be employed. The fluid temperature for this liquid leaving the compressor will be higher than the fluid entry temperature to the compressor due to the heat of vaporization of the gas being added to it. The compressor shown in FIG.3 and F164 can advantageously be used to compress liquid-vapor mixtures.
The two arrangements illustrated in the FIGURES differ primarily in the way the kinetic energy contained by the fluid when leaving the primary rotor, is converted to work. Other arrangements for said conversion may be used, some of which will be briefly listed here:
a. Mount buckets on the secondary rotor; the buckets similar to those used in impulse type hydraulic turbines, commonly known as Pelton wheels.
b. Convert the velocity energy to pressure in a suitable diffuser and then lower the pressure in a suitable engine or gas expander to obtain work; the diffuser and the gas expander may be built within the same housing as the compressor.
Further, to decrease the speed of the primary rotor for a given amount of compression, liquid may be added to the compressor inlet. Example for this would be the addition of water when compressing air; the water would absorb some of the heat of compression and thereby increase the density of the air within the primary rotor.
1. A method of compressing a fluid comprising:
a. subjecting said fluid to a centrifugal force field via a primary rotor having vanes defining cavities to ensure that said fluid attains the same rotational speed as said rotor, in a compressing centrifuge to compress said fluid to a pressure that is higher than the discharge pressure from said compressing centrifuge;
b. passing said fluid in its compressed state through discharge passageways that are smaller in cross sectional area than the area of said respective cavities intermediate said vanes upstream thereof and that are located on the periphery of said primary rotor such that centrifuging action is effected and essentially the same velocity as that of the primary rotor periphery is imparted to said fluid from said primary rotor to a secondary rotor in which a large portion of the kinetic energy contained by said fluid is extracted and converted to useful work; and
c. passing said fluid in its compressed state from said secondary rotor to a compressing centrifuge outlet, the pressure of said fluid at said compressing centrifuge outlet being higher than at said compressing centrifuge inlet.
2. A method of compressing a fluid comprising:
a. subjecting said fluid and a liquid forming a gasliquid mixture to a centrifugal force field via a primary rotor having vanes defining cavities to ensure that said gas-liquid mixture attains the same rotational speed as said rotor, in a compressing centrifuge to compress said gas-liquid mixture to a pressure that is higher than the discharge pressure from said compressing centrifuge; the liquid being fed to the compressing centrifuge at the primary rotor at a predetermined rate to form said gas-liquid mixture; said gas-liquid mixture including any additional liquid formed by condensation and solution of the fluid in the liquid injected there-into because of the centrifuging action and the centrifugal force field;
b. passing said gas-liquid mixture in its compressed state through discharge passageways that are smaller in cross sectional area than the respective said cavities intermediate said vanes upstream thereof and that are located on the periphery of said primary rotor such that centrifuging action is effected and essentially the same velocity as that of the primary rotor periphery is imparted to said fluid from said primary rotor to a secondary rotor in which a large portion of the kinetic energy contained in said gas-liquid mixture is extracted therefrom and converted to useful work; and
c. passing said gas-liquid mixture to the compressing centrifuge outlet, the outlet pressure being higher than the compressing centrifuge inlet pressure.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein at least a portion ofthe fluid to be compressed is liquefied within the primary rotor and is passed therefrom through the secondary rotor to the compressing centrifuge outlet in its liquid state, and wherein part of the heat of compression is absorbed by the fluid in its liquid state.
4. The method of claim 2 wherein the liquid being added to the fluid at the compressing centrifuge inlet is different from said fluid, the liquid being added for the purpose of absorbing part of the heat of compression of the gas.
5. The method of claim 2 wherein the liquid being added to said fluid at the compressing centrifuge inlet is liquid phase of said fluid.
6. The method of claim 2 wherein said fluid is subjected to isentropic expansion in passing through discharge passageways from said primary rotor for increased kinetic energy.
7. A compressing centrifuge for compressing fluids comprising:
a. a primary rotor means for subjecting said fluid to a centrifugal force field; said primary rotor means having a space with internal vanes defining respective cavities within said primary rotor for ensuring that any fluid within said primary rotor means rotates with the same velocity as said primary rotor means; said primary rotor means being equipped with means for introducing the fluid to be compressed at the center of said primary rotor means and having suitable discharge passageways adjacent the periphery thereof for discharging the compressed said fluid; said discharge passageways being smaller in cross sectional dimensions than the minimum cross sectional dimension of the associated cavity; said primary rotor means also having 6 a shaft for power input needed to effect rotation thereof; and
b. a secondary rotor means for absorbing and convetting to useful work a large portion of the kinetic energy of said fluid in its compressed state leaving the discharge passageways of said primary rotor means; said secondary rotor means having suitable vane means for absorbing energy from the fluid stream as it leaves the discharge passageways of said primary rotor means.
8. The compressing centrifuge of claim 1 wherein said secondary rotor means also serves as a casing with the compressed fluid being discharged via the center shaft thereof, said center shaft also effecting delivery of the power to accomplish said useful work.
9. The compressing centrifuge of claim 7 wherein a casing is provided for said primary and secondary rotor means; said casing having suitable seals and bearings for support of the respective shaft supporting said primary and secondary rotor means and for containing said fluid; saidcasing having respective passageways through which said fluid may be taken in and discharged respectively.
10. The compressing centrifuge of claim 7 wherein said discharge passageways of said primary rotor means are shaped for effecting isentropic expansion of said fluid passing therethrough.
11. The compressing centrifuge of claim 10 wherein said discharge passageways are at least nonconverging at their discharge end section.
12. The compressing centrifuge of claim 11 wherein said discharge passageways ar'e diverging at their discharge end section.
13. The compressing centrifuge of claim 7 wherein a diffuser passage is provided downstream of the secondary rotor vanes for increasing the pressure of the fluid where only a part of the kinetic energy contained in the fluid stream is converted'to work via the secondary rotor means; said diffuser passage effecting some conversion of the kinetic energy to increase the pressure of the fluid at the discharge of said compressor.
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|U.S. Classification||415/1, 415/83, 415/178, 415/147, 415/64, 415/80|
|International Classification||F01D1/00, F04D17/00, F04D17/10, F01D1/22, F01D1/06|
|Cooperative Classification||F01D1/22, F01D1/06, F04D17/10|
|European Classification||F01D1/06, F04D17/10, F01D1/22|