Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3762378 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 2, 1973
Filing dateNov 8, 1971
Priority dateNov 8, 1971
Publication numberUS 3762378 A, US 3762378A, US-A-3762378, US3762378 A, US3762378A
InventorsF Bitonti
Original AssigneeF Bitonti
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fuel injection means and process for making same
US 3762378 A
Abstract
In an internal combustion engine, a fuel injector having a valve with an elongated hollow stem which functions as a conduit for fuel being delivered to the valve opening. A heater probe is telescopically disposed in the stem to preheat the fuel. The valve is biased by a calibrated spring arrangement that is suited for automatic assembly.
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

[ 1 Oct. 2, 1973 l l FUEL INJECTION MEANS AND PROCESS FOR MAKING SAME [76] Inventor: Frank E. Bitonti, 8337 Esper,

Detroit, Mich. 48204 [22] Filed: Nov, 8, 1971 I21] Appl. No.: 196,624

3,630,184 12/1971 Wolf 123/145 3,648,669 3/1972 Rank 123/32 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,118,430 10/1954 France 123/34 A 890,851 2/1943 France 123/32 H Primary ExaminerLaurence M. Goodridge Assistant Examiner-Ronald B. Cox Attorney-Charles W. Chandler [57] ABSTRACT In an internal combustion engine, a fuel injector having a valve with an elongated hollow stem which functions as a conduit for fuel being delivered to the valve opening. A heater probe is telescopically disposed in the stem to preheat the fuel. The valve is biased by a calibrated spring arrangement that is suited for automatic assembly.

8 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures [52] U.S. Cl. 123/32 II, 123/34 A, 123/122 E [51] Int. Cl. F02b 3/00, F02m 31/00 [58] Field of Search 123/32 H, 34 A [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,435,213 2/1948 Hancock 123/34 A 1,375,646 4/1921 1361111516.... 123 32 H 1,269,989 6/1918 Williams 123 32 1,597,060 8/1926 Crossley 123 32 2,108,706 2/1938 Crillon 123/34 52 sounc: 0F ELECTRICAL POWER a? e l 14W /4 1 T l F :4

' 25 4 l l 22 l /a l FUEL SOURCE 0F 1 PUMP FUEL PMENTED 081 2 I973 SHEET 1 UF 2 FUEL INJECTION MEANS AND PROCESS FOR MAKING SAME BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention is related to fuel injectors for internal combustion engines and more particularly to an injector assembly having a valve for discharging fuel that is heated as it passes through the valve stem, and to a process for mounting a spring assembly on such a valve stem.

Some internal combustion engines employ means for injecting metered amounts of fuel into a combustion chamber where the fuel is ignited by suitable means. The injector valve is opened in response to fuel pressure and closed by a spring. The spring bias is usually calibrated and mounted in position by a timeconsuming hand assembly process.

In order to ignite properly during cold weather, the fuel used by fuel injectors must be preheated. Although electrical heaters have been disclosed in the art for preheating the fuel until the engine reaches its operating temperature, an injector that allows the fuel to be in contact with such a heater in a position adjacent the discharge opening into the combustion chamber has not been commercially available.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The preferred embodiment of the invention is described as a component of a hypergolic injection system in which the pressure and temperature of the fuel in the injector is such that it spontaneously ignites upon being delivered into contact with oxygen in the air in the combustion chamber. The injector has a body mounted in the engine head with an outlet opening adjacent the engine combustion chamber. An electrical heater is mounted in the body with an elongated probe disposed adjacent the outlet opening. A valve having a hollow stem is telescopically mounted on the heating probe to provide a passage having an annular cross section in the stem for fuel passing to the outlet opening.

An inlet opening in the injector body receives fuel which is passed into the valve stem so as to be heated until the valve is opened in response to fuel pressure. As the valve is opened, the fuel passes from the valve stem and through the outlet opening.

The injector is assembled by mounting an annular retainer, that also functions as a valve seat, on the valve stem. A spring is then mounted on the stem and then a second retainer. The spring is compressed by the second retainer according to the fuel pressure that is to open the valve. The second retainer is then welded to the stem by an electron beam to form a calibrated valve assembly. The valve assembly is disposed in the body and the first retainer welded by an electron beam to the injector body.

The preferred injector is composed of a relatively few parts that can be assembled in an automated assembly line to provide injectors having reasonably uniform operating characteristics. The position of the heater ensures an efficient transfer of heat to the fuel as the injector valve is being opened and closed. Still further objects and advantages will become readily apparent to those skilled in the art of the invention upon reference to the following detailed description.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The description refers to the accompanying drawings in which like reference characters refer to like parts throughout the several views, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a fragmentary, sectional view of an internal combustion engine having a fuel injector illustrating the preferred embodiment of my invention;

FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of the injector valve showing the manner in which the valve head is welded to the stem;

FIG. 3 is a view showing the spring being mounted on the valve; and

FIG. 4 is a view showing the manner in which the valve assembly is mounted on the injector body.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to the drawing, an engine housing 10 is illustrated in FIG. 1. A head 12 is mounted on housing 10 to provide a combustion chamber 14 and an exhaust passage 16 for the removal of combustion products from chamber 14. A piston 18 is disposed in housing 10 to function as a power member in the manner well known to those skilled in the art.

Fuel injector 20 is mounted on head 12 for delivering metered amounts of fuel to combustion chamber 14. An exhaust valve 22 is mounted adjacent the fuel injector for opening and closing communication between the combustion chamber and exhaust passage 16.

For illustrative purposes, the preferred fuel injector provides fuel for chamber 14 which ignites as a result of being heated above its ignition temperature and then being introduced into an environment having a lower pressure than in the injector and sufficient oxygen to support combustion. This fuel delivery method is known as hypergolic injection. The object is to ignite the fuel before it reaches the combustion chamber walls to eliminate the quenching effect that is a cause of air pollution by conventional engines. However, the preferred injector can be employed in other types of internal combustion engines.

The fuel system comprises deliverying the fuel from a source 24 through conduit means 26 by means of pump 28. Conduit means 26 includes a spiral coil 30 disposed in exhaust passage 16 to heat the fuel before it is received by injector 20.

Injector 20 has an elongated hollow body 32 with a longitudinal bore 34 for receiving fuel through an inlet 36. A hollow elongated retainer 38 is mounted at the lower enlarged end of bore 34, and has a threaded section mounted in head 12. A valve having a head 40 mounted on the end of an elongated hollow stem 42, is slideably mounted in retainer 38. Valve head 40 is movable between a closed position illustrated in solid lines in FIG. 1, and an open position illustrated in phantom. In its closed position, the valve head is engaged with a tapered seat formed on the end of retainer 38 In its open position, valve head 40 has a tapered neck 44 to provide a cone-shaped charge of fuel into the combustion chamber. The fuel passes from inlet 36 to stem 42 and then passes the length of the stem to a series of openings 46 located adjacent head 40.

A spring 48 is mounted on stem 42, one end being engaged with retainer 38 and its other end engaged with a second retainer 50 mounted on the end of the stem. Spring 48 is pre-loaded when the fuel injector is being assembled to bias valve head 40 toward its closed position and to open in response to a predetermined fuel pressure applied on the tapered neck of the valve head.

An electrically energized heater having an elongated probe 52 is disposed in body 32. The lower end of probe 52 is disposed in valve stem 42 adjacent openings 46. The diameter of heater probe 52 is less than the bore of valve stem 42 to form a fuel passage having an annular cross-section. As the fuel passes through the stem, it is in contact with the heater probe until being discharged from the stem in response to opening of valve head 40. Thus, the heater probe provides a relatively large surface area in contact with the fuel and also functions as a sheath to protect an internally housed heating element (not shown) from direct contact with the fuel.

A plug 56 is engaged with the outer end of heater probe 52 to support it in body 32. A lead 60 connects heating probe 52 to a source of electrical power 64. Heater probe 52 is energized to heat the fuel when the engine is being started and under those conditions when the heat transferred to the fuel passing through coil 30 is insufficient to heat the fuel to its ignition temperature at the injector outlet.

A retractor valve 66 is located in conduit means 26 adjacent coil 30 to maintain the fuel pressure in injector above the critical pressure of the fuel but below the opening pressure of valve head 40 between pressure impulses.

Preferably injector 20 is assembled as follows: Referring to FIG. 2, valve stem 42 is formed of metal tubing. Head 40 is joined to the end of stem 42 by electron beam welder 68. The welded seam is ground smooth, and then openings 46 formed by any suitable means. Advantages of using the electron beam welder is that the weld joint can be formed without weld metal and with little heat distortion.

Referring to FIG. 3, retainer 38, spring 48 and retainer 50 are mounted on stem 42. With valve head 40 seated in its closed position in the end of retainer 38, retainer 50 is moved toward retainer 38 until spring 48 is preloaded according to the fluid force that is to open valve 40. Retainer 50 is then joined to stem 42 by electron beam welder 68 to complete the calibrated valve assembly.

Then the valve assembly is disposed in body 32 as illustrated in FIG. 4. Retainer 38 is connected to the end of body 32 by electron beam welder 68 to complete the assembly.

The preferred fuel injector is threadably mounted in engine head 12 to permit removal for cleaning or maintenance in the manner of a spark plug. Similarly, heating probe 52 is removable from its position in body 32 without the necessity of dismantling the remainder of the fuel injector.

Having described my invention, 1 claim:

1. In an internal combustion engine, the combination comprising:

an engine housing having a combustion chamber therein;

a power member movably disposed in the combustion chamber;

fuel injection means for deliverying fuel to said chamber for combustion including:

a body mounted on said engine housing, said body having an inlet for receiving fuel, and an outlet for the passage of fuel from the body toward the combustion chamber;

a valve member mounted in the body adjacent said outlet so as to be movable toward an open position to allow fuel passage through the outlet;

a bias member mounted in the body and connected to the valve member to urge it toward a closed position to block fuel passage through the outlet;

an elongated valve stem connected to the valve member, and having an inlet for receiving fuel, and an outlet adjacent the valve member for passing fuel; and

electrically operated heating means mounted on the body, including an elongated heating probe disposed in the inlet of the valve stem, the heating probe having a length such that it is disposed adjacent the outlet of'the valve stem at such times as the valve member is disposed in said closed position.

2. A combination as defined in claim 1, including a pump connected to the inlet of said body for deliverying fuel at a pressure sufficient to move the valve member toward said open position.

3. A combination as defined in claim 1, in which the valve member has a frusto-conical surface engageable with a seat having a complementary shape.

4. A combination as defined in claim 1, in which the body has an annular retainer with a bore slideably receiving the valve stem, the retainer being shaped to seat the valve member in said closed position.

5. A combination as defined in claim 4, including a bias member engaged with the retainer and a second retainer mounted on the valve stem so as to be movable therewith, the second retainer being engaged with the bias member and so spaced with respect to the first mentioned retainer whereby the bias member prevents motion of the valve member from said closed position unless fuel of a predetermined pressure urges the valve member toward said open position.

6. A combination as defined in claim 1, in which the valve stem is moved with respect to the heating probe as the valve member is moved from its open toward its closed positions.

7. A combination as defined in claim 1, including a source of fuel, heat exchanger means, and a fuel pump for deliverying fuel from said source through the heat exchanger means to the inlet of said body.

8. A combination as defined in claim 7, in which the heat exchanger means includes a head having an exhaust passage for passing combustion products from the combustion chamber, and a conduit for receiving fuel from the fuel pump, the conduit forming a coil disposed in the path of combustion products being passed through the exhaust passage.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1269989 *Feb 26, 1918Jun 18, 1918Fred L WilliamsCombination ignition and fuel-injecting system.
US1375646 *May 14, 1919Apr 19, 1921Nicholas D BelinskiElectrical vaporizer and burner
US1597060 *Jun 1, 1925Aug 24, 1926Crossley Kenneth IrwinOil engine
US2108706 *Jun 8, 1935Feb 15, 1938Victor Crillon MarcelCylinder head for internal combustion engines, for the prevaporization of light fuel and for cracking of heavy oils
US2435213 *Sep 23, 1944Feb 3, 1948Hancock Robert HPreheated fuel injection device for internal-combustion engines
US3630184 *Jan 16, 1970Dec 28, 1971Bosch Gmbh RobertGlow plug
US3648669 *May 28, 1970Mar 14, 1972Rank William JFuel injector and igniter
FR890851A * Title not available
FR1118430A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3868939 *Mar 2, 1973Mar 4, 1975Bosch Gmbh RobertFuel injection system especially for cold starting and warming up externally ignited internal combustion engines
US3933135 *May 1, 1974Jan 20, 1976Zillman Jack HElectronic controlled manifold injection system
US3999525 *Aug 27, 1973Dec 28, 1976Robert Bosch G.M.B.H.Apparatus for the cold starting and warming run of spark plug-ignited internal combustion engines
US4131090 *Jun 21, 1976Dec 26, 1978Stanislaw JarnuszkiewiczTwo-stroke, multicylinder, spark ignition, pumpless injection internal combustion engine
US4137872 *Feb 25, 1976Feb 6, 1979Loflin Max GFuel vaporizing device for internal combustion engines
US4147142 *Mar 12, 1976Apr 3, 1979Little Allan VFuel modification system for internal combustion engines
US4148288 *Aug 17, 1976Apr 10, 1979Sulzer Brothers LimitedApparatus for operating a reciprocating internal combustion engine
US4201167 *May 5, 1978May 6, 1980Bayley Richard IMethanol vaporization and injection system for internal combustion engine
US4213433 *Oct 31, 1977Jul 22, 1980Day John CLiquid fuel to gas converter for engines
US4300514 *Sep 14, 1979Nov 17, 1981Josef SchaichDevice for vaporizing fuel and controlling the temperature of the fuel in an internal combustion engine
US4359025 *Dec 10, 1979Nov 16, 1982Stefan ZeliszkewyczContinuous flow fuel injector for internal combustion engines
US4380218 *May 7, 1981Apr 19, 1983Lucas Industries LimitedStarting aid for internal combustion engines
US4448176 *Feb 22, 1982May 15, 1984Eaton CorporationMethod for reducing ignition delay of fuels
US4458654 *Mar 12, 1982Jul 10, 1984Walbro CorporationFuel vapor injection system
US4458655 *Jun 27, 1983Jul 10, 1984General Motors CorporationFuel injection nozzle with heated valve
US4485778 *Jul 30, 1982Dec 4, 1984Oliver Bernard MMethod and means for improving performance of diesel engines
US4515134 *Jan 15, 1982May 7, 1985Warren Ii Conrad KMolecular diffuser assembly
US4522183 *Nov 1, 1983Jun 11, 1985Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Wissenschaften E.V.Method for converting a retrograde substance to the gaseous state
US4534333 *Nov 5, 1984Aug 13, 1985Brunswick CorporationInternal combustion engine with air-fuel mixture heating
US4548187 *Oct 15, 1982Oct 22, 1985J-Jet KonstruktionsInternal combustion engine for alternative fuels
US4611567 *Aug 13, 1984Sep 16, 1986Covey Jr Ray MVaporizer/carburetor
US4635608 *Aug 28, 1981Jan 13, 1987Carroll Bruce IAlcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines
US4669433 *Dec 26, 1985Jun 2, 1987Eaton CorporationRegenerative fuel heating apparatus and method for hypergolic combustion
US4672938 *Dec 26, 1985Jun 16, 1987Eaton CorporationMethod and apparatus for multiphasic pretreatment of fuel to achieve hypergolic combustion
US4711223 *Aug 18, 1986Dec 8, 1987Carroll Bruce IAlcohol fuel conversion apparatus
US4870932 *Nov 21, 1988Oct 3, 1989Chrysler Motors CorporationFuel injection heating system
US4870943 *Oct 14, 1988Oct 3, 1989Bradley Curtis EThermal liquid pump
US5095879 *Dec 18, 1990Mar 17, 1992Honda Giken Kogyo K.K. (Honda Motor Co., Ltd. In English)Electrically controlled fuel injection system for internal combustion engines
US5379742 *Apr 19, 1993Jan 10, 1995Breland; Bura B.Vaporized fuel injection system
US5401935 *May 28, 1993Mar 28, 1995Heaters Engineering, Inc.Fuel heating assembly
US5408973 *Nov 26, 1993Apr 25, 1995Spangjer; Keith G.Internal combustion engine fuel supply system and method
US6276347Sep 25, 1998Aug 21, 2001Micro Coating Technologies, Inc.Systems and methods for delivering atomized fluids
US6586337 *Nov 9, 2001Jul 1, 2003Speedfam-Ipec CorporationMethod and apparatus for endpoint detection during chemical mechanical polishing
US6928992Mar 15, 2002Aug 16, 2005Jeremy HolmesUniversal injection valve assembly
US7415975Dec 27, 2004Aug 26, 2008Greentech Motors (Israel) Ltd.Operating system, kit and method for engine
US7546826Mar 27, 2007Jun 16, 2009Transonic Combustion, Inc.Injector-ignition for an internal combustion engine
US7552715Jan 18, 2005Jun 30, 2009Jeremy HolmesUniversal injection valve assembly
US7657363Sep 24, 2008Feb 2, 2010Transonic Combustion, Inc.Fuel injector having algorithm controlled look-ahead timing for injector-ignition operation
US7669585 *Jun 12, 2006Mar 2, 2010Robert Bosch GmbhFuel injection system
US7743754Mar 27, 2007Jun 29, 2010Transonic Combustion, Inc.Heated catalyzed fuel injector for injection ignition engines
US7958721 *Jun 29, 2007Jun 14, 2011Caterpillar Inc.Regeneration system having integral purge and ignition device
US8006482Nov 7, 2007Aug 30, 2011Caterpillar Inc.Method of purging fluid injector by heating
US8047182 *Feb 9, 2009Nov 1, 2011Millenium IndustriesFuel delivery system for heating fuel therein
US8069845 *Oct 11, 2010Dec 6, 2011Ford Global Technologies LlcFuel heating during cold start in a direct-injection gasoline engine
US8079348May 13, 2010Dec 20, 2011Transonic Combustion, Inc.Heated catalyzed fuel injector for injection ignition engines
US8100191Sep 26, 2006Jan 24, 2012The University Of LeedsVapour explosion chamber
US8261575Jun 29, 2009Sep 11, 2012Jeremy HolmesSelf cooling motor system
US8511287Sep 8, 2010Aug 20, 2013EcoMotors InternationalSupercritical-state fuel injection system and method
EP0087221A1 *Jan 26, 1983Aug 31, 1983Eaton CorporationMethod for reducing ignition delay of fuels
EP2004970A2 *Mar 28, 2007Dec 24, 2008Transonic Combustion, Inc.An injector-ignition for an internal combustion engine
WO1986002978A1 *Nov 5, 1984May 22, 1986John T WoodsFuel vaporization and injection system
WO2000019087A1 *Sep 23, 1999Apr 6, 2000Microcoating Technologies IncSystems and method for delivering atomized fluids
WO2007034230A1 *Sep 26, 2006Mar 29, 2007Univ LeedsFuel injector
WO2007123671A2 *Mar 28, 2007Nov 1, 2007Transonic Comb IncHeated catalyzed fuel injector for injection ignition engines
Classifications
U.S. Classification123/557, 123/549
International ClassificationF02M53/04, F02M53/06, F02B3/00, F02M31/16
Cooperative ClassificationF02M31/16, F02M53/06, F02M53/04, F02B3/00, F02M2700/077, Y02T10/126, F02M2200/24, F02B2720/226
European ClassificationF02M53/04, F02B3/00, F02M53/06, F02M31/16