US 3764067 A
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United States Patent 1191 Coffey et a1. Oct. 9, 1973 METHOD FOR DECORATING SURFACES 3,402,066 9/1968 Caffras 117/104 A [751 Charles Coffey; Michael 3:333:82? 25131; 533;; f??..?.:.::::: IZZY/1 7 41 0 1 Catena, both of Tampa, Fla. 73] H P t 6 T Fl OTHER PUBLICATIONS sslgnce' arms am ompany ampa Herzka, International Encyclopaedia of Pressurized  Filed: Jan. 26, 1972 Packaging (1966) Pergamon Press Press, pages 532,
545 & 546.  Appl' 221033 Felsher et al., Paint & Varnish Production, May 1963,
Related US. Application Data pgs. 42-45.  Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 44,590, June 8,
1970, abandoned. Primary ExaminerWil1iam D. Martin Assistant Examiner-M. Sofocleus  US. Cl 239/1, 106/193 M, 117/27, Attorney-Edwin E. Greigg 222/402.1, 260/37 M  ABSTRACT  Int. Cl B44d 1/08, 865d 83/14 A glitter Coating composition is applied from a manu  Field of Search 117/37 R, 93.4, 27, any operated aerosol spray can by spraying a glitter 7/104 104 160 33; coating composition comprising solid, highly reflect- 252/305; 260/37 M; 106/193 M; 222/394 ant, non-leafing polymer-coated metal flakes, a vehi- 4021; 424/46 cle system therefor, and a propellant by the steps of (1) flowing the glitter coating composition through a  References C'ted passageway of substantially uniform cross-sectional UNITED STATES PATENTS area, (2) expanding the flowing glitter composition in 2,731,436 1/1956 Stetz et a1. 252/305 an elongated expansion chamber, and (3) accelerating 2,934,512 4/1960 Godshalk 117/160 X the expanded flowing glitter composition through a 3,1 11,497 11/1963 Haas l17/160 X constricted orifice. The glitter coating issues from the 3,121,642 BlSkUp rifi e in the form of a wel].mixed 3,234,038 2/1966 Stephens et a1... 117/71 M Spray 2,908,446 10/1959 Strouse 222/4021 9/1964 Marsh 167/87.1 16 Claims, No Drawings METHOD FOR DECORATING SURFACES This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 44,590, filed June 8, 1970, entitled Method for Decorating Surfaces and now abandoned.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a method for depositing solid, highly reflectant, non-leafing, sparkling, colored, macro," polymer-coated metal flakes on any primed or unprimed substrate, e.g., styrofoam, metal, wood, plastic, paper, which can support a film.
Colored metal flakes in the macro size range have heretofore been limited to application from conventional, heavy-duty spray equipment, or have had to be roller coated, screen printed, cast, flocked, or extruded.
It is an object of this invention to apply, solid, highly reflectant, non-leaflng colored, macro" size metal flakes from a manually-operated aerosol spray can. By the practice of this invention, students, artists, home handymen, housewives, auto enthusiasts, and the like can apply dramatic glitter coatings to numerous substrates and can obtain esthetically pleasing effects previously unavailable except by using heavy-duty spray equipment.
Prior to this invention, it was known in the art to apply micro" leafing metal particles from manuallyoperated spray cans. The formulations used by Felsher et al (Paint and Varnish Products, May 1963, at p. 45), by Herzka (International Encyclopedia of Pressurized Packaging." Pergamon Press. I966. at pgs. 545,546), and by Stetz et al (U. S. Pat. No. 2,731,436) create a mirror-like surface by the use ofleafing" metal flakes, usually in the size range of 200-325 mesh (00029-00017 inch)..Coatings made by aerosol application of these formulations feel smooth, show a decided tendency to crock, and become dull after a short time. Stephens ct al(U. S. Pat. No. 3,234,038) teach the use of l-200 mesh (0.0058-00029 inch) nonleafing aluminum flakes in a formulation applied from conventional heavy-duty spray equipment to a primed surface and then baked. A transparent lacquer overcoat is required. The compositions do not adhere satisfactorily to unprimed surfaces and are relatively dull grey in appearance.
Coatings made according to the present invention appear sparkling and glittery and feel rough to the touch. Good adhesion to unprimed surfaces, e.g., metal, wood, plastic, paper, is obtained by the simple process of spraying the glitter coating composition from a manually-operated aerosol can. No overcoat is required, since the glitter coatings show virtually no tendency to peel, crack, or rub off.
The effect produced by the solid, highly reflectant, non-leafing, polymer-coated metal flakes of this invention is thought to reside in propelling the flakes onto a substrate in a random, unoriented fashion. Rapid evaporation of volatile solvent from the vehicle results in the flakes being embedded randomly in the resin from the vehicle system. Each flake is thought to be coated with a thin layer of resin. Part of the brilliance and sparkle of the coatings of this invention is thought to be due to reflectance of light through the coating on each metal flake.
The size of the macro metal flakes used in the practice of this invention may be varied according to the effect desired. Use of a larger size flake gives a more dramatic appearance to the substrate sprayed than use of smaller flakes. The size of the metal flake may vary from about 0.004 inch X 0.002 inchX 0.00032 inch to about 0.008 inch X 0.008 inch X 0.00] inch. Flakes in the range from 0.004 inch X 0.002 inch X 0.00045 inch to 0.008 inch X 0.008 inch X 0.00045 inch are preferred. Tolerances are within i 5 percent in both surface dimensions and thickness.
Metal flakes particularly preferred for the purpose of this invention are precision-cut, regular shapes of highly polished aluminum foil coated with a variety of coatings, depending on the type of colored flake desired. The epoxy coated type are aluminum foil flakes coated with a pigmented, or unpigmented, baked epoxy resin. The vinyl coated type are aluminum foil flakes coated with a pigmented, or unpigmented, vinyl resin. The nitrocellulose coated type are aluminum foil flakes coated with a pigmented, or unpigmented, nitrocellulose type lacquer.
Colors of the flakes include the following, or mixtures thereof:
Bright Silver Purple Sand Prussian Blue Pale GOlCl Royal Blue Dark GOld Medium Blue Golden Fiesta Aqua Chartreuse Emerald Golden Orange Lavender Bright Orange Brilliant Copper Apricot Antique Brown Brilliant Red Black Fuchsia Vehicle systems which have successfully been used in this method include conventional acrylic resins, e.g., F-lO [a poly(methyl methacrylate) (Rohm and Haas Co.)]; alkyd resins, e.g., vinyltoluene soya alkyd; methyl cellulose; and the like. The polymer used in the vehicle system may be any polymer which is not reactive with the coating on the metal flakes. The vehicle composition is limited only by the strength of the solvents used. Solvents used in the aerosol formulations should be of low solvent strength. However, this does not preclude the use of minor percentages of strong solvents. Very strong solvents are to be avoided, as they could possibly solubilize and extract colorants from the coated aluminum flakes.
Propellants used include both halogenated types and hydrocarbon types'of conventional aerosol propellants.
In the examples infra there will be shown a basel consisting of the metal flakes and vehicle therefor. This base is delivered to an open aerosol can, suitable agitators are added (spherical marbles or rivets are adequate); the spray valve is crimped onto the aerosol can, and the propellant is injected into the can. While low temperature filling is possible, the injection method is more suited to the practice of this invention.
Conventional, cylindrical aerosol cans of any size can be used for the practice of this invention; 4 ounce to 16 ounce cans are preferred.
The velocity at which the glitter coating composition is exhausted from the spray can is a critical aspect of successful application of compositions containing macro flakes from a spray container. Conventional sprayheads apparently confine the mixing and atomization of spray compositions to a localized region adjacent to the nozzle outlet. An unsatisfactory spray pattern often results, particularly with liquid products containing dispersed solid particles or flakes, e.g., specialty paints containing flakes of metallic, plastic, or glass glitter. The particles in these products apparently serve as'nuclei for agglomeration of liquid in relatively large droplets which collect in the area between the sprayhead and the valve mounting cap. As exhaustion of the aerosol from the can is continued, the bulk of collected fluid is carried by entrainment as a blotch, spatter, or unsightly non-uniform area on the substrate being sprayed. These poor results become even more poor as the size of the suspended flakes or particles increases.
A sprayhe ad suitable for propulsion ofmacro particles of this invention requires the incorporation of an elongated expansion chamber upstream of the nozzle orifice. The diameter of the expansion chamber should ideally be significantly larger than that of the passageway leading'to the valve from a dip tube or other means for conveying glitter coating composition to the passageway of the sprayhead.
The length of the expansion chamber should preferably be several times its diameter. For example, a sprayhead incorporating an expansion chamber at least five times as long as its diameter not only gives a spray pattern of greatly improved uniformity, but also gives increased product flow rate for a given nozzle orifice diameter and propellant pressure.
Thus, in the operation of this invention, the glitter coating composition and propellant mixture undergoes the steps of l flow through a passageway of substantially uniform cross'sectional area, (2) expansion within an elongated expansion chamber, and (3) acceleration through a constricted orifice. The glitter coating issues from the orifice in the form of a finelydivided well-mixed spray.
In a particularly useful sprayhead, the expansion chamber is placed angularly with respect to the passageway of the sprayhead. Glitter coating composition first passes through the passageway of substantially uniform cross-sectional area. The abrupt change of direction which the composition undergoes as it enters the expansion chamber induces a swirling flow which promotes intimate mixing of flakes, vehicle, and vaporizing propellant as the composition passes through the expansion chamber prior to issuing from the constricted orifice as a very fine spray.
Dimensions of a typical sprayhead which gives results useful for the purpose of this invention are:
Inlet slot 0.060 inch X 0.125 inch Chamber 0.112 inch diameter X 0.625 inch long Orifice 0.032 inch diameter While the invention is not limited to specific sprayhead slots and orifices, the following sprayheads, manufactured by Newman-Green, Inc., have been found to be suitable:
Valves useful in the practice of this invention include B and R type valves manufactured by Newman-Green, Inc. of Addison, Illinois. Valves denoted R-10-l28 and B-l4-l0-l28 are especially useful, although other valves of these series are operative.
When larger sized metal flakes are used, the use of a vapor tap valve assembly is preferred, as this assembly substantially eliminates the possibility of the valve dip tube becoming clogged with metal flakes. The vapor tap feature is available on both B and R type valves, supra.
To further ensure elimination of clogging the valve dip tube with macro flakes, the dip tube should terminate slightly above the level normally occupied by a compacted sludge of metal flakes of the coating composition which forms between successive usages of the aerosol spray can. Negligible loss of material results from this arrangement of the dip tube.
Before spraying the product of this invention, the coating composition is agitated thoroughly by shaking the aerosol can. The spherical marbles or rivets charged to the can operate as agitating means. Label directions on the can should indicate the need for frequent shaking to assure that equal aliquots of macro" flakes and vehicle are discharged throughout the use of a given spray can.
In the practice of the invention, aerosol formulations are charged into the aerosol can, the sprayhead is affixed, the aerosol can is shaken to ensure distribution of the contents, the sprayhead is pressed, and the valve assembly is actuated to deliver the product onto the desired substrata.
The following are examples of formulations that may be used:
EXAMPLE 1 Base 2.0 g F-l0 Rohm and Haas Acrylic Solution 4.0 g Pale Gold Epoxy 0.008 inch X 0.006 inch 0.00045 inch Flake 39.0 g Textile Spirits Amsco Propellant 55.0 g Freon l2/Vinyl Chloride Blend 65%/35% Du Pont EXAMPLE 2 Base 2.5 g F-l0 3.0 g Pale Gold Epoxy 0.008 inch X 0.006 inch x 0.00045 inch 67.5 g Cyclohexane Am. Min. Sp. Propellant 30.0 g A- Hydrocarbon Propellant Aeropres, Inc.
EXAMPLE 3 Base 20.0 g F-l0 2.0 g Pale Gold Epoxy 0.008 inch X 0.008 inch 0.00045 inch 50.0 g Process Naphtha Humble Oil 0.1 g DC-200 Silicone Dow Corning 0.9 g Toluol Propellant 30.0 g A-70 Hydrocarbon Propellant Example 4 Base 25.0 g F-lO 25.0 g Process Naphtha 2.0 g Pale Gold Epoxy 0.008 inch 0.004 inch X 0.00045 inch Propellant 50.0 g Freon l2/Vinyl Chloride 65%/35% EXAMPLE 5 Base 30.0 g F-lO 20.0 g Process Naphtha 0.1 g DC-200 Silicone 0.9 g Toluol 2.0 g Pale 001d Epoxy 0.008 inch x 0.008 inch 0.00045 inch Propellant 50.0 g Freon 12/Vinyl Chloride 65%/35% EXAMPLE 6 Base 5.0 g Pale Gold Epoxy 0.008 inch X 0.008 inch X 0.00045 inches 0.5 g Malori Maroon Tint Paste 15.0 g Vinyl Toluene Soya Alkyd Solution 60% N 4 30.0-g Process Naphtha Propellant 50.0 g Freon l2/Vinyl Chloride 65%/35% EXAMPLE 7 Base 5.0 g Pale Gold Epoxy 0.008 inch X 0.008 inch X 0.00045 inch 0.25 g Phthalo Green Tint Paste 15.0 g Vinyl Toluene Soya Alkyd Solution 60% V 25.0 g Process Naphtha Propellant 55.0 g Freon 65%/35% l2/Vinyl Chloride EXAMPLE 8 Base 4.0 g Pale Gold Epoxy 0.008 inch X 0.008 inch X 0.00045 inch 20.0 g Vinyl Toluene Soya Alkyd Solution 60% V 36.0 g Process Naphtha 10.0 g lsopropyl Alcohol Propellant- 30.0 g A-70 Propellant EXAMPLE 9 EXAMPLE 10 Base 25.0 g F-lO 25.0 g Process Naphtha 2.0 g Silver Vinyl Coated Flake 0.008 inch X 0.004 inch X 0.001 inch Propellant 50.0 g A-70 Hydrocarbon Propellant EXAMPLE 11 Base 4.0 g Medium Blue Nitrocellulose Coated Aluminum Flakes 41.0 g Water 5.0 g 3% Methocel CPS 4000 in water 30.0 g lsopropyl Alcohol 0.4 g Emcol 14 Propellant 20.0 g A-70 Hydrocarbon Propellant It will be apparent from the foregoing examples that color can be imparted to the vehicle by inclusion therein of a dye or transparent pigment. By the use of transparent colored and colorless vehicles and by the use of metal flakes coated with unpigmented and pigmented resins, a myriad variety of glitter effects can be obtained.
That which is claimed is:
l. A method for applying a glitter coating composition from a manually operated aerosol can which comprises spraying the glitter composition comprising from about 0.5 percent to about 10 percent of solid, highly reflectant, non-leafing aluminum flakes, the size of which varies between about 0.002 inch X 0.004 inch X 0.00032 inch and about 0.008 inch X 0.008 inch X 0.001 inch coated with a polymer selected from the group consisting of baked epoxy resin, vinyl resin and nitrocellulose resin, from about 40 percent to about 83 percent of a vehicle system for the aluminum flakes, and from about 15 percent to about 55 percent of an aerosol propellant by the steps of flowing said glitter composition through a passageway of substantially uniform cross-sectional area, flowing said glitter into an elongated expansion chamber of which the length is several times its diameter, and arranged angularly with respect to the passageway, expanding said flowing glitter composition in the elongated expansion chamber, and accelerating said expanded flowing glitter composition through a constricted orifice in the form of a finely divided well mixed spray.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the vehicle system contains dyes or transparent pigments.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the aluminum flakes are. coated with a pigmented polymer.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the aluminum flakes are precision-cut, regularly shaped flakes of aluminum foil.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the aluminum flakes are precision-cut, regularly shaped flakes of aluminum foil coated with a pigmented polymer.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the aluminum flakes are precision-cut, regularly shaped flakes of aluminum foil and wherein the vehicle system contains dyes or transparent pigments.
7. The method of claim 11, wherein the aluminum flakes are precision-cut, regularly shaped flakes of aluminum foil, coated with a pigmented polymer and wherein the vehicle system contains dyes or transparent pigments. I
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the manually operated aerosol can includes a vapor-tap valve assembly.
9.. The method of claim 1, wherein the manually operated aerosol can includes a vapor-tap valve assembly and further wherein means for flowing said glitter coating composition into the passageway of substantially uniform cross-sectional area terminates slightly above a level normally occupied by a compacted sludge of aluminum flakes of said glitter coating composition which forms between successive usages of said'aerosol can.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein a swirling motion is imparted to said flowing glitter composition entering the elongated expansion chamber by abruptly changing the direction of flow of said flowing glitter composition as said composition enters said expansion chamber.
11. The method of claim 10, wherein the vehicle system contains dyes or transparent pigments.
flakes are precision-cut, regularly shaped flakes of aluminum foil and wherein the vehicle system contains dyes or transparent pigments.
16. The method of claim 10, wherein the aluminum flakes are precision-cut, regularly shaped flakes of aluminum foil coated with a pigmented polymer and wherein the vehicle system contains dyes or transparent pigments.