Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3764448 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 9, 1973
Filing dateMar 24, 1972
Priority dateSep 17, 1969
Publication numberUS 3764448 A, US 3764448A, US-A-3764448, US3764448 A, US3764448A
InventorsJ Nisbet, H Woodall
Original AssigneeCarolina Narrow Fabric Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Glass pile fabric and method of making same
US 3764448 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Ofice Patented Oct. 9, 1973 US. Cl. 161-67 24 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A glass pile fabric suitable for use as carpeting, upholstery and the like and characterized as being flame retardant, non-irritating to skin contact, and having substantial dimensional stability and strength. In one embodiment, the fabric comprises a backing material of interlaced glass yarns, and pile loops penetrating the backing material and comprising bulked glass yarns consisting of extremely fine diameter filaments. An adhesive may be carried on the reverse side of the backing fabric to anchor the loops therein, and the yarns of the loops may be finished with a resin bonded pigment. The pile fabric may be produced by a process which includes the steps of applying a resin bonded pigment finish to the bulked glass yarns, inserting loops of the finished yarns through the backing material to form a pile surface, applying an adhesive to the reverse side of the backing material to anchor the loops, and then applying a non-pigmented resin finish to the surface of the pile loops.

This application is a continuation-in-part of copending application Ser. No. 858,796, filed Sept. 17, 1969, and now Pat. No. 3,654,056.

The present invention relates to a glass pile fabric suitable for use as carpeting, upholstery and the like, and a method of making the same.

Carpets and other pile fabrics are commonly manufactured by a tufting process wherein loops of yarn are passed through a backing fabric by means of needles. Typically, the looped yarns are wool or a synthetic material such as nylon, and the backing fabric comprises a woven jute material which is subsequently coated with latex. Where relatively high stability and strength is required, it is common to cover the latexed jute backing with a second jute backing.

In certain applications, it is imperative that the finished carpet possess exceptional performance properties which are not found in conventional pile fabrics of the above type. For example, a carpet designed for use in commercial aircraft or in marine applications must possess exceptional strength and dimensional stability, it must meet rigid flammability requirements and have low smoke and toxic gas emission upon being subjected to forced combustion, and it must exhibit adequate abrasion resistance and wear characteristics.

It has long been recognized in the art that textile fabrics fabricated from inorganic glass filament yarns are non-flammable and possess high strength and low stretch characteristics, and such material has been proposed for use in a number of applications, such as woven glass draperies. However, conventional glass filament yarns possess a number of disadvantages which have heretofore precluded their use in a fabric such as a tufted carpet. Specifically, glass is known to be relatively stiff and brittle, and a large number of the filaments of conventional glass yarns would be broken when subjected to a tufting operation. Also, glass filaments are self-abrasive when brought in contact with each other, and thus further breakage of the filaments would occur when the carpet is subjected to heavy wear. Still further, conventional glass filaments are irritating to human skin, and thus such material would not be suitable for use, for example, where the fabric would be expected to come in contact with the skin of humans.

It is accordingly an object of the present invention to provide an all glass pile fabric which is highly flame retardant, and has substantial dimensional stability and strength such that the fabric may be used in applications requiring exceptional performance properties, such as carpeting in a commercial aircraft ad marine applications.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide an all glass pile fabric which is non-irritating to human skin and which exhibits outstanding abrasion resistance and resistance to wear.

It is still another object of the present invention to provide a highly stable and strong carpet which does not require a second backing to provide the necessary strength.

In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that an all glass tufted pile fabric may be constructed by inserting loops of glass yarns consisting of very fine filaments through a glass fabric backing. As noted above, glass filaments of conventional size are relatively stiff and brittle, and when broken they are highly abrasive and irritating to the skin. It has been found that glass yarns consisting of very fine individual filaments having an average diameter not greater than about .00025 inch possess greatly increased flexibility and strength, and are able to be inserted through a backing fabric by a tufting machine without significant damage. In addition, the extreme flexibility of these very fine individual filaments gives rise to an additional advantage in that such filaments will bend before penetrating human or animal tissue. Thus, loose filaments which may be present in the fabric are non-irritating to skin contact. The reason for this increased flexibility and strength is believed to arise from the fact that a small diameter filament may be bent around a sharp corner with less bending strain on its molecules than can a larger diameter filament.

As examples of extremely fine glass filaments possessing the above properties, it is noted that yarns consisting of continuous glass filaments having an average diameter of approximately .00015 inch are commercially available and are known as B (or Beta) filament yarns. At the present time, B filaments are believed to be the smallest or finest glass filaments capable of commercial production. Filaments having an average diameter of approximately .00018 inch are known as C filaments, and filaments having a diameter of approximately .00021 inch are known as D filaments. Commercial DE filaments have an average diameter of about .00025 inch.

From the above, it will be apparent that where the glass yarns must have a high degree of flexibility, and also be non-irritating to skin contact, as would be required in the fabrication and use of a tufted pile carpet, it is desirable to employ the finest filament yarns obtainable. Of course, the finer diameter filaments are more expensive, and it has been determined that D filament yarns present a good balance of performance against cost in most applications. Where performance and not cost is the primary consideration, the use of B- or C filaments is preferable. Where performance is not a primary consideration as compared to cost, DE filaments may be employed. Continuous filament yarns are somewhat preferable to staple filament yarns since there will be fewer loose filaments to form abrasive surfaces.

Thus, the above noted objects and advantages of the present invention are achieved in the embodiments of the invention illustrated herein by provision of a pile fabric which comprises a glass backing material possessing substantial dimensional stability and strength, and a plurality of pile loops penetrating the backing material. The loops comprise glass yarns which consist of filaments having an average diameter not greater than about .00025 inch, and a resin bonded pigment finish is adhered to the surface thereof. The pile fabric may be produced by a process wherein the glass yarns to be used in forming the loops are finished by applying a pigmented resin to the surface thereof which is then cured. The finished yarns may then be plied and cable twisted, and the piles are then formed by inserting loops of the finished and plied yarns through a glass backing fabric. An adhesive solution may be applied to the side of the backing fabric opposite the loops to anchor the loops therein, and the loops may then be subjected to the application of an afterfinish which includes a non-pigmented resin.

Some of the objects and advantages of the invention having been stated, others will appear as the description proceeds, when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of the various steps employed in fabricating a glass pile fabric according to the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating a second embodiment of the method of fabricating a glass pile fabric according to the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view, partly sectioned of a tufted pile fabric embodying the features of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged transverse sectional view of the carpet shown in FIG. 3.

In fabricating the pile fabric of the present invention and according to the method illustrated in FIG. 1, packages of the above described very fine filament glass yarns are initially placed on a suitable creel. Typically, the glass yarn filaments will have been initially coated with a size material by the producer which is designed to lubricate and protect the filaments during the subsequent manufaeturing processes. Usually, this size is starch-oil based and similar to those conventional sizes used in other textile operations, but other sizes such as polyvinyl alcohol are often employed. In addition, the glass yarns are preferably bulked or texturized by for example the Taslan" or other conventional air jet process, the bulking serving to facilitate resin penetration in the finishing operation as hereinafter further described, and also to provide improved yarn coverage in the completed fabric. Further, bulking adds other desirable physical propereies such as improved hand and loft, and also serves to somewhat deluster the yarns.

In many glass finishing operations, it is desirable to remove the size from the glass yarns since it may inhibit the proper application of the desired finish. Where this is necessary, the yarns may be chemically desized by the process described in detail in copending application, Ser. No. 858,796, filed Sept. 17, 1969, and now Pat. No. 3,654,056. However, it has been found that certain finishes may be applied directly to the producer sized glass yarns in accordance with the presently described process for use in many applications. Also, it is believed that the presence of the size may facilitate the tufting of the yarns as hereinafter further described.

From the creel, the yarn ends are brought together from the packages to form a web which is passed continuously through a pigmented resin bath. A conventional slasher size box may be used in carrying out this process and the web may be passed through a set of squeeze rolls after immersion in the resin bath to insure a thorough penetration of the pigmented resin into the yarn ends. From the size box, the web is dried and the resin cured for example by the slasher drying cylinders. Alternatively, the web may be passed through a radiant or infrared drying oven of conventional design. Typically, the resin will be fully cured upon leaving the drying cylinders or oven,

but in some instances as further described below, the resin will be only partially cured.

The formulation of the finish employed in the above process is generally conventional, and comprises for example an acrylic resin and an organic pigment. The composition may further include a stabilizer, an anti-migrant and a softener. As a specific example, the following has been found to be a satisfactory formulation for a blue finish:

Percent by weight of aqueous bath CD 6004 emulsified acrylic resin (Valchem Division, United Merchants and Manufacturers)--- 7.5 A 1-87 Silange coupling agent (gamma-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane-Union Carbide) .5 Kelgin anti-migrant (sodium alginate-Kelco Co.) .12 Ahcovel softener (modified fatty amideI.C.I.

Inc.) .4 Triton X- stabilizer (alkylaryl polyether alcoholRohm & Haas) .2 Monastral Blue B organic pigment-(E. I. du

Pont) 8.0

Typically, the resin solids add-on to the yarn will be about 6% of the weight of the yarn.

As an alternative to the above described resin bonded pigment finish, the finish could be adhered to the surface of the pile yarns by the monomer grafting process as known in the art.

From the curing oven, the web of yarns is delivered to a take-up or winder, plied and cable twisted, and then delivered to a tufting machine. In the tufting machine, a pile fabric such as shown at 10 in FIG. 3 is formed by inserting loops 12 of the finished yarns through an all glass woven backing fabric 14 by means of tufting needles in the conventional manner. In this regard, it has been found that the use of an all glass woven backing fabric provides high dimensional stability, flame retardancy, and strength in the final product, and in most applications, eliminates the need for a secondary backing fabric. Certain of the new non-woven glass materials have also been found adequate for this purpose, and in either event the resulting fabric is essentially non-flammable. In addition, it has been found that in the case of woven backings, the amount of breakage of the filaments normally caused by the penetration of the tufting needles is reduced when at least some of the glass yarns in the woven backing are bulked. It is believed that this improvement results from the fact that there is more room for the filaments of the bulked yarns to be moved laterally by the tufting needles than would be the case in non-bulked or conventional yarns. Thus, instead of being broken by the downward movement of the tufting needles, the filaments in the bulked yarns are merely moved laterally. Also, the bulked yarns occupy more space and permit a reduction in the number of picks in the backing fabric without sacrificing overall strength.

From the tufting operation, the pile fabric moves through a back coating apparatus, such as a conventional kiss roll applicator, which is designed to apply an adhesive 16, such as a conventional low smoke, flame resistant latex, on the side of the backing fabric opposite the loops to anchor the loops therein. At this point, the pile fabric is in an essentially completed form for many applications, and it only remains to pass the fabric through a second oven to dry the adhesive and finally cure the resin if such was not completed in the initial curing oven. Such a two-step curing process is believed to level the cure of the resin throughout the fabric, and to somewhat stabilize the shape of the looped yarns. Also, the second cure acts to insure against an inadvertent lack of cure in any portion of the loop yarns.

As an alternate to the above procedure, a resin aftertreatment may be applied to the pile surface after the back coating and drying operations. The resin after-treatment may be applied by passing the same through the nip of a conventional pad which is designed to obtain penetration into the pile loops. Alternately, the aftertreatment could be applied by a spraying operation. Desirably, the after-treatment solution may contain a soil release agent and/or water repellant, which would interfere with the subsequent application of a back coating. After application of the after-treatment, the pile fabric is directed through an oven for final curing, and onto a suitable take-up apparatus.

The after-treatment solution preferably comprises a non-pigmented or clear resin which is compatible with the resin applied previously to the yarns in the initial resin application bath. Thus, for example, the aftertreatment solution may comprise a non-pigmented acrylic resin solution of the following formulation:

Percent by weight of the aqueous bath CD 6004 acrylic resin (identified above) 30.0

A 187 Silane coupling agent (identified above) .5 PC 220 soil release agent (nonionic emulsion of fluorochemical resinMinnesota Mining & Manufacturing) 3.0

Acetic Acid for pH control 2.0

Typically, the resin solids add-on to the fabric will be about of its weight.

As illustrated in FIG. 2, the glass pile fabric of the present invention may be fabricated by an alternate procedure wherein the producer sized glass yarns are initially tufted by inserting loops of the sized yarns through an all glass backing fabric in the conventional manner. The resulting product may then be back coated with a latex adhesive as described above, and then finished by dyeing or printing the fabric with a pigmented resin solution. Alternately, the finish could be applied prior to the back coating in which case the back coating would not be colored.

Referring specifically to the carpet shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 as produced by the method of the present invention, it will be observed that the pile loops 12 are relatively dense such that each loop receives lateral support from the adjacent loops to thereby minimize relative movement between the loops when the pile fabric is subjected to use. In general, it has been found that the pile surface should have a density of between about 60 and 80 loops per square inch of backing material when a conventional glass loop yarn is employed. As a specific example of such a conventional yarn, it has been found that a 150/4/0 Taslan bulked, B filament yarn strand may be finished according to the above process, and then two plied and three cable twisted. Under standard nomenclature, this is designated as 150/4/2/3 yarn. As seen in FIG. 4, the latex adhesive 16 preferably surrounds the lower end of the loop yarns 12 to firmly anchor the same to the backing 14.

As noted above, the backing material 14 is typically woven and may for example comprise a bulked glass yarn, such as 150/2/2 Taslan bulked yarn comprising DE filaments in the filling with 28 picks per inch, and nonbulked glass yarn, such as 150/ l/O DE filament yarn, in the warp with 42 ends per inch.

As will be readily understood, pile fabric 10 is flame retardant in that it consists essentially of all glass materials. In addition, the glass fabric backing 14 provides substantial dimensional stability and strength without the need for employing a secondary backing of the type commonly used in the carpet industry. Further, when very fine glass filaments are employed, the pile surface is soft and smooth to the touch, and is non-irritating even after prolonged contact with the skin. The pile fabric possesses substantial color fastness, and the color will not be removed when subjected to extended scrubbing with soapy Water. In the case of carpets, the abrasion resistance and wear characteristics of a carpet made accordance to the present invention were found to be superior to most carpets made from non-glass materials such as wool and many of the synthetics.

While the present invention has been described primarily as a carpet, it will be understood that the pile fabric of this invention may be used in many other applications where exceptional performance properties are required, such as in upholstery fabrics. Also, while the pile fabric of the present invention has been described as being manufactured by a tufting operation, it will be understood that a suitable pile fabric could be woven, such as for example on an Axminster or Wilton loom.

In the drawings and specification, there has been set forth a preferred embodiment of the invention, and although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation.

That which is claimed is:

1. A pile fabric suitable for use as carpeting and the like and characterized as being flame retardant and having substantial dimensional stability and strength, and comprising:

a backing material consisting of glass filaments and possessing substantial dimensional stability and strength, and

a plurality of piles anchored to said backing material to form a pile surface, said piles consisting of glass yarn having a finish adhered to the surface thereof.

2. The pile fabric as defined in claim 1 wherein said backing material comprises interwoven yarns.

3. The pile fabric as defined in claim 2 wherein said glass yarns of said piles are bulked to provide improved pile density, and wherein said piles penetrate the interstices of the woven backing material to anchor the same therein.

4. The pile fabric as defined in claim 3 wherein said finish comprises a resin bonded pigment, and wherein said yarns comprise plied and cable twisted strands.

5. A pile fabric characterized as being flame retardant, non-irritating to skin contact, and having substantial dimensional stability and strength, and comprising:

a backing material comprising glass filaments and possessing substantial dimensional stability and strength, and

a plurality of piles anchored to said backing material to form a pile surface, said piles comprising glass yarns comprising filaments having an average diameter not greater than about .00025 inch to impart non-irritating characteristics to the pile surface and having a finish adhered to the surface thereof.

6. The piloe fabric as defined in claim 5 wherein said glass yarns are bulked to provide improved pile density.

7. The pile fabric as defined in claim 6 wherein producer size is interposed between the surface of said glass yarns and said finish.

8. A pile fabric suitable for use as carpeting and characterized as being flame retardant, non-irritating to skin contact, and having substantial dimensional stability and strength, and comprising:

a backing fabric comprising interlaced bulked glass yarns and possessing substantial dimensional stability and strength,

a plurality of pile loops penetrating said backing material and secured thereto to form a pile surface, said loops consisting of bulked glass yarns comprising filaments having an average diameter not greater than about .00025 inch to impart non-irritating characteristics to the pile surface and having a resin bonded pigment finish adhered to the surface thereof.

The pile fabric as defined in claim 8 wherein said pile surface has a pile density of between about 60 and loops per square inch of said backing material whereby each loop receives lateral support from the adjacent loops to thereby minimize relative movement between the loops when the pile fabric is subjected to use.

10. The pile fabric as defined in claim 3- wherein said filaments are continuous and have an average diameter between about .00015 inch and about .00021 inch.

11. A tufted pile fabric suitable for use as carpeting and characterized as being flame retardant, non-irritating to skin contact, and having substantial dimensional stability and strength, and comprising:

a backing fabric consisting of interwoven glass yarns and possessing substantial dimensional stability and strength,

a plurality of pile loops penetrating said backing material to form a pile surface, said loops consisting of bulked glass yarns consisting of filaments having an average diameter not greater than about .00025 inch to impart non-irritating characteristics to the pile surface,

a producer size carried on the surface of said bulked glass loop yarns,

a finish adhered to the surface of said bulked glass loop yarns and overlying said producer size, and

an adhesive on said backing material for anchoring said pile loops thereto.

12. The tufted pile fabric as defined in claim 11 wherein said finish includes a first layer comprising a resin bonded pigment and a second layer comprising a non-pigmented resin overlying said first layer.

13. A method for producing a glass pile fabric which is suitable for use as carpeting and the like and characterized as being flame retardant and having substantial dimensional stability and strength, comprising the steps of:

forming a plurality of piles consisting of glass yarn and anchoring the same to a backing material consisting of glass filaments, and

applying a finish to the surface of the glass yarn.

14. The method as defined in claim 13 wherein the step of forming a plurality of piles includes forming loops of said glass yarn, and the step of anchoring the same to a backing material includes inserting the loops of yarn through the backing material.

15. The method as defined in claim 14 wherein the step of applying a finish to the surface of the glass yarn includes applying a pigmented resin to the surface of the glass yarn prior to anchoring the same to the backing material.

16. The method as defined in claim 14 wherein the step of applying a finish to the surface of the glass yarn includes applying a resin to the surface of the glass yarn subsequent to anchoring the same to the backing material.

17. The method as defined in claim 14 wherein the step of applying a finish to the surface of the glass yarn includes applying a pigmented resin to the surface of the glass yarn prior to anchoring the same to the backing material, applying a non-pigmented resin to the surface of the glass yarn subsequent to anchoring the same to the backing, and curing both the pigmented resin and the non-pigmented resin.

18. A method for producing a glass pile fabric which is suitable for use as carpeting and the like and characterized as being flame retardant, non-irriating to skin contact, and having substantial dimensional stability and strength, comprising the steps of:

applying a finish including a resin to a bulked glass yarn consisting of filaments having an average diameter not greater than about .00025 inch to impart nonirritating characteristics to the yarn,

at least partially curing the resin to adhere the same to the glass yarn, and

forming a pile fabric by forming loops of the finished yarn and joining the same to a backing fabric comprising interlaced glass yarns and possessing substantial dimensional stability and strength. 19. A method as defined in claim 7 wherein the step of forming a pile fabric includes forming between about and loops per square inch such that each loop receives lateral support from the adjacent loops to thereby minimize relative movement between the loops when the pile fabric is subjected to use, and further comprising the subsequent step of applying an adhesive to the backing fabric to anchor the loops to the backing fabric.

20. A method as defined in claim 19 comprising the further subsequent steps of applying a resin to the loops of the pile fabric, and then curing such resin.

21. A method for producing a glass tufted pile fabric which is suitable for use as carpeting and the like and characterized as being flame-retardant, non-irritating to skin contact, and having substantial dimensional stability and strength, comprising the steps of applying a finish including a pigmented acrylic resin to a producer-sized bulked glass yarn consisting of filaments having an average diameter not greater than about .00025 inch to impart non-irritating characteristics to the yarn, subjecting the yarn to heat to at least partially cure the resin and adhere the pigment to the glass yarn,

forming a pile fabric by inserting loops of the finished yarn through a backing fabric comprising interwoven bulked glass yarns and possessing substantial dimensional stability and strength,

applying an afterfinish including a non-pigmented acrylic resin to the loops of the pile fabric, and then pigmented resin and any non-fully cured pigmented resin.

22. The method as defined in claim 21 comprising the further steps of applying an adhesive solution to the backing fabric on the side opposite the loops to anchor the loops to the backing fabric, and drying the adhesive solution.

23. The method as defined in claim 21 wherein the afterfinish further includes a soil release agent, and further comprising the steps of applying an adhesive solution to the backing fabric on the side opposite the loops to anchor the loops to the backing fabric, and drying the adhesive solution, the adhesive application and drying being carried out prior to the application of the afterfinish.

24. The method as defined in claim 21 comprising the further step of plying and cable twisting the finished yarn prior to inserting loops of the same through the backing fabric.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,348,992 10/1967 Cochran 161-67 3,433,666 3/1969 Moyse et a1. 161-66 UX WILLIAM J. VAN BALEN, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

156-72, 148; 161-403, DIG. 4

Patent No.

Dated October 9, 1973 Inventor s) John L. Nisbet and Hubert C. Wooda11, Jr.

(SEAL) Attest f EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. Attesting Officer It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

In Column 2, line 12, "ad" should be -and--;

In Column 3, line 49, "propereies" should be "properties";

In Column 6, line 50, "piloe" should be --pile-;

In Column 8, line 36, before "pigmented" begin sub-paragraph and insert --subjecting the pile fabric to heat to fully cure the non- At Column 8, line so, add the following under "References Cited":

5/1950 Blumfield I 12/1962 Caroselli et a1 4/1967 Vescia et a1 5/1967 Nicholas et a1 Other References Modern Textile Magazine, "Glass .Fibers New Industrial Applications", June 1967, pages 57-60 Signed and sealed this 19th day of March 1974.

c. MARSHALL DANN Commissioner of Patents FORM PO-105O (10-69) USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 0 0.. GOVIINIIN'I' PRINTING onlcl ll! n-an-su

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3919444 *Apr 29, 1974Nov 11, 1975Harry I ShaymanAcoustical fire-retardant wall and ceiling tile
US4078110 *Apr 28, 1976Mar 7, 1978NasaFlexible pile thermal barrier insulator
US5433997 *Jul 16, 1993Jul 18, 1995Land; Frank J.Textured glass yarn fabric for use in wallcoverings, acoustical panels and ceiling tiles
US5545441 *Jul 14, 1995Aug 13, 1996Land; Frank J.Method of making a textured glass yarn fabric for use in wallcoverings acoustical panels and ceiling tiles
US5868844 *Jul 19, 1996Feb 9, 1999Ykk CorporationSelf-adhesive part of hook and loop fastener and an apparatus for forming the same
US6832419 *Jul 3, 2003Dec 21, 2004Milliken & CompanyMethod of making pile fabric
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/94, 156/148, 156/72, 428/921, 28/159, 427/389.8
International ClassificationD03D27/00, D05C17/02, C03C25/70, D04B1/14
Cooperative ClassificationD10B2503/04, D05C17/02, D03D27/00, D03D2700/60, Y10S428/921, D10B2101/06, D10B2505/08, C03C25/70
European ClassificationD03D27/00, C03C25/70, D05C17/02, D04B1/14