US 3762309 A
A horizontal baler for baling paper products incorporating a horizontally disposed gathering and compression chamber having an open upper portion communicating with a hopper wherein the paper to be compressed is directly introduced into the hopper and a gatherer and compression ram transfers the paper into a compression chamber to form a parcel of layered compressed material. The paper may be continuously introduced into the hopper as the gatherer ram cycles and a cover plate on the ram receives the paper when the ram is extended, wiping the paper from the cover plate as the ram retracts. Cycling of the gatherer ram continues until a parcel of predetermined compression is achieved, whereupon an ejector or transfer ram perpendicularly disposed to the gatherer ram intermittently transfers the compressed parcel in the direction of the formed compressed parcel layers through automatic strapping apparatus which straps the parcel in a direction perpendicular to the formed layers to define a bale. Gathering, compressing and transferring occurs at substantially the same horizontal orientation, and automatic control means are utilized to permit automatic operation of the apparatus cycle.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 1 Wright et al.
[ Oct. 2, 1973 METHOD or COMPRESSING PAPER PRODUCTS  Assignec: American Hoist & Derrick Company,
, St. Paul, Minn.
1221 Filed: Feh.8, 1971 1211 Appl.No.:ll3,746
Related US. Application Data ['62] Division of Ser. No. 30,837, April 22, I970, Pat. No.
521" ..-100/3 [51 int. CL, B65b 13/02  Field 6: Search 100 9, 99, 3, 7, l00/25,26, 188,218,232
 References Cited 9 UNITED STATES PATENTS 583,462 6/l897 Dederick lOO/9 646,520 4/1900 Dederiek 100/99 679,732 8/1901 .Dederick ..100/9 3,088,499 5/1963 Rieger 1 0/218 x 2,984,172 5/1961 1161561861 al. 100/218 x 2,500,819 3/1950 11611 et al..'.... l00/2l8 x 2,780,989 2/1957 Guy 100/218 Primary Examiner-Billy J. Wilhite Attorney-Beaman & Beaman  ABSTRACT A horizontal baler for baling paper products incorporating a horizontally disposed gathering and compression chamber having an open upper portion communieating with a hopper wherein the paper to be compressed is directly introduced into the hopper and a gathercr and compression ram transfers the paper into a compression chamber to form a parcel of layered compressed material. The paper may be continuously introduced into the hopper as the gatherer ram cycles and a cover plate on the ram receives the paper when the ram is extended, wiping the paper from the cover plate as the ram retracts. Cycling of the gatherer ram continues until a parcel of predetermined compression is achieved, whereupon an ejector or transfer ram perpendicularly disposed to the gatherer ram intermittently transfers the compressed parcel in the direction of the formed compressed parcel layers through automatic strapping apparatus which straps the parcel in a direction perpendicular to the formed layers to define a bale. Gathering, compressing and transferring occurs at substantially the same horizontal orientation, and automatic control means are utilized to permit automatic operation of the apparatus cycle.
2 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures PATENIEnnm ROBERTE FO6EL50 v B QEQOLD W. HNS N ATTORNEYS PAIENTEunm 2|975 sum 2 OF 6 ATTORNEYS PATENTED 21975 3.762.309
SHEET 3 0F 6 L SEC INV'ENTORS COL/N 5. WRIGHT ROBERT E. FO6EL$ON6 BY JEROLD w. JOHNSON 20A 5. JO3HAL.
ATTORNEYS PAIENIED 2 3.762.309
SHEET 6 BF 6 SELECT 224':
INVENTORS ROBERT E. FOGELSONG COLJN S. WQ\GHT OLD \N-J SON ATTORNEYS 1 METHOD OF COMPRESSING PAPER PRODUCTS CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS The instant invention is directed to a method of compressing paper products which constitutes an improvement on the assignees horizontal baler apparatus disclosed in United States Patent application Ser. No. 661,070, filed Aug. 6, 1967, now abandoned, and continuation application Ser. No. 876,214, filed Dec. 1, 1970, now US. Pat. No. 3,576,161. The instant application constitutes a division of Ser. No. 30,837, filed Apr. 22, 1970 on Method and Apparatus for Horizontal Baling, now US Pat. No. 3,613,556.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The field of the invention relates to the baling of paper products, such as paper, paper board, cardboard, and the like, wherein the product is compressed into a parcel in a series of layers, and is subsequently confined by baling straps disposed in a direction transverse to the'general plane of the parcel layers. v
In the handling'of scrap material it has long been common to compress and bale the same to produce a high density bale, and thereby reduce transportation costs and simplifiy handling. Scrap metal is commonly baled, and in the baling of scrap metal the nature of the material does not usually require strapping in that deforming of the metal past its yield point will permit the bale to be self-defining and shaped. 1n the baling of resilient, loose, nonmetallic products, such as paper, it is common practice to compress the material into a parcel, an then maintain the configuration of the parcel to form a bale by the use of baling straps or wire. The invention is particularly directed to apparatus for balihg paper products wherein strapping of the compressed parcel is required.
Large capacity paper baling apparatus capable of producing relatively large, high density bales, are usually either of two types,- vertical or horizontal. Vertical baling equipment employs a compression chamber through which a vertically moving ram or compression head is translated. Horizontal balers employ a horizontally moving compression ram, and the invention is directedto this latter type in view of the advantages possible with respect to automatic loading, automatic strapping, and the abilityto bale large quantities of paper with a minimum of manpower.
Conventional horizontal balers, such as illustrated in US. Pat. No. 3,212,434, include an elongated, open end, horizontal chamber into which the material to be compressed is introduced. Compression means in the form of a ram reciprocates with the receiving chamber to force the paper products being compressed into and through the compression chamber. The compression chamber is shaped such that the resistance of movement of the paper through the chamber produces a sufficient compression and density. When the medium has reached the desired density due tocompression, a predetermined portion of the compressed material is strapped as it periodically moves through the final stage of the compression chamber. In order to permit strapping, dividers are periodically inserted into the paper being compressed wherein the bale straps or wire may be inserted through the compressed material via the dividers. A disadvantage of this type apparatus lies in the necessity for inserting the dividers, and handling the same, and, additionally, automatic strapping apparatus cannot be readily employed with this type of baler in that the compressed parcel is intermittently moving as it is being strapped.
Although large capacity baling apparatus has been previously manufactured, this type of apparatus has not heretofore successfully adapted itself to automatic strapping equipment, and horizontal baling apparatus such as previously described, does not lend itself to available strapping devices.
Also, conventional baling apparatus of both the vertical and horizontal type usually requires that the paper products introduced therein be previously shredded or comminuted in order to effectively handle the product and produce the desired density. This preliminary operation prior to baling is expensive and troublesome, and a baler capable of being directly supplied without preprocessing the paper has long been desired.
Previous baling devices of both the vertical and horizontal type require several operators in order to achieve the maximum capacity of the baler. These balers were, at the best, only partiallyautomaticin operation and the cycle of operation of known balers does not lend itself to automatic operation. In particular, loading of the baler, and the tying of the bale, are operations which, in the past, required individual attention by the operators.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention pertains the method. of baling large quantities of paper in a relatively short time with a minimum oflabor, supervision and maintenance. Additionally, the invention is directed to the method of baling paper products wherein the paper is compressed in a first direction by a series of cycles of a ram wherein a compressed parcel is formed having a plurality of substantially parallel layers perpendicularly disposed to the direction of compression. Thereupon, the method of the invention transfers the compressed particle in a direction substantially parallel to the plane of the parcel layers, and includes the step of strapping or tying the compressed parcel as it is transferred in the direction parallel to the plane of the parceledlayers.
In the practice of the invention the baler includes a gatherer chamber directly communicating with a hopper into which the paper product to be baled is continuously introduced. The gatherer and compressor ram which moves the gatherer chamber includes a cover plate upon which the paper product introduced into the hopper is supported as the ram extends, and as the ram retracts, the paper resting thereuponis wiped into the gatherer chamber.
A unique feature of the invention lies in the utilization of shearing means located on the gatherer and compression ram head, and adjacent one end of the gatherer chamber at the entrance to the compression chamber, such that paper products partially disposed within the gatherer chamber and the hopper are compression chamber includes an ejector or transfer ram which transfers the compressed parcel, while under compression, from the compression chamber into automatic strapping means for strapping the compressed parcel to form a bale. The movement of the transfer ram is intermittent, and strapping occurs while the movement of the compressed parcel by the transfer ram is interrupted. The intermittent transferring of the compressed parcel is automatically controlled, and during the transfer and strapping operation, the gatherer ram remains in a modified extended condition such that paper being introduced into the hopper will rest upon the gatherer ram cover plate and be wiped into the gatherer chamber during the initial retraction cycle of the gatherer ram after strapping.
The compression chamber includes a discharge opening in opposed relation to the transfer ram, and this opening will be closed by the previously transferred, and at least partially strapped bale. The presence of the previously transferred bale sufficiently closes the compression chamber discharge opening to permit an efficient compression and shaping in the compression chamber during the next parcel compression.
As the compressed parcel moves through the discharge opening under the influence of the transfer ram, parcel retaining means maintains the configuration and compression of the parcel, and strapping of the parcel occurs immediately upon the compressed paper leaving the parcel retainer.
Another of the unique features of the invention lies in the fact that during the final stage of compression of the parcel, the parcel is compressed to a greater extent than is desired in the strapped bale. After final compression of the parcel in the compression chamber, the gatherer ram is slightly retracted to reduce the compression on the parcel prior to its being transferred to the strapper. In this manner the power requirement for transferring the parcel is reduced, and an improved bale is produced in that the likelihood of strap breakage is minimized.
The horizontal disposition of the gatherer and compression chamber permits a very large opening into the gatherer chamber, and a corresponding large entrance into the hopper, and thus the apparatus is able to receive unshredded paper, cardboard, and the like, without clogging. This feature, in conjunction with the shear means located on the gatherer and compression ram head, eliminates many of the leading problems present in conventional paper baling apparatus, and the increased size of the apparatus with respect to known devices also permits the formation ofa large bale which is more economically handled than the more common smaller balesv Balers constructed in accord with the inventive concepts are capable of producing higher baling capacities as compared with balers presently available, while significantly reducing the manpower requirements. The automatic operation of the baler permits the baler to be operated from a central control center, and the construction and layout of the apparatus facilitates servicing and maintenance. The orientation F the hopper with respect to the apparatus permits the introduction of paper products into the hopper to be accomplished by a conveyor belt, bulldozing, or other low cost material handling techniques.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The aforementioned advantages of the method of the invention will be appreciated from the following description of an embodiment illustrated in the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of baler apparatus constructed in accord with the invention, a portion thereof being broken away for purpose of illustration,
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the baler apparatus, the gatherer and transfer rams being shown in dotted lines in the retracted position,
FIG. 3 is an elevational end view as taken from the right of FIG. 2,
FIG. 4 is an elevational, sectional view taken through the gatherer chamber along Section IV--IV of FIG. 1,
FIG. 5 is a detail elevational sectional view as taken along Section V-V of FIG. 2 illustrating the shear structure located on the frame and gatherer and compression ram head, and illustrating the head as it approachesthe entrance to the compression chamber,
FIG. 6 is an elevational, detail view of the compression chamber end of the baler apparatus as taken from the opposite side shown in FIG. 1 illustrating the bale strapping or tying equipment.
FIG. 7 is an enlarged, detail, elevational, sectional view taken through the compression chamber and strapping apparatus along Section VII-VII of FIG. 2 illustrating the transfer ram in an extended condition,
FIG. 8 is a circuit diagram of the hydraulic control system employed with the baler of the invention, and
FIGS. 9a and 9b are electrical circuit diagrams of the electric circuit employed in the described embodiment of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The baler apparatus in accord with the invention includes a frame generally indicated at 10 which consists of channel and I beams supported in a substantially horizontal manner. Located upon the frame 10 is a gatherer chamber 12 defined by a bottom plate 14, FIG. 4, and side walls 16, and is defined at its upper portion by an opening 18 which is of a width substantially corresponding to the horizontal width of the chamber as defined by the side walls 16, and ofa length defined by the end regions 20 and 22, FIG. 2 of the gatherer chamber.
A hopper 24 is located upon the gatherer chamber 12, and is defined by obliquely disposed walls 26, and end walls 28. It will be apparent from the drawings that the plan configuration of the hopper substantially corresponds to that of the gatherer chamber opening 18 wherein paper products introduced into the hopper will be dispersed throughout the length of the gatherer chamber, when the gatherer and compression ram is in the retracted position. In the commercial embodiment of the invention the opening 18 of the gatherer chamber is 10 feet long and 5 feet wide, and the resultant bale formed is 4 X 3 X 5 feet long, the length of the bale being defined by the width of the compression chamber, as will be later described.
A compression chamber generally indicated at 30 is defined on the frame 10 in alignment with the gatherer chamber 12. The compression chamber may be considered as an extension of the gatherer chamber in that it is in direct alignment with the gatherer chamber, and
the entrance to the compression chamber is defined at the gatherer chamber end region 22. The compression chamber 30 is defined at its lower region by an extension of the bottom plate 14, and the compression chamber includes an end wall 32. The left side wall 16 of the gatherer chamber, FIG. 4, extends into the compression chamber to the edge 34, FIG. 5, of the opening 36, defined in the compression chamber which forms the discharge opening therefor. Likewise, the right side wall 16 extends into the compression chamber to the head of the transfer ram as will be described. The upper dimension of the compression chamber is defined by the top plate 37, FIGS. 5 and 7.
An end plate 38 is defined upon the frame 10, and the gatherer and compression ram 40 is mounted thereon. In the specification and claims the ram 40 is often designated as the gatherer ram," and this ram serves to both gather the paper products within the gatherer chamber, as well as produce the compression of the parcel of paper products formed in the compression chamber, thus the ram 40 performs the dual function of gathering and compressing in the described embodiment. The ram 40 includes a cylinder 42 in which the piston 44 reciprocates. The cylinder 42, in the commercial embodiment, has a 12 inches internal diameter, and is capable of exerting a pressure of 135 tons upon the piston. The piston includes a head 46 of a rectangular configuration corresponding to the cross sectional configuraion of the gatherer chamber 12, and the head rides upon wear rails 48 mounted on the bottom plate 14, FIG. 4.
The head 46 includes an upper cover plate 50 affixed to the upper regions thereof which extends the width of the gatherer opening 18, and the cover plate 50 extends rearwardly from the head back over the cylinder and piston a sufficient distance wherein upon full extension of the piston 44 the cover plate will completely close the opening 18 such that paper products being introduced into the hopper 24 when the piston is completely extended are received and supported upon the cover plate 50 and will not fall behind" the head 46.
At the upper edge of the head 46 a shear blade or knife 52 is mounted in a support beam 54. The knife 52 extends across the width of the head 46, and moves with the head.
The shear beam knife which cooperates with the ram mounted knife 52 is mounted upon the frame'l0 adjacent top plate 37 upon a shear beam 56 disposed across the gatherer chamber and axially located at the entrance to the compression chamber 30, FIG. 5. The shear beam 56 is of a substantial strength in order to prevent bending, and includes a knife 58 at its lower region capable of forming a shear relationship with the head mounted knife 52 as the head mounted knife passes thereunder as the ram head 46 enters chamber 30. The shear beam and knife extend across the width of the gatherer and compression chambers, and an adjustment screw 60, and shims are employed with the shear beam and beam knife in order to very accurately locate the beam knife on the frame to produce the desired shearing clearance with the head knife.
The purpose of the knives 52 and 58 is to shear off paper products that are being transferred by the head 46 into the compression chamber 30, but are out of alignment with the compression chamber, i.e., partially extending above the head into the hopper 24. The beam knife 58 has a 2 rake angle defined thereon, FIG.
2, and a rubber closure apron 62 extends in front of the shear beam 56 to provide protection. As the head 46 passes under the shear beam 56, the material within the hopper that is sheared by the knives 52 and 58 merely falls back on the ram cover plate 50, and this material is wiped into the gatherer chamber by the hopper wiping wall 64, FIG. 1, as the gatherer ram and cover plate is retracted and passes under the wiping wall.
A support 66 is mounted below the cylinder 42 and the electric motor 68 and hydraulic pumps, as well as the control apparatus, gauges, etc., are mounted upon the support 66 which constitutes the reservoir for the required hydraulic fluid. Also, a control platform 70 is defined upon the frame 10 adjacent the gatherer chamber ram end region 20 which includes the control panel 72 such that the operator at the'control panel may have direct visibility into the hopper and the gatherer chamber, and thereby supervise the baler operation from this central location.
An ejector or transfer ram 74 is mounted on the frame 10 adjacent the compression chamber 30 andincludes a cylinder 76 which is mounted in the wall 78 formed on the frame 10. The cylinder 76 receives a piston 80 terminating in the transfer head 82. The transfer head 82 is of a rectangular configuration substantially corresponding to the dimensions of the compression chamber,-and the head face, when retracted, is. in substantial alignment with the right gatherer chamber side wall 16, FIG. 4, as to constitute an extension thereof when the paper is being compressed in the compression chamber. At this time, the transfer ram piston is fully retracted.
The transfer head 82 is of slightly less dimension that the compression chamber discharge opening 36, and is of similar configuration whereby when the transfer ram is fully extended, the head 82 may pass through the discharge opening. A skirt 84 is mounted upon the transfer ram to prevent paper from accumulating behind the head. Suitable conduits connect the double-acting cylinder of the transfer ram with the hydraulic pump and control apparatus.
At the compression chamber discharge opening 36,
i the top plate 37, and the bottom plate 14 may be extended to the right as shown in FIG. 7, and side walls 86 are defined on the frame which extends away from the head 82 in alignment with the discharge opening such that a nozzle or bale retainer passage 88 is defined adjacent the compression chamber discharge opening 36 to maintain the compressed state of the parcel prior to strapping.
Bale strapping occurs at the exit of the parcel retainer passage, and the apparatus for strapping the bale may be of the type manufactured by United States Steel Model 203 which employs round strap of 12 through 15 gauge. The particular features of the strapping apparatus 90 do not form a part of the present invention and will only basically be described. The apparatus 90 includes a rectangular shaped track 92 through which the strap passes during tying and drive wheels 94 for driving the strap are mounted upon the apparatus adjacent the exit of the parcel retaining passage. The strapping v apparatus also includes feeding apparatus 96, and strap supply means upon which a coil 98 of tying strap is supported for feeding into the tying mechanism. The strapping apparatus illustrated is fully automatic, and as will be described, includes control means which are interconnected with the other controls of the baler.
A bale supporting platform 100 is disposed adjacent the frame 10 having a supporting surface in substantial alignment with the bottom plate 14 such that the strapped bale may be received thereon as it is indexed by the transfer ram. Of course, the bale receiving platform may comprise a loading dock or other material handling surface, such as a conveyor.
The fluid current employed with the disclosed baler is illustrated in FIG. 8, and this current includes a large electric motor 68, such as of 100 I-I.P., which is connected to a pair of dual, high/low capacity high pres sure pumps 102 and 104. The stages 106 and 108 of pump 102 are capable of pumping 70 and 12 gallons per minute, respectively, at pressures up to 2200 pounds per square inch. The stages 110 and 112 of the pump 104 are capable of pumping 60 and 7.5 gallons per minute, respectively, at 2200 pounds per square inch.
The fluid reservoir 114 is located in support 66 and has associated therewith a heat exchanger 116 for lowering the temperature of the hydraulic fluid, and a circulating pump 118 provides circulation between the reservoir and the cooler 116. Cooling water fed into the heat exchanger 116 is controlled by a solonoid operated valve 120, and appropriate thermometers and thermostats are associated with the reservoir to maintain the desired temperature of the fluid.
The high capacity pump stages 106 and 110 communicate with a common conduit 122, and relief check valves 124 communicate with these stages, as do the vent valves 126. The relief check valves 124 maintain the desired pressure of 2200 pounds per square inch. A maximum pressure valve 128 communicates with the output of the pump stage 108 for maintaining 1300 pounds per square inch in the conduit 130, and the pressure valve 132 communicating with the output of the pump stage 112 maintains 500 pounds per square inch in the output conduit 134.
The gatherer ram 40 is of the double acting type and is controlled by the control valve 136 which is positioned by the control cylinder 138. A pair of pressure switches 140 and 142 communicate with the pressure end of the ram 40 as illustrated. The switch 140 operates between 700 and 1200 pounds per square inch, while switch 142 is set to operate at 1000 psi. The control valve 136 is supplied with high pressure fluid from the conduit 122, and the position of this valve, as determined by the control cylinder 138, is regulated by the low pressure control valve 144 communicating with conduit 134. The valve 144 is solonoid operated and is operatively connected to electric solonoids GF and GB.
A second control valve for the compression side of the gatherer ram 40 is located at 146, and this valve is positioned by the small control cylinder 148., which is in turn operated by the solonoid operated valve 148 which communicates with the low pressure conduit 134, and whose position is determined by the solonoid D. The valve 146 also selectively communicates with the high pressure conduit 122.
Control of the ejector or transfer ram 74 is accomplished through the high pressure valve 150 which is supplied from the conduit 122. Positioning of this valve is under the control of the cylinder 152, which is positioned by the low pressure valve 154. The position of the valve 154 is controlled by solonoids EF and EB.
Valve 156 controls the hydraulic supply to the hydraulic components of the strapper shown at the right of FIG. 8. The valve 156 communicates with the pump stage 108, as well as with both sides of the gatherer ram piston 44, and the position of the valve 156 is determined by solonoid pilot BR. The strapper circuit includes a gripper ram 158 for holding the strap during securing, and a knotter ram 160 is also included in the circuit. These rams are controlled through a valve 162 operated by solonoids which position the valve in one of its three operative conditions. The circuit also includes a pump 164 communicating with the reservoir 114 and the gripper and knotter rams.
Pressure switch 142, as will be later described, is used to sense the pressure during compression, and pressure switch 140 is employed to sense the occurrence of the desired compression pressure.
The electric circuitry used with the apparatus is shown in FIGS. 9a and 9b, FIG. 9b being a continuation of the circuit shown in FIG. 9a
Starting of the primary pump motor 68 is achieved through relay 166, while starting of the hydraulic fluid cooling pump 118 is controlled by relay 168. Switch activates the primary pump motor, while start switch 172 and stop switch 174 is connected to the circulating motor. Whether the baler is to be operated under automatic or semiautomatic control is determined by the switches 176 and 178, switch 176 constituting the automatic control, while switch 178 places the system under semiautomatic operation. The start cycle is controlled by switch 180, while stopping of the cycle is controlled by switch 182.
Forward motion of the gatherer ram under manual control is achieved by the switch 184, while retraction of the gatherer ram is operated by switch 186. The gatherer position control occurs at switch 188.
Operation of the ejector or transfer ram on a manual basis is accomplished by switches and 192 which produce the forward and return motions of the transfer ram, respectively. The ejector forward jog ram switch appears at 194, and the ejector index and manual control switch is shown at 196.
The solonoids for the control valves and the relays indicated on the drawings are as follows: Relay SC is the automatic strapper in cycle relay and includes normally closed contacts controlling the transfer ram forward solonoid EF and the strap cycle complete relay STC. The transfer rarn forward contact is open during strapping. Relay CRDT includes a normally closed contact supplying differential valve 148 control solonoid D, and also includes a normally open circuit which bypasses the pressure switch 142. Additionally, relay CRDT controls timed closing switch 197 and is in series with pressure switch 142.
The return control relay for the transfer ram LSERR includes a normally closed contact operating the indicating light 196 for indicating when the transfer ram is not retracted. Additionally, this relay control includes a normally open contact in the forward gatherer ram circuit as indicated by relay GERT, and a normally I closed contact in the circuit to the transfer ram return.
control relay ERR.
The automatic control relay ICR includes the normally open contact in the selector switch circuit 176-178 determining automatic or manual operation, and also includes a normally open contact in the cycle start circuit CRS as well as a normally open contact in the gatherer ram forward circuit relay GFRT.
The cycle start relay CRS includes a normally open switch in its own circuit, and a normally open switch in the gatherer ram forward circuit GFRT, a normally open switch in the gatherer ram return circuit GRR, a normally open circuit in the transfer ram forward circuit EFRT, as well as the transfer return circuit ERR, a normally closed circuit in the bypass circuit to solonoid EF, and a normally open circuit in the strapper start circuit AST.
The gatherer ram forward relay GFRT includes a normally open circuit controlling the gatherer ram forward solonoid GF and a time controlled switch 198, normally closed, in the circuit to solonoid D. Additionally, this relay includes a normally open circuit in its own supply and a normally open circuit to the solonoid D.
The transfer ram return cycle complete relay LSECR includes a normally closed contact in the gatherer forward circuit and a normally open contact in its own circuit bypassing limit switch LSEC. The gatherer ram return relay GRR includes a normally open circuit to solonoid GR, a normally closed contact in the gatherer ram forward circuit GFRT, a normally open contact in its own circuit, a normally closed contact in the range force circuit PSRT, a normally closed contact in the CRDT circuit, and a normally open contact in the transfer ram forward circuit EFRT.
The gatherer ram position circuit GAR includes a normally closed contact in series with the pilot light 200 to indicate when the gatherer ram is in the proper position for operation of the transfer ram, and includes a normally open contact in the PSTRR circuit and a normally closed contact in the transfer ram forward circuit EFRT.
The range force circuit PSRT includes a normally closed circuit in the gatherer ram return circuit GRR, a time controlled normally closed switch 204 in the gatherer ram forward circuit GERT, and a time controlled normally open switch 206 in the PSTRR circuit.
The PSTRR circuit includes the normally open contact in series with solonoid BR with respect to the gatherer ram position, and includes a normally open circuit bypassing time controlled switch 206 supplying the relay, and normally open contacts of this relay are included in the transfer ram signal relay circuit er.
The transfer ram forward circuit EFRT, which is for the first strap on index or forward to limit switch LSEF on ejection of the bale, includes normally open contacts in the ejector forward circuit to solonoid EF, as well as the normally closed timed opening switch 208 in the-same circuit. Additionally, thisrelay includes a normally closed contact in the range force circuit PSRT, a normally open contact in its own circuit from the transfer ram switch 190-192, a normally closed circuit in the transfer ram signal circuit ER, and a timed closing normally open switch 210 in the circuit to the automatic start control relay AST for the strapper.
The transfer ram return circuit relay ERR includes a normally open circuit supplying solonoid ER, a normally closed circuit to the ejector forward relay EFRT, a normally open circuit bypassing limit switch LSEF, a normally closed circuit to the gatherer'ram returnsolonoid GR, a normally open circuit in the gatherer ram return circuit GRR, a normally open contact in the circuit to the indicator light 212 to indicate when the strapping operation hasbeen completed, and a nor mally closed contact in the circuit to strap cycle complete relay STC.
The transfer ram signal relay ER includes a pair of normally open contact switches which are in the circuit to the transfer ram forward relay EFRT and a normally open circuit bypassing the normally open circuit PSTRR supplying relay ER.
Relay AST includes a time controlled closing switch 214 normally open in the circuit to strapper cycle complete relay STC. Additionally, this relay controls a normally closed timed opening switch 216 to the supply for the automatic strapper, a normally open contact in the same circuit, and a normally closed contact in the indicator light 212 to indicate completion of the strapping cycle.
The strapper cycle complete relay STC includes a pair of normally open circuits in series with each other and the transfer rarn forward relay EFT2. The EFTZ relay includes a normally open circuit in the transfer ram solonoid EF, a normally closed circuit in the strapper circuit AST, and a timed opening, normally closed, switch 218 in its own circuit.
Relays CR1, CR2, CR3 and CR4 control the automatic operation of the strapper apparatus, and the operation of these relays, and their associated equipment automatically occur to perform the desired sequential operation of the strapper. The strapper motor starting relay is indicated at 220, the strapper start switch is at 222 and the select switch is at 224. The strapper circuit includes a plurality of limit switches to produce the desired operation and the operation of the strapper circuits do not form a part of the instant invention other than the correlation of the operation of the strapper to the operator of the gatherer and transfer rams.
Several limit switches are mounted upon the baler apparatus to sense the position of the gatherer ram and the transfer ram. These limit switches are schematically represented in FIGS. 2 and 7 and are operated by suitable actuating means mounted on the associated piston or head, not shown. Limit switch LSGB indicates the full retraction of the-gatherer ram, while switch LSGC indicates the mormal movement of the gatherer ram while cycling to transfer paper products from the gatherer chamber 12 into the compression chamber 30. Limit switch LSG indicates the position of the gatherer ram when the transfer ram is energized to transfer the compressed parcel from the compression chamber into the discharge opening, and through the strapper.
Limit switch LSER is employed with the transfer ram to indicate complete retraction thereof. Switch LSEC indicates the position of the traverse ram when the strapping cycle begins, and limit switch LSEF indicates the full extension of the traverse ram.
Operation of baler apparatus in accord with the previously described embodiment is as follows:
Initially, the gatherer ram piston 44 will be fully retracted, as will the transfer ram piston 80, and the strapping apparatus will be in a deenergized state. After the operator has started the pump motor 68 and the other motors previously described, such as the recirculating and strapper motors, paper products are then introduced into the hopper 24 from a location above the hopper. An endless conveyor may be used for this purpose, or if the baler apparatus is mounted in a pit, or at a location below a floor surface, the paper products may be bulldozed or otherwise transferred into the hopper. It is one of the advantages of the invention that paper products may be continually introduced into the hopper, and upon the paper products being supplied to the apparatus the automatic run switch 176 may be energized to begin the reciprocation of the gatherer ram 40. If desired, the operator may defer initiation of the gatherer ram movement until the gatherer chamber 12 has been substantially filled. Upon the operator initiating the cycling of the gatherer ram, the solonoids GF and D will be energized which produces an actuation in the valves 144 and 148, respectively, to permit pressurized fluid to be introduced into the left, or pressurized side of the gatherer ram piston, FIG. 8, which causes the gatherer ram and head to move towards the compression chamber 30. During the initial stage of compression the valves 136 and 146 are positioned such that fluid being exhausted from the piston rod side of the gatherer ram is introduced into the pressurized side of the piston. This utilization of the hydraulic fluid exhausted from the piston rod side of the gatherer ram constitutes a regeneration cycle which permits a maximum amount of pressurized fluid to be introduced into the pressurized side of the gatherer ram such than an initial rapid movement of the ram is possible.
During the initial movements of the gatherer ram, the conduit 122 will be supplied from both pump stages 106 and 110. When the resistance to movement becomes great enough to cause a fluid pressure within the supply conduit to approximately reach 1000 pounds psi, such a condition is sensed by the pressure switch 142 which then opens and deenergizes solonoid D which causes the valve 146 to shift and terminate the regeneration cycle by exhausting the fluid on the piston rod side of the gatherer ram to the reservoir. The gatherer ram piston then continues to compress the material within the compression chamber 30.
Completion of the first stroke of the gatherer ram is sensed by the limit switch LSGC located adjacent the entrance to compression chamber 30. Closing of the limit switch LSGC will energize relay GRR and deenergize relay GFRT thereby energizing solonoid GB and deenergizing solonoid GF. This sequence permits pressurized fluid to be introduced into the piston rod end of the gatherer ram and retract the ram. The compressed paper material will remain within the compression chamber when the gatherer ram is retracted.
Retraction of the gatherer ram 40 is sensed by the limit switch LSGB. When the apparatus is set for automatic operation the actuation of the limit switch LSGB will cause an actuation of the relay GFRT which will reenergize the solonoids GF and D and condition the circuit to again move the gatherer ram toward the compression chamber. in this manner the gatherer ram is cycled between its extended and retracted positions, and during this cycling the paper products to be compressed continue to be introduced into the hopper. Depending upon the position of the gatherer ram, paper introduced into the hopper will either fall directly into the gatherer chamber 12, or rest upon the ram cover plate 50. The paper resting upon the cover plate is wiped from the cover plate by wall 64 as the ram retracts, and falls into the gatherer chamber.
As the gatherer ram cycles, any paper products that may not have completely fallen in the gatherer chamber, and may be extending above head 46 as to be partially located in the gatherer chamber and the hopper, are sheared by the knife blades 52 and 58 as the gatherer ram head 46 enters the compression chamber. As
previously described, this shearing prevents the apparatus from clogging, and insures the desired automatic operation. The shearing produces a self-cleaning action which significantly reduces the attention required.
The final stroke of the gatherer ram is determined by pressure switch 140 which indicates the presence of sufficient paper material within the compression chamber to produce a bale of the density and dimension desired. Upon operation of pressure switch 140, the gatherer ram continues forward until timed relay PSRT times out. At this time, solonoid BR is energized and the gatherer ram head 46 retracts to limit switch LSG located adjacent the entrance to the compression chamber. This retraction of the gatherer ram amounts to approximately 3 5% inches from the maximum extension of the head 46, and by retracting the gatherer ram this extent, the compression pressures on the paper parcel within the compression chamber are reduced permitting the transfer ram to be of a smaller size than would otherwise be required, and produces a more desirable transfer motion. Additionally, the release of the overcompression of the compressed parcel within the compression chamber minimizes the likelihood of damage to the bale straps during handling of the bales.
Limit switch LSG senses the appropriate time for operation of the transfer ram 74. Limit switch LSG is maintained actuated during the duration of the overtravel by the gatherer ram. Upon the release of limit switch LSG, timed relay EFRT is energized, solonoid EF is energized and the transfer ram 74 receives pressurized fluid to extend the piston and translate the head 82 across the compression chamber in a direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of the gatherer ram. As the transfer ram piston extends, the head 82 begins pushing the compressed paper parcel within the compression chamber through the discharge opening 36 in an intermittent manner into the parcel retaining passage 88. The parcel is automatically strapped by the strapper as the intermittent movement of the transfer ram moves the compressed parcel through the strapping aPparatus.
Upon the release of limit switch LSG relay EFRT is I energized which begins the movement of the forward motion of the transfer ram. Relay AST, which signals the automatic strapping cycle, is energized and the transfer ram moves forward for a predetermined time under the influence of the timed contact of relay EFT2. After the predetermined timed movement of the trans fer ram, the ram movement ceases and the strapper cycle places a strap around the bale in alignment with track 92. This intermittent movement of the transfer ram takes place until limit LSEF is engaged before EFT2 times out and each time the transfer ram movement ceases the strapper cycle is energized to place a strap around the bale. The length of movement of the transfer ram head 82 during each indexing movement will usually be approximately 12 inches, in that this spacing between baling straps 226,FIG. 7, is adequate for most paper products. The track 92 lies in a plane that is substantially perpendicular to the plane of the layers defined in the compressed parcel and, thus, the straps 226 will most effectively retain the compression of the material forming the bale. As the strapped bales are pushed on to the platform they are removed as strapping for each bale is completed. In the described machine, a bale will be completely strapped when the transfer head pushing on the following bale is substantially half way across the compression chamber 30.
Limit switch LSEF will sense the full extension of the transfer ram 74, and the limit switch LSEF will automatically return the transfer ram to its fully retracted position. Limit switch LSER will sense the retracted condition of the transfer ram and signal the gatherer ram 40 to retract, and limit switch LSGB will sense the retracted condition of the compression ram and begin a new cycle of operation.
During the time that the gatherer ram 74 has been extended, and while strapping has occurred, the paper material being introduced into the hopper has been accumulating the gatherer ram cover plate 50. Thus, upon the initial retraction of the gatherer ram after a strapping cycle, a considerable amount of paper material will be wiped off into the gatherer chamber. The accumulation of a rather large quantity of paper products on the cover plate causes no problems with respect to the gatherer rarn movement in that the shear knives 52 and 58 insure a clean" injection of compressed material into the compression chamber.
As the material is being transferred from the gatherer chamber to the compression chamber, and compressed therein, the material tends to form in layers perpendicularly related to the direction of movement of the gatherer ram piston 44. In that several cycles of the gatherer occur in the formation of the compressed parcel, which is later formed into a strapped bale, it'will be appreciated that the compressed parcel of paper products within the compression chamber 30 consist of a plurality opening layers. These layers are disposed substantially parallel to the direction of movement of the transfer ram as it moves across the compression chamber and pushes and compressed parcel into the strapping apparatus 90. Thus, it will be appreciated that the compressed parcel described. formed by compressing in one direction, and transferred by a force perpendicularly disposed to the compression force. This perpendicularapplication of force to the compressed parcel is considered unique to paper baling, and is considered to have the advantage permitting the compressed parcel to be readily confined within the passage 88 for strapping purposes. Additionally, the movement of the gatherer and transfer rams at right angles to each other substantially reduces the time required for baling and tying a bale as compared with available equipment. in the commercial embodiment of the invention a complete baling cycle is approximately 180 seconds. 7
In that the discharge opening 36 defined in the compression chamber utilizes no gate or other closure during the formation of the first bale, the paper products compressed into the compression chamber will tend to partially extend from the dischare oplening as the compressed parcel is formed. As the paper continues to be compressed into the compression chamber, the parcel will form in the described manner, nd upon indexing the transfer ram 74 across the compression chamber, strapping of the bale occurs as desired. The end of the first parcel initially received within the strapping apparatus will be rather indefinitely defined due to the lack of confinement of the compressed material adjacent the discharge opening. However, in the formation of subsequent bales, the end of the previously formed partially strapped parcel is located in the compression chamber discharge opening, and seals the same during formation of the next compressed parcel, and then the end of the previously formed parcel will form the wall of the compression chamber at the discharge opening thereof.
It will be appreciated that the aforedescribed embodiment of the invention produces a paper baler capable of automatic operation at every stage of the formation of the bale. Compression, transferring of the compressed parcel, and strapping are automatically interrelated, and it is intended that modifications to the inventive concept which would be apparent to those skilled in the art be considered as included in the scope of the invention.
1. The method of compressing, forming and strapping a bale of flexible, resilient material, such as paper products, comprising the steps of compressing the material in a compression zone in a first given direction to form a compressed parcel having layers transversely oriented to said first given direction, maintaining said parcel under compression in said zone and intermittently translating the compressed parcel in a second direction substantially parallel to said layers thereof and transverse to said first given direction, the extent of movement of said parcel in said second direction during each cycle of movement being substantially less than the length of the parcel in said second direction, exteriorly strapping the parcel in a direction transverse to the direction of orientation of the parcel layers intermediate cycles of movement of said parcel in said second direction, the compression of the parcel being of a maximum extent prior to translating the parcel in said second direction, and partially releasing the pressure on the parcel while in the compression zone prior to strapping.
2. The method of compressing, forming and strapping a bale of flexible, resilient material, such as paper products, comprising the steps of compressing material in a compression zone in a first given direction to form a compressed parcel having layers transversly oreinted to said first given direction, maintaining said prac'el under compression in said zone and intermittently translating the compressed parcel in a second direction substantially parallel to said layers thereof and transverse to said first given direction, the extent of movement of said parcel in said second direction during each cycle of movement being substantially less than the length of the parcel in said second direction, exteriorly strapping the parcel in a direction transverse to the direction of orientation of the parcel layers intermediate cycles of movement of said parcel in said second direction, the parcel being first compressed in the compression zone to a maximum extent prior to translating the parcel in said second direction,and then partially releasing the compressionon the parcel in the compression zone prior to strapping by permitting said parcel to expand in a direction counter to said first direction a predetermined amount.
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