US 3761197 A
The variable speed vapor turbine is a basic impulse type of turbine expander designed for closed Rankine cycle systems, which is intended to eliminate the need for a large gear reduction unit usually associated with high speed automotive turbines.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [1 1' Kelly 1 VARIABLE SPEED VAPOR TURBINE  Inventor:
York, NY. 11378  Filed: Feb. 18, 1972  Appl. No.: 227,349
52 us. Cl. 415/159  Int. Cl. F0lb 25/02  Field of Search.- 415/159; 137/212  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 702,674 6/1902 Phillip 415/202 248,125 10/1881 Anunsen l 415/159 281,459 7/1883 Converse 415/159 341,732 5/1886 Cooper l 415/159 919,253 4/1909 Schulz 415/159 972,762 10/1910 Glass 415/159 2,845,249 7/1958 Donald A. Kelly, 5806 69th Pl., New
[451 Sept. 25, 1973 Primary ExuminerC. J. Husar Attorney-Donald A. Kelly 7] ABSTRACT The-variable spped vapor turbine is a basic impulse typeof turbine expander designed for closed Rankine cycle systems, which is intended to eliminate the need for a large gear reduction unit usually associated with high speed automotive turbines.
The turbine consists of an impeller with fixed axial flow blades, a nozzle plate which contains multiple sets of both axial and angular nozzles for varied axial, partial angular, and full angular vapor jet entrance.
The axial jet nozzles provide for a relatively low speed, fair torque output, while the use of angular jet nozzles results in high speed at good torque output levels.
9 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures PATENTEUSEPZSBIS SHEU 1 OF 2 FIG.
Pmmmsmslm SHEET 2 UP 2 FIC13 FIG.4
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention has been evolved by the necessity of developing a means of eliminating the large gear reduction unit usually required for turbine systems. All steam and vapor turbines normally operate at high speed levels, which for most applications must be geared down to useful speed/torque output requirements Aside from cost considerations in automotive turbine applications, space allocation becomes a problem since the major components such as the condenser and vapor generator must of necessity be large in volume.
The elimination of the gear reduction unit will allow a more compact power package and reduce the total weight, along with reduced maintenance requirements.
The addition of sets of multiple varying angle jet nozzles is simpler than in a previous proposed nozzle arrangement, which would require complex or possibly servo linkage to collectively vary and set the nozzle angular attitude.
Although it is probable that the efficiency of the near axial position nozzles will be low because of the approximate 50% loss of jet impulse effect, their utilization at maximum radius will be practical when coupled with full vapor throttle control, and a matched automatic transmission.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In a single stage impulse type turbine, it appears practical to provide multiple sets of nozzles,-arranged in concentric stages, which are aligned at differing angles relative to the rotating direction of the turbine impeller.
This multiple phase arrangement will provide variable speed torque combinations, when coupled with the vapor throttle control, so that a wide speed range is obtained than is now possible.
A concentric set of axial nozzles will be uniformly located at a maximum radius on the nozzle plate, with angular nozzles located at a slightly smaller radius and uniformly staggered in relation to the outer axial jet nozzles.
To achieve varying impeller speed practically, careful judgement must be applied in contouring the impeller blades for smooth vapor flow throughout all the phases of nozzle angular attitudes. The blades must be winged somewhat deeper than normal axial flow winging, and set at a discrete angle relative to the mean angle of all nozzles, so that optimum impulse/ reaction vapor jets are realized for all speeds.
It is important that an optimum jet reaction be obtained at low speed, since the jet impulse effect is far lower when the vapor entrance angle is nearly normal to the impeller rotation. It is also very necessary that the turbine impeller diameter be as large as possible, but of low inertia for speed change responsiveness, or acceleration/deceleration.
A continuous disc-like shroud ring will connect all the impeller blades so that the reaction vapor flow resulting fromall jet nozzles can pass through the impeller radially, for collection in the exhaust chamber. The exhaust chamber must be arranged to receive the exhaust vapor flow from the impeller at an angle of approximately 45, to the rear of the impeller The near vortex-shaped exhaust chamber fully encircles the interior turbine casing, since the spent vapor uniformly swirls off the impeller and must be collected in a single duct, with a minimum of flow resistance.
In order to provide for versatile speed/torque operating characteristics both a main vapor throttle control 'and vapor entrance nozzle phase shift arrangement of the nozzle plate must be provided.
Operating Sequence: 1. For starting, the main vapor throttle would be 7 partly open, with the nozzle phase shift plate providing near axial vapor jet entrance, at the maximum impellerradius 2. As the vehicle begins to accelerate, the throttle will be opened further, with the phase shift plate rotated to the second (inner) row of partially angled nozzles, for increased speed output.
3. When the vehicle is at about cruising speed range, the throttle will be partially closed, and the phase shift plate rotated to the third row (shortest radius) of full angular set of nozzles, for full rotational speed.
The phase shift plate will be manually controlled by gearing with a sector secured to the phase shift plate, which meshes with a pinion mounted on a rearward axial control shaft, Suitable linkage or gearing transmission will be made to a right hand control lever, which moves through an approximate 60 angle, with slow speed back and high speed forward.
The three phase positions will be detented on the control lever quadrant for distinct nozzle aperture position control. The phase shift plate will have the three sets of nozzle apertures set at varying radii, on the same uniformly spaced radial line, while the nozzles on the nozzle plate are uniformly staggered.
This arrangement assures that only one full set of concentric nozzles on the nozzle plate are exposed for one phase position, ,with the others adequately blanked out and reasonably sealed. As the phase shift plate is rotated, the first set of nozzles are covered, while the next concentric set are exposed. and so on to the final high speed position.
The phase shift plate willbe centrally pivoted on a bearing positioned on the output shaft, and may also oscillate on local thrust bearings for low torque response.
The problem of possible nozzle and aperture erosion at the high vapor temperature must be resolved by the application of special alloy steels which can withstand excessive wear. The turbine casing and impeller will utilize a maximum amount of built-up sheet and plate alloy steel as possible to lower the final cost of the unit. The impeller blades may be forged or cast, but formed sheet blades may be possible.
An additional feature of the variable speed vapor turbine, is the thermal zoning of the turbine casing into three basic sections, I
l. The input vapor section (hot), which contains heat storage volumes, to provide fast starting and improved operating economy.
2. The short impeller section which houses the impeller and is between the hot and cold input and exhaust sections.
3. The large volume exhaust chamber or vortex housing which is cooled by multiple heat pipes.
Thermal zoning provides active thermal sections which are necessary for closed Rankine cycle systems.
By establishing a thermal gradient and positive vapor flow direction potential within the turbine, the length of the closed cycle loop maybe reduced which will correspondingly reduce the total volume of the power sys tern.
The various objectives of the invention have been described in the background and summary of the vapor turbine. It should be understand that variations may be made in the detailed design of the vapor turbine, without departing from the spirit and scope of theinvention.
REFERRING TO THE DRAWINGS:
FIG. I is a cross-section elevation view through the variable speed vapor turbine.
FIG. 2 is a front view of the variable speed vapor turbine.
FIG. 3 is a front view of the nozzle plate.
FIG. 4 is a front view of the phase shift plate.
FIG. 5 is a section taken through the nozzle plate showing the angular attitude of each concentric nozzle stage.
REFERRING TO THE DRAWINGS IN DETAIL The variable speed vapor turbine is indicated by the numeral 1, and consists of the casing 2, which is made up of an intake section 2a, an insulator ring 2b, and an exhaust section 2c.
The nozzle plate 3, is secured and sealed to the inner diameter of the intake section 2a, by conventional means. The nozzle plate 3, contains multiple sets of staggered concentric nozzles which are the outer near axials nozzles b, a, the partially angled nozzles 3b, and the full angular nozzles 3c. A bearing bore 3d, is located at the center of the nozzle plate 3.
The phase shift plate 4, oscillates over a small angle and is in close contact with the front of the nozzle plate 3. Multiple nozzle apertures 40, are uniformly spaced on three concentric circles and match the number of nozzles 3a, 3b, and 3c.A bearing bore 4b, is located at the center of the phase shift plate 4. A gear sector 4c, is fastened to the front face of the phase shift plate 4, which meshes with a pinion 4d, mounted on an aft disposed shaft 42.
A center conical baffle 5, is secured by conventional means to the front face of the phase shift plate 4, which contains heat storage material 6. A shaped outer baffle ring 7, is secured to the inner diameter of the intake section 20, by conventional means, which also contains heat storage material 6.
A front plate 8, is fastened and sealed to the inner diameter of the intake section 2a, by conventional means. A hot vapor inlet duct 9, is secured and sealed to the peripheral wall of the intake section 20, at right angles to the turbine rotational axis.
The turbine impeller 10, is secured to the output shaft 11, which is supported by the two bearings 12. The two seals 13, maintain a vapor seal under the operating pressure, and are fastened to the front plate 8 and rear plate 14. The rear plate 14, is secured and sealed to the exhaust section 20, by conventional means.
A conical cooling bafile 15, is fastened to the inner surface of the rear plate 14, to direct the spent vapor toward the exhaust duct 16. The exhaust duct 16, is secured and sealed to the peripherial wall of the exhaust section 20, at a right angle to the turbine rotational axis.
An outer cooling baffle 17, is secured to the inner diameter of the exhaust section 20, and is directly adjacent to the insulator ring 2b.
Radial heat pipes 18, are uniformly arrayed through both the exhaust section 20, and outer cooling baffle 17, to sink a portion of the heat of the spent vapor flow. Concentric annular fin rings 18a, are fastened to all radial heat pipes 18. 4
Additional larger and longer heat pipes 19, are uniformly in contact with, or nearly tangent to the conical thuir electrical of the conical cooling baffle 15, at an angle to the rear plate 14. The heat pipes 19 serve to further remove some heat from the spent vapor flow. Concentric annular fin rings 19a, are fastened to all angular heat pipes 19.
Multiple cooling thermocells 20, will be the active cooling means for the conical cooling baffle 15, which receive their electrical power from a conventional battery source.
Cooling thermocells 20, may also be added to the cold end, (exterior) of all the long heat pipes 19, to aid in effective heat sinking in this rear area.
What is claimed is:
1. A variable speed vapor turbine comprised a cylindrical casing divided into a hot and cold section separated by an insulating ring,
a circular nozzle plate containing multiple concentric sets of vapor nozzles,
a phase shift plate in contact with the front surface of said circular nozzle plate, aperture-openings within said phase shift plate in sequential communication with said multiple concentric sets of vapor nozzles, remote oscillating means for said phase shift plate,
an impulse impeller disposed behind said circular nozzle plate, and secured to an output shaft,
bearing means for said output shaft within circular front and rear plates, sealing means for said circular front and rear plates,
vapor sealing means disposed around said output shaft secured to said front and rear plates,
vapor baffling means, entrance means disposed within the hot section of said cylindrical casing, shaped baffling means uniformly disposed within the hot section of said cylindrical casing, heat storage means uniformly dispoded within said baffling means, conical boiling means uniformly opposed within the cold section of said cylindrical casing,
multiple heat pipe cooling means uniformly disposed within the cold section of said cylindrical casing.
2. The variable speed vapor turbine according to claim 1, wherein the said multiple concentric sets of vapor nozzles are comprised of vapor nozzles disposed at varying angles in relation to the axis of rotation of said variable speed vapor turbine,
each nozzle within said multiple concentric set of nozzles is disposed at the same fixed angle while adjacent concentric sets are disposed at different fixed angles,
said multiple concentric sets of vapor nozzles are of the same convergent/divergent size and type,
said multiple concentric sets of vapor nozzles are staggered in a constant relationship to each other group in the flat plane surface.
3. The variable speed vapor turbine according to claim 1, wherein the said aperture openings within said phase shift plate are uniformly disposed in radial groups on the flat plane surface,
said aperture openings within said phase shift plate are equal in number to said multiple concentric sets of vapor nozzles on said circular nozzle plate,
one set of said multiple concentric sets of vapor noz-- zles is in communication with a corresponding group of said aperture openings within said phase shift plate at one angular position,
the remaining sets of said multiple concentric sets of vapor nozzles are shut off from communication with corresponding groups of said aperture openings within said phase shift plate.
4. The variable speed vapor turbine according to claim 1, in which some of the said multiple heat pipe cooling means uniformly disposed within the cold section are located at an angle in contact with the said conical baffling means uniformly disposed within the cold section,
the remaining said multiple heat pipe cooling means uniformly disposed within the cold section are located through the said conical baffling means and said cylindrical casing.
5. The variable speed vapor turbine according to claim 1, including thermoelectric cooling means added at the rear of said conical baffling means uniformly disposed within the cold section,
thermoelectric cooling means are added to said multiple heat pipe cooling means external to the said cylindrical casing.
6. The variable speed vapor turbine according to claim 1, wherein the said cylindrical casing divided into a hot and cold section are of different diameters with said insulating ring disposed between each said hot and cold section,
said insulating ring may be metallic or non-metallic or a combination thereof,
said cylindrical casing divided into a hot and cold section separated by an insulating ring is safely fastened together by conventional means.
7. The variable spped vapor turbine according to claim 1, in which said impulse impeller is comprised of specially winged blades providing optimum vapor jet reaction at all varying vapor inlet impulse angles,
said impulse impeller contains a continuous disc shroudring uniformly connecting all blades,
said impulse impeller is built up from a maximum amount of sheet and plate metal construction,
8. The variable speed vapor turbine according to claim 1, in which said multiple heat pipe cooling means uniformly disposed within the cold section of said cylindrical casing are externally fitted with multiple concentric cooling fin rings,
thermoelectric cooling means uniformly secured to the multiple concentric cooling fin rings.
9. The variable speed vapor turbine according to claim 1, wherein said phase shift plate has a small gear sector fastened to the front face,
a pinion in mesh with the small gear sector,
a rearwardly disposed shaft means for rotation of the pinion,
suitable linkage or gearing means for the remote control of the rearwardly disposed shaft means.