|Publication number||US3762735 A|
|Publication date||Oct 2, 1973|
|Filing date||Sep 15, 1971|
|Priority date||Oct 14, 1970|
|Also published as||DE2139557A1, DE2139557B2|
|Publication number||US 3762735 A, US 3762735A, US-A-3762735, US3762735 A, US3762735A|
|Original Assignee||Gertsch Ag|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (22), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1191 Smolka 1 Oct. 2, 1973 I SKI BINDING  Inventor: Thomas Gordon Smblka,
Vienna-Mauer, Austria  Assignee: Gertsch AG, Zug, Switzerland  Filed: Sept. 15, 1971  Appl. No.: 180,808
 7 Foreign Application Priority Data Oct 14, 1970 Austria 9242/70  US. Cl. 280/11.35 M, ZOO/61.49  Int. Cl. A63c 9/08  Field of Search 280/ll.35 M; 200/6l.45-6l.51; 180/104; 340/262 [56} References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,947,330 8/1960 Goss ZOO/61.49 x 3,336,045 8/1967 Kobori 280/150 AB 2/1968 Tonozzi et al 280/1 1.35 M
3,618,117 11/1971 Kaiser 280/150 AB X 3,639,710 2/1972 Haruna... 280/150 AB X 3,674,950 7/1972 Scoville ZOO/61.48 3,246,907 4/1966 Chisholm 280/1135 M FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS I 482,449 l/l970 Switzerland 280/1135 M Primary Examiner-Kenneth H. Betts Assistant ExaminerDavid M. Mitchell Au0rneyWoodhams, Blanchard & Flynn  ABSTRACT Safety ski binding. The ski binding is normal-1y held in engaged position by resilient means such as coil springs and is convertible against said resilient means to a condition for freeing the ski boot by electrically energizer means. An acceleration responsive switch is associated with the binding to energize the boot freeing means upon theoccurrence of a predetermined change in velocity of the ski binding and means associated therewith.
9-Claims, 11 Drawing Figures SKI BINDING The invention relates to a ski binding which upon occurrence of an overload, such as during a fall, frees the ski boot, wherein an electromagnet is provided for controlling the locking and unlocking operation, said electromagnet being arranged in a circuit fed by a battery and controlled by a switch.
Ski bindings are known which are equipped with spring-loaded locks. If an overload occurs, the lock is released by overcoming a selected spring force. The adjustment in such a device must be adjusted to correspond to the weight and the skiing capability of the user. However, no means have yet been devised to effeet an adjustment which would always completely correspond to such conditions. Such an adjustment, of course, depends also on the build and the physical capacity of the user and on the condition of the ski run. In the case of an icy ski run, different conditions occur than for example in the case of powder snow. Furthermdre during a slow fall the binding is opened at a different time than if a sudden stress occurs. In addition the stress of the body parts is first transferred to the boot and only then from the boot to the binding. The safety release thus depends also on thestrue ture of the boot.
lt'has already been suggested that the binding may be opened manually by the user. For this purpose, a switch was installed into the ski pole, which switch, when operated, opens an electrically controlled binding. This, however, leaves to the judgment and the reaction capability of the user whether or not he should open the binding at a given moment. This often results in wrong decisions. Furthermore, theski pole carrying the switch could be lost.
Therefore the purpose of the invention is to avoid these disadvantages and the invention is characterized in that the switch is comprised of at least one acceleration sensitive device which at a preselected change in either velocity or acceleration will change the condition of the circuit. Thus, at a certain change of velocity or acceleration, the binding is opened without depending on the judgment of the user and without being subject to environmental conditions, such as the condition of run, nature of the boot, etc.
With a mechanical binding, an accelerationchange occurs during a fall which causes a reaction force which then effects a release. This means that the binding' is opened by the reaction force which in order to become effective necessarily requires a certain amount of time. This time period is short, but there still always exists the danger that injuries can occur prior to the actual opening of the binding. Through the invention, in case of a fall the acceleration sensitive device will directly operate the binding, which binding is independent of the reaction force and thus opens immediately.
Thesubject matter of the invention is illustrated by the several embodiments set forth in the drawings, in which:
FIG. I is a schematic illustration of the fundamental structure of the invention.
FIGS. 2 and 3 illustrate in associated views an acceleration sensitive device.
FIGS. 4 to 6 schematically illustrate a detail of an acceleration sensitive device in three variations.
FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate two circuit diagrams.
Finally FIGS. 9 to 11 are three schematic positions of a known binding (according to Austrian Patent No.
275 372) which is equipped according to the invention.
In FIG. 1 the ski boot 1 is held on the ski 2 by a heel holder 3. and ajaw 4. Both in the heel holder 3 and also in the jaw 4 there are provided electromagnets 5 and 6, the cores 7 and 8 of which respectively form springloaded locks which hold the bindings in the position of use.
The electromagnets 5, 6 are positioned in a circuit which is fed by a battery 9 and which is broken by an acceleration sensitive device 10. If the speed changes at a certain, predetermined amount, then the acceleration sensitive device 10 closes the circuit so that the electromagnets 5, 6 move their cores 7, 8 against the force of the spring 11 or 12. Thus, the heel binding 3 can pivot about the axis 23 and the jaw 4 about the axis 24.
Each binding 3, 4 has its own acceleration sensitive device 10. The acceleration sensitive device can be arranged in the binding, on or in the boot, on the ski, on the foot or on any other part of the body. Various known acceleration sensitive devices can be used.
According to FIGS. 2 and 3, the acceleration sensitive device consists of a cylindrical housing 13 in which is arranged an annular contact 14 with the interpositioning of an insulation 15. The second contact 16 is supported within the contact ring 14 eccentrically on a resilient rod 17.
If an acceleration occurs at a predetermined amount, the resilient rod 17 will flex and permit the contact 16 to contact the contact ring 14 and close the circuit through the lines l8, 19. By locating the ring 14 and the contact 16 eccentrically of each other, a contact of the contacts l4, 16 at a greater or smaller acceleration will occur depending on the direction in which the acceleration occurs. In this manner different releasevalues are obtained in different directions which different release values are coordinated to the stresses of the body parts of the skier. Therefore, for example the release values occurring during a fall forwardly will be adjusted larger than in case of a twisting fall.
Also, in place of the eccentric arrangement of the contacts 14, 16 to effect a release in different directions at different acceleration occurrences, other shapes chosen corresponding to the conditions can be provided. Some of these for example are shown in FIGS. 4 to 6.
According to FIG. 4, the contact has an oval shape and the contact 16 is arranged offset within the contact 14. In FIGS. 5 and 6 the contacts 14 are shaped according to predetermined curves which are chosen according to the expected conditions of use.
In the circuit diagram according to FIG. 7, an integrator 20 is arranged between magnet 5 and acceleration sensitive device 10. If a velocity change, or acceleration, occurs, the acceleration sensitive device 10 closes, as above described, the circuit'which is fed by the battery 9 and the switching impulse is passed on to the integrator. The integrator is adjusted in such a manner that it does not operate the electromagnet 5 at short current impulses. This means that the binding does not open during short impacts which are not dangerous for the skier and as they occur during skiing. During slightly longer lasting stresses the current impulse, however, is forwarded to the electromagnet 5 and the binding or the boot is released. These time differences are, of course, very small and are closely coordinated to the stresses of the body parts.
A different switching possibility is shown in FIG. 8 in which a differentiator 21 and a discriminator 22 are provided in the circuit fed by the battery 9 between acceleration sensitive device 10 and electromagnet 5. A capacitative or inductive acceleration sensitive device is preferable. Such acceleration sensitive devices provide a voltage which is proportional to the acceleration and the differentiator 21 passes a current impulse on to the discriminator 22. This current impulse is proportional to the steepness of the voltage rise, that is, proportional to the voltage increase in a given unit of time. The discriminator 22 passes this current impulse, when it reaches a predetermined value, on to the electromagnet 5. Of course, adjustment means will be provided at least in one of the parts 10, 21, 22 in order to be able to perform an adjustment to skiing manner, body weight, etc. Also in the case of this arrangement the binding will not open at short impacts which are not dangerous for the skier.
The schematic binding according to FIGS. 9 to 11 has a sole holder 25 which can pivot about the axis 23 on a carriage 26 which is movable on the base plate 27. A lock 29 which is also pivotable about an axis 28 is positioned on the carriage 26. A release lever 31 is arranged on the pivot axis 23 through a slotted hole 30, which release lever has a stop 32. This stop 32 acts onto a further stop 33 of the lock 29. The spring 34 is supported at one end on a projection 35 of the base plate 27 and at the other end on an arm 36 of the release lever 31. The spring 34 thus exerts pressure through the parts 36, 31 the carriage 26 and thence through the clamping loop 25 against the sole of the ski boot. For this purpose, only the horizontal component of the spring force is utilized. As appearing in FIG. 9, the lock 29 acts through a stop member 37 to hold the sole holder 25 in operating position. The tension of the spring 34 is preferably adjustable in any convenient, conventional manner, such as by being mounted at one end on threadedly adjustable means or by relative adjustment between plates 26 and 27 as shown in Austrian Patent No. 276 180.
The core 7 of the electromagnet is supported pivotally in a slotted hole 38 provided on the release lever 31. If a critical change in acceleration occurs, the acceleration sensitive device closes the circuit fed by the battery 9. The electromagnet 5 pulls the core 7 downwardly through which the release lever 31 swings also downwardly about the axis 23 and the stops 32, 33 are separated from one another. Now the lock 29 releases the stop part 37 of the sole holder 25 so that the latter can swing upwardly about the axis 23.
Should the electrical unit fail (an unlikely occurrence if the equipment is correctly handled) the binding can, as can be taken from FIG. 11, still release mechanically. In such event, the stop part 37 will press the lock 29 through the parts 33, 32, 31, 36 back against the force of the spring 34. Of course it is preferred to provide a control lamp or any other signal device which indicates the operating readiness of the binding. To release the binding manually at the end of skiing, the release lever 31 is pressed downwardly in a simple manner which causes a release as illustrated in FIG. 10.
The invention is not limited to the embodiments expressly illustrated. There are a number of further embodiments which lie within the scope of the invention. It is possible to apply the invention to a later installation, or addition in or to, known mechanical ski bindings. Furthermore, of course, there exist many further electrical switching-combination possibilities.
It is also advantageous if the electromagnet is coupled with a univibrator (monostable sweep circuit) which activates the electromagnet for only a limited, but freely adjustable, period of time. This univibrator reacts to a voltage change and remains activated only for a limited time, regardless of how long the voltage change lasts.
The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. In a ski binding adapted to automatically release a ski boot upon the occurrence of an overload, for example, during a fall, said ski binding having an electromagnet for releasing the binding arranged in a circuit which is supplied by a battery the power of which is controlled by a contact device, wherein the improvement comprises an acceleration sensitive device having a contact arranged on a resilient rod, said contact being provided within a second contact spaced therefrom that at a predetermined acceleration change through a movement of the resilient rod said contacts effect a control of said electromagnet.
2. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein the spacing between the resilient contact and the contact surrounding it is of different magnitude in different directions.
3. The improvement according to claim 2, wherein the resilient contact is constructed circularly and is arranged eccentrically within a circularly constructed second contact.
4. The improvement according to claim 2, wherein at least one of the two contacts is of a non-circular shape.
5. In a ski binding adapted to automatically release a ski boot upon the occurrence of an overload, for example, during a fall, said ski binding having an electromagnet for releasing the binding arranged in an electrical circuit which is supplied by a battery the power of which is controlled by a contact device, comprising the improvement wherein said contact device consists of a sensing means responsive solely to acceleration forces on the ski and being completely free of responsiveness to forces generated as a result of the position of the ski relative to the ground to directly control the ski binding.
6. The improvement according to claim 5, wherein the core of said electromagnet cooperates with a release lever of said ski binding.
7. The improvement according to claim 5, wherein said contact device and said electromagnet is mounted within a housing forming a part of said ski binding.
8. The improvement according to claim 5, wherein said sensing means includes an acceleration responsive switch responsive solely to acceleration forces on said ski and being completely free of responsiveness to forces generated as a result of the position of the ski relative to the ground and integrator circuit connected in series therewith, said switch and said integrator circuit being connected in a loop between said battery and said electromagnet.
9. The improvement according to claim 5, wherein said sensing means includes an acceleration responsive switch responsive solely to acceleration forces on said ski and being completely free of responsiveness to forces generated as a result of the position of the ski relative to the ground and a series connected differentiator circuit and discriminator circuit connected in series with said switch, said switch and said series connected differentiator circuit and said discriminator circuit being connected in a loop between said battery and said electromagnet.
I i i
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3826509 *||May 24, 1973||Jul 30, 1974||Gertsch Ag||Safety ski binding|
|US3907316 *||Sep 13, 1973||Sep 23, 1975||Hannes Marker||Method and devices for releasing a ski boot from the ski|
|US3940156 *||Sep 24, 1974||Feb 24, 1976||Hannes Marker||Safety ski binding|
|US3950003 *||Jul 31, 1974||Apr 13, 1976||Hannes Marker||Method and apparatus for releasing a ski boot from a ski|
|US4156534 *||Aug 15, 1977||May 29, 1979||S.A. Establissements Francois Salomon & Fils||Safety bindings for skis|
|US4159124 *||Dec 27, 1977||Jun 26, 1979||S.A. Etablissements Francois Salomon & Fils||Safety binding for a ski|
|US4280714 *||Jun 25, 1979||Jul 28, 1981||S.A. Etablissements Francois Salomon & Fils||Safety bindings for skis|
|US4291894 *||May 7, 1974||Sep 29, 1981||Antonio Nicholas F D||Electrical ski boot release|
|US4349212 *||Aug 28, 1979||Sep 14, 1982||Tmc Corporation||Holding plate, in particular for ski bindings|
|US4361344 *||Aug 11, 1980||Nov 30, 1982||The Regents Of The University Of California||Ski binding with universal release|
|US4371188 *||Jun 24, 1980||Feb 1, 1983||University Of California||Method for programmed release in ski bindings|
|US4402524 *||May 30, 1980||Sep 6, 1983||Marker-Patentverwertungsgesellschaft Mbh||Battery-charging generator for electronic ski binding|
|US4463968 *||Feb 1, 1983||Aug 7, 1984||The Regents Of The University Of California||Method for programmed release in ski bindings|
|US4482168 *||Mar 8, 1982||Nov 13, 1984||Tmc Corporation||Safety ski binding|
|US4494768 *||Feb 1, 1983||Jan 22, 1985||The Regents Of The University Of California||Apparatus for programmed release in ski bindings|
|US4563021 *||Aug 17, 1982||Jan 7, 1986||Marker International Company||Release mechanism for safety ski bindings|
|US4602804 *||Sep 7, 1984||Jul 29, 1986||Tmc Corporation||Safety ski binding|
|US7438307 *||Oct 19, 2006||Oct 21, 2008||Salomon S.A.||Safety binding|
|US9024462 *||Sep 19, 2013||May 5, 2015||Jeff Thramann||Generation of electrical energy in a ski or snowboard|
|US20070090626 *||Oct 19, 2006||Apr 26, 2007||Salomon S.A.||Safety binding|
|US20140077656 *||Sep 19, 2013||Mar 20, 2014||Jeff Thramann||Generation of electrical energy in a ski or snowboard|
|EP0042717A1 *||Jun 17, 1981||Dec 30, 1981||Yasushi Horiuchi||Ski binding|
|U.S. Classification||280/612, 200/61.49, 200/61.51|