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Publication numberUS3763783 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 9, 1973
Filing dateJul 9, 1971
Priority dateFeb 4, 1970
Also published asCA981464A1
Publication numberUS 3763783 A, US 3763783A, US-A-3763783, US3763783 A, US3763783A
InventorsA Thomas, R Williams
Original AssigneeA Thomas, R Williams
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Manufacture of fuze heads
US 3763783 A
Abstract
Novel fuse heads and a process for making them in which a suspension of a primary explosive composition is made in water to which a small amount of one or more organic hydrophilic polymers is added in the proportion one to 10 percent by weight of the dry primary explosive composition. Bridge wires are immersed in the suspension and removed with the adhering material and the fuse heads so produced are allowed to dry.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sieiies Peieiii [191 Thomas et a3: Oct. 9, 1973 [54] MANUFACTUZ'ZE 0F FUZE HEADS 3,415,189 12/1968 Trevorrow 102/28 M n e s Arwyu heep flug omas 66 3,586,551 6/197. Nolan 14 9/2 i 2 Giilmans Rd., Orpington; Raymond James Wiiiiams, 48 Langdaie Gar 1 S H b m f E I l d Primary Examiner- Verlm R. Pendegrass Gen We 0 0 pg an Attorney-Stevens, Davis, Miller & Mosher [22} Filed: July 9, 1971 {211 App]. No.: 161,259

Reieterl US. Appiicaiion Date Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 110,720, Jan. 28, 1971, abandoned.

{57] ABSTRAIT Novel fuse heads and a process for making them in which a suspension of a pn'mary explosive composition is made in water to which a small amount of one or more organic hydrophilic polymers is added in the proportion one to 10 percent by weight of the dry primary explosive composition. Bridge wires are im mersed in the suspension and removed with the adhering material and the fuse heads so produced are allowed to dry.

8 Cieims, 2 Drawing Figures initiiitiitiiiih "isinusitisihithm This application is a continuation-in-part of our application Ser. No. 110730 filed 28th January, 197], and now abandoned.

This invention relates to improved fuseheads and to methods of making them.

Fuse heads are electrical detonating means in which a section of a suitable bridge wire is coated with a primary explosive composition and a binder, and which on passage of an electric current thorugh the coated wire, ignite. They are normally made by immersing the bridge wire in a suspension. of the primary explosive composition, a portion of which sticks on to and is retained by the wire as a bead. In order to obtain reproducible fuse heads, it is necessary to use a reasonably stable suspension of a sufficient quantity of the primary explosive to permit known quantities of the primary explosive composition to adhere to the wire. This has been achieved in the past by suspending the primary explosive composition in a suspension of nitrocellulose or ethyl cellulose in an organic solvent such as an amyl acetate/amyl alcohol mixture. Normally, this involves a two-stage dipping process. For example, a fusehead may consist of a first layer derived from a mixture of lead mono-nitro-resorcinate and potassium chlorate suspended in a mixture of nitro-cellulose or ethyl cellulose in an organic solvent and a second layer derived from a mixture of potassium chlorate and charcoal in a similar organic solvent suspension. This method has the disadvantages that the primary explosive must be handled dry, with the consequent risk of explosion, prior to the mixing with the nitrocellulose or ethyl cellulose suspension and the organic solvent being inflammable, greatly increases the hazards of the process.

Owing to the solubility of inorganic salts such as potassium chlorate in water, it has not been feasible to use binders suspended or dispersed in water to prepare fusehead dipping mixtures.

A further disadvantage of fuseheads incorporating nitrocellulose as a binder is that they should not be kept at temperatures above 100C as the nitrocellulose then becomes unstable.

it has now been found that fuseheads may be prepared employing a onestage dipping operation in a cheap and relatively safe way by immersing a bridge wire in an aqueous suspension of a primary explosive composition to which a small amount of an organic h drophilic polymer has been added.

According to the invention, there is provided a process for the manufacture of a fusehead comprising forming a suspension of a primary explosive composition in water containing a small amount of oneor more organic hydrophilic polymers (as hereinafter defined) in a proportion between about l to about l percent by weight of the dry primary explosive composition, immersing a bridge wire in said suspension, removing said bridge wire and adhering material and allowing the fnsehead so produced to dry.

Preferably the organic hydrophilic polymer is at least one of the compounds methyl cellulose, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol.

The term organic hydrophilic polymer as used in this specification refers to an organic polymer which when added to water gives a viscous colloidal dispersion or solution. it will he realised that the degree of substitu may be affected not only by the concentration of the polymer but also by the degree of substitution or the chain length of the polymer. For instance, lower concentrations within the range I to 10 percent ofa high molecular weight polymer can produce the same effect as higher concentrations within the range of l to 10 percent of lower molecular weight polymers.

The viscosity of the aqueous solution or dispersion of the organic hydrophilic polymer must be such that this solution will retain as a relatively homogeneous suspension the particles or granules of the primary explosive composition to be used for a period sufficiently long to prepare a worthwhile number of fuse heads without being re-mixed. The bridgewire need only be immersed for a few seconds and this can be a simple dipping action or a sweeping action. It may be immersed for one or more times depending on the concentration of the explosive in the suspension and the amount of explosive composition required on the fusehead. The colloidal dispersion must not be a rigid gel as this would adversely affect the adhesion of the dispersion on the bridge wire and the consistency of the bead size obtained.

The bulk density and the particle size of primary explosive compositions have various values and this factor must be taken into account. In accordance with well known principles in the art, the proportion of organic hydrophilic polymer in the aqueous suspension will need to be higher within the range 1 to 10 percent for compositions having higher bulk densities and/or larger particle sizes.

Fuseheads may be used for a variety of purposes including, for example, initiation of a detonator such as lead azide, ignition of a charge, for instance a delay charge or a propellant charge, or for the purpose of generating a gas pressure.

It will be realised that such applications require fuseheads giving different output energies. The variation in the required output energies may be obtained by a compensating variation in the initiating properties of the fusehead as is well known in the art. in the fuseheads according to the invention this variation in initiating properties may be obtained by a variation in the primary explosive composition and/or the proportion of the hydrophilic polymer incorporated in the fusehead composition. For concentrations greater than 5 percent, fuseheads would, in general, be less energetic but may be more suitable for particular applications such as the generation of a gas pressure. Too much polymer could render the resultant fusehead inert and a concentration of between I and 5 percent is generally preferable. A few simple tests would confirm the required concentration of any specilic polymer within the range from about l-lO percent against the particle size/density of the primary explosive, its specific function, and the mechanical properties of the fusehead produced.

ln this patent specification, the words primary explosive composition are used to define a sparingly water soluble composition which may be readily ignited by a hot wire. This composition may include fuels and/or oxidants in addition to the conventional explosives. Compositions which may be used include metal styph' nales such as the lead and barium salts, metal azides such as the lead and silver salts, the lead salts of diniand metal piorates such as the lead and potassium salts and include beta monobasic lead styphnate, normal llitlll SI llfltllt, acid lead 4, 6dinitr0res0rcinol, normal The fusehead consist of an insulating body 1 made of pressboard which tapers slightly from the bottom 2 to the top 3. The top side 3 is partly cut away to leave a step 4. The sides of the body 1 are covered with brassfoil attached to the body 1 by any known means. A platinum wire 5 is stretched across the step 4 and securely fastened to the brassfoil 5 by soldered joints 7. The upper end of the body 1 and the wire 6 is covered by a bead of a primary explosive composition 8.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples:

EXAMPLE I The water content of wet beta monobasic lead styphnate of particle size approximately 6-10 microns long and 1-2 microns wide was determined and sufficient material was weighed out to give 8.08g of the dry lead styphnate. The water content was adjusted to give a total water content of 2.0g. Srnl of an aqueous suspension containing 5 percent (wt/vol) of methyl cellulose (coagulation temperature 70C, viscosity of 1 percent aqueous solution 10-20 cp) was added and the whole was mixed to give a smooth paste. Bridge wires were immersed in this paste, withdrawn and the formed fuseheads allowed to dry. The above paste was used without further re-mixing up to about minutes with little variation in the composition and or bead size attained on the finished fuze-head.

EXAMPLE 2 The water content of wet beta monobasic lead styphnate was determined and sufficient material weighed out to give 9.5g of the dry lead styphnate. The water content was adjusted to give a total water content of 2.0g. 5.0ml of an aqueous suspension containing 10 percent (wt/vol) polyvinyl alcohol (99 percent hydrolysed, viscosity 4 percent aqueous solution 5-25cp) was added and the whole mixed to give a smooth paste. Fuseheads were made as in Example I.

EXAMlLE 3 4.8g of finely divided lead azide (approximately l-S microns diameter) (prepared by precipitation) was taken and 2.5g of water addecl LOml of 10 percent (wt/vol) polyvinyl alcohol (99 percent hydrolysed,viscosity of 4 percent aqueous solution 5-25cp) was added and the whole mixed to a smooth paste. By successive dipping operations, fuseheads containing up to 50mg of lead azide were made.

EXAMPLE 4 5.0g of beta monobasic lead styphnatc was taken and mixed with 6.25mi of an 8 percent (wt/vol) aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (99 percent hydrolysed, viscosity of 4 percent aqueous solution 5-25cp) solution and the whole mixed to give a smooth paste. Fuseheads made 4 from this suspension exploded satisfactorily but had a low energy output.

The water content of monobasic lead azotetrazole (particle size, length 10-20 microns, breadth 2-4 microns) was determined and sufficient material weighed out to give 5.0g of dry salt. The water content was adjusted to give a total water content of 1.3g. 4ml of an aqueous suspension containing 2.5 percent (wt/vol) sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (viscosity ofa 1 percent solution 20-35cp determined in a U tube) was added and the whole mixed to a smooth paste. Bridge wires were immersed in this solution, withdrawn and the formed fuseheads allowed to dry.

EXAMPLE 6 5.0g of potassium picrate (average particle size 525 microns) was added to 3.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 5 percent (wt/vol) polyvinyl alcohol (as used in Example 2) and the whole mixed to a smooth paste. Fuse-heads prepared from this mix ignited readily and burnt quietly and completely.

EXAMPLE 7 The water content of wet acid lead salt of 4, 6-dinitro resorcinol (20-50 microns long, 1-2 microns wide) was determined and sufficient material weighed out to give 5.0 g of the dry salt. The water content was adjusted to give a total water content of 1.25g. 6.26 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 3 percent (wt/vol) sodium carboxy methyl cellulose was added and the whole mixed to a smooth paste. Fuseheads prepared from this mix ignited readily and burnt quietly and completely.

EXAMPLE 8 The water content of a wet lead salt of trinitrophloroglucinol (5090 microns long, 2-4 microns wide) was determined and sufficient material weighed out to give 5.0g of the dry salt. The water content was adjusted to give a total water content of 1.5g. 5.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 5 percent (wt/vol) methyl cellulose (as used in Example 1) was added and the whose mixed to a smooth paste. Fuseheads were made from this mixture by the method given in Example 1.

Fuseheads prepared according to the invention are mechanically stable and suffer a negligible increase in weight due to absorbing water even when stored for three months at ambient temperatures and 98 percent relative humidity. There is no visible deterioration after heating at C for two hours and no deterioration when cooled at lgi}.

Although fuseheads made according to the invention show no tendency to absorb moisture, they may finally be covered by a lacquer of a hydrophobic colioid.

The invention also provides novel fuseheads comprising a mixture of a primary explosive composition and an organic hydrophilic polymer in which the proportion of the polymer is about one to about 10 percent by weight of the primary explosive composition.

What we claimed is:

1.. A fusehead having ignitable material comprising a primary explosive composition comprising ,8 monobasic lead styphnate and an organic hydrophilic polymer wherein the proportion of the hydrophilic polymer is within the range from about 1 to about 10 percent the dry primary explosive composition.

' I l i use ea .avmgigma eml primary explosive composition comprising monobasic lead styphnate and an organic hydrophilic polymer wherein the proportion of the hydrophilic polymer is' 6. A fusehead according to claim 2 wherein the organic hydrophiiic polymer is at least one of the group consisting of methyl cellulose, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol.

7. A fusehead additionally comprises according to claim 2 wherein the fusehead a hydrophobic colloid cover.

8. A fusehead according to claim 2 wherein the primary explosive substance contains at least one compound selected from the group consisting of fuels and oxidants.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE- CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 763,783 Dated October 9, 1973 lfiye t THOMAS et al 'It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and vthat said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Col. 1,;line 11, change "thorugh" to through-. Col. 3," line 17, change "wire 5" to wire 6-. Col. 4, line 43, change "whose" to whole-. Col. 51, line 12, Claim 4, after "comprises" delete "covline 13, after "coloid" insert cover-.

In clai'ni 7, col 6,"line' 7, delete "additionally compris-- es" i line 8, after "fusehead" insert -'additionally comprises r.

Signed and sealed this Znd day of July i974.

(SEAL) Attest EDWARD M. FLEICHE R, JR. C. MARSHALL DANN Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents USCOMM-DC 603 5-96) FORM F'O-IOSO (10-69) ORM PO-1050 (10-69) Attest:

Patent No. 3 r 7.6- 783 Dated October 9, 1973 Inventofls) THOMAS. et al Col. Col.

Col.

It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent v and vthat said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

line line line li-ne "line In claiin 7, col

" line comprises:-fl-.

EDWARD M. FLETCHER, JR. Attesting Officer 11, change "thorugh" to through--. l7, change "wire 5" to wire 6. 43, change "whose" to whole.

12, Claim 4, after "comprises" delete "covafter "coloid" insert cover-.

6, line 7,' delete "additionally compris- 8, after."fusehead" insert --additio'n ally c. MARSHALL DANN I Commissioner of Patents USCOMM-DC 0037 5-969

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2506229 *Mar 25, 1949May 2, 1950Ici LtdElectric fuse
US3415189 *Mar 24, 1967Dec 10, 1968Atlas Chem IndWater destructible electric match
US3586551 *Aug 27, 1968Jun 22, 1971Du PontWater-degradable cap-sensitive selfsupporting explosive
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4152988 *Sep 19, 1977May 8, 1979The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyElectric match with epoxy coated fluorocarbon containing pyrotechnic composition
US5826160 *Aug 14, 1995Oct 20, 1998The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyHot explosive consolidation of refractory metal and alloys
US5889228 *Apr 9, 1997Mar 30, 1999The Ensign-Bickford CompanyDetonator with loosely packed ignition charge and method of assembly
US6408759Mar 31, 1998Jun 25, 2002The Ensign-Bickford CompanyInitiator with loosely packed ignition charge and method of assembly
US7793592Feb 6, 2003Sep 14, 2010Trw Airbag Systems GmbhMicroelectronic pyrotechnical component
DE10204833A1 *Feb 6, 2002Aug 21, 2003Trw Airbag Sys Gmbh & Co KgMikroelektronisch-Pyrotechnisches Bauteil
DE10204833B4 *Feb 6, 2002Nov 10, 2005Trw Airbag Systems Gmbh & Co. KgMikroelektronisch-Pyrotechnisches Bauteil
WO1998045663A1 *Mar 31, 1998Oct 15, 1998Ensign Bickford CoInitiator with loosely packed ignition charge and method of assembly
Classifications
U.S. Classification149/24, 102/202.11
International ClassificationF42B3/12, F42B3/00
Cooperative ClassificationF42B3/124
European ClassificationF42B3/12D