US 3765349 A
An apparatus cuts pattern pieces from a layup of sheet material and temporarily joins the pattern pieces of similar shape in bundles for convenient handling or storage. The apparatus employs a cutting blade which is mounted on a two axis carriage mechanism and translated through a layup of sheet material spread on a support table having a penetrable bed so that a stack of pattern pieces having the same shape are cut from the layup. The two axis carriage mechanism is numerically controlled so that the blade follows a programmed cutting path which defines the periphery of the pattern pieces to be cut from the sheet material. A binding mechanism which inserts a binding material through the sheet material to hold the stacked pattern pieces in a bundle is also mounted to the two axis carriage mechanism to move the binding mechanism over the layup between spaced stations within the periphery of the cutting path where the binding material is to be inserted. The binding mechanism may take the form of a stitching mechanism having a needle which generates non-locking stitches in the pattern pieces by reciprocating through the layup of sheet material and into the penetrable bed at spaced stations. In another form, the binding mechanism may include a stapler which projects staples through the layup of sheet material and partly into the penetrable bed at the spaced stations. Both the stitching and stapling operations can be performed before or after the pattern pieces are cut from the layup sheet material and, after either operation, the pattern pieces may be striped or removed singly from the temporary bundle or the entire bundle may be broken apart by removing the binding material.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 [191 Gerber APPARATUS FOR FORMING BUNDLES OF SHEET MATERIAL Heinz Joseph Gerber, West Hartford, Conn.
 Assignee: Gerber Garment Technology, East Hartford, Conn.
May 6, 1971 21 Appl. No.: 140,798
ll2/l2l.l4, 80, 128, 122, 129, 131; 83/374, 422, 201.03, 925 CC; 227/64  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,548,502 12/1970 Baldwin 83/925 CC 3,450,076 6/1969 Bender ll2/12l.12X 139,350 5/1973 Allen 112/128 2,443,369 6/1948 Alifano et al.... 112/128 868,521 10/1907 Baird 112/80 1,958,556 5/1934 White 112/80 3,240,176 3/1966 Morrison 112/80 X 3,495,492 2/1970 Gerber et a1 83/374 3,548,697 12/1970 Gerber et al 83/422 X 3,572,202 3/1971 Gerber et a1 83/422 X FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 608,809 2/1935 Germany 112/l2l.25
Primary ExaminerJames R. Boler AttorneyMcCormick, Paulding & Huber [4 1 UCIL16, 1973 [5 7] ABSTRACT An apparatus cuts pattern pieces from a layup of sheet material and temporarily joins the pattern pieces of similar shape in bundles for convenient handling or storage. The apparatus employs a cutting blade which is mounted on a two axis carriage mechanism and translated through a layup of sheet material spread on a support table having a penetrable bed so that a stack of pattern pieces having the same shape are cut from the layup. The two axis carriage mechanism is numerically controlled so that the blade follows a programmed cutting path which defines the periphery of the pattern pieces to be cut from the sheet material. A binding mechanism which inserts a binding material through the sheet material to hold the stacked pattern pieces in a bundle is also mounted to the two axis carriage mechanism to move the binding mechanism over the layup between spaced stations within the periphery of the cutting path where the binding material is to be inserted. The binding mechanism may take the form of a stitching mechanism having a needle which generates non-locking stitches in the pattern pieces by reciprocating through the layup of sheet material and into the penetrable bed at spaced stations. In another form, the binding mechanism may include a stapler which projects staples through the layup of sheet material and partly into the penetrable bed at the spaced stations. Both the stitching and stapling operations can be performed before or after the pattern pieces are cut from the layup sheet material and, after either operation, the pattern pieces may be striped or removed singly from the temporary bundle or the entire bundle may be broken apart by removing the binding material.
7 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures WJFNTEU 0B1 16 I973 saw 101 2 INVENTOR HE/NZ JOSEPH GERBER ATTORNEYS APPARATUS FOR FORMING BUNDLES OF SHEET MATERIAL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to apparatus for automatically cutting pattern pieces from a multi-ply layup and bundling the pattern pieces to facilitate handling after the cutting operation.
In the mass production of garments, upholstery and similar items, pattern pieces are generally cut from a fabric layup formed by multiple plies of sheet material stacked one upon the other. A cutting instrument is guided through the layup along a cutting path so that a stack of pattern pieces having the same size and shape is prepared by a single traversal of the cutting path. Cutting blades on numerically controlled tables are guided along the peripheries of the pattern pieces by programmed memory tapes. Patterns of different shapes are generally laid out over the entire surface of the layup in order to utilize as much of the material in the layup as possible.
After the pattern pieces are cut from a layup, it is customary to bundle the stacks of pieces of the same shape to facilitate handling and storage of the pieces before they are assembled in a finished product. The bundling of similarly shaped pattern pieces in the past has usually been a manual operation and consisted of tying strings around'the stacks in the most convenient manner possible and with a minimum of care since the bundling is only a temporary or interim arrangement. The manual operation of bundling the pattern pieces is undesirable from several standpoints. First of all, it requires the time of one or more people who could be more profitably utilized in other cutting or assembling operations. Additionally, the manually tied strings do not hold the pattern pieces in precise vertical alignment, but instead allow the bundles to deform shearwise. Realignment of such bundles is difficult and delays subsequent automatic operations such as labelling or sewing in which the pieces are vertically aligned for loading into machine fixtures. Furthermore, since the bundling operation is accomplished after the pieces are cut and usually before the stacks are moved, cutting tables on which the layups are spread remain occupied during the period of time required for the manual operation. Subsequent operations cannot be begun until all of the bundles from a prior layup have been removed. Obstructing a cutting table, particularly the type employing a numerically controlled cutting head, is undesirable since it temporarily impairs its utility.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an efficient automatic means for binding pattern pieces in individual vertically aligned bundles to facilitate handling of the pattern pieces after they have been cut from a layup.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention resides in an apparatus for joining sheet materials which are stacked one upon the other in a bundle for temporary handling and storage. The apparatus employs support means defining a work surface for supporting the layup of sheet material in a spread condition. Carriage means are translatable relative to the support means in a direction parallel to the work surface and binding means are mounted on the carriage means and overlie the work surface of the support means. The binding means inserts a binding material through the sheet material of a layup on the work surface at spaced stations on the layup as the carriage means is translated relative to the support means. In a preferred form of the invention, the support means includes atable having a penetrable bed and the binding means includes a means for penetrating the binding material through the sheets of the layup into the penetrable bed. The binding means in one embodiment may be a stitching mechanism having a reciprocating needle which inserts one or more loops of thread through the sheet material into the penetrable bed to form nonlocking stitches which hold the sheet material in a loosely stacked bundle. In another form the binding means may insert staples or pins through the sheet material and partially into the penetrable bed. It is also contemplated that the means for cutting pattern pieces from the layup be mounted on the movable carriage means so that the binding means and cutting means share the same carriage means and support means. With the binding means and the cutting means utilizing the same support means, the sequence of the cutting and binding operations can be varied as desired.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a cutting and bundling apparatus embodying the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary elevation view of a stitching mechanism which can be employed as the binding mechanism in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a lateral view of the stitching mechanism in FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is an enlarged sectional view of the stitching apparatus and penetrable supporting bed as seen in FIG. 2.
FIG. 5 is a detailed view of the stitching needle in FIG. 4.
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a stack of pattern pieces joined together by the stitching mechanism of FIGS. 2-3.
FIG. 7 is a side elevation view of a stapling mechanism which can be employed as the binding mechanism in FIG. 1.
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary perspective view of a stack of pattern pieces joined; together by the stapling mechanism of FIG. 7.
FIG. 9'is a view of a pin which can be used to bind the pattern pieces together.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS FIG. 1 shows a numerically controlled cutting and bundling apparatus embodying the present invention. It should be understood that while the bundling apparatus of the invention can exist apart from the cutting apparatus, the two apparatuses are normally employed together and, in combination, can be advantageously constructed with common parts. Accordingly the invention is described hereinafter in a preferred embodiment wherein the cutting and binding mechanisms are suspended together from a common carriage over a common support table on which a layup of sheet material is spread.
In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the apparatus for joining sheet material of a layup in bundles is composed of a support table, generally designated 10, a two axis carriage mechanism composed of an X carriage 12 which moves in the illustrated X direction over the support table and a Y carriage 14 suspended from the X carriage and translatable on the X carriage in the illustrated Y direction relative to the table 10, and a binding mechanism or hinder 16 which is supported from the Y carriage 14. The binding mechanism is translated over a layup 18 of fabric material spread on the table 10 and joins the sheets of material in loosely assembled bundles as described in greater detail below.
The support table 10 in its preferred form is composed of a table frame 20 resting on legs 22, 22 and has a penetrable support bed 24 defining a work surface 26 on which multiple plies of sheet material are spread to form the layup 18. The frame 20 may be provided with vacuum compartments below the support bed 24 to hold the layup 18 against the work surface 26 during the cutting and bundling operation. A vacuum holddown table of this type is disclosed more fully in U. S. Pat. No. 3,495,492 entitled Apparatus For Working On Sheet Material issued Feb. 17, 1970, to the assignee of the present invention. Reference may be had to the patent for a more detailed description of the table and the manner in which the table holds the layup of sheet material in a fixed position. The penetrable bed 24 is constructed of materials which are easily penetrated by a cutting tool that cuts pattern pieces from the layup 18. Materials which are suitable for this purpose may include mats having bristles of sufficient rigidity to define a work surface for supporting the sheet material, or a synthetic foam material such as Ethafoam manufactured by the Dow Chemical Company.
A pair of guide rails 30, 32 are supported at opposite sides of the table 10 by means of brackets 34, 34 and extend along the table in the X direction. The rails 30, 32 form supports for the X carriage 12 and have gear teeth engaged by pinions (not shown) within the carriage 12 and driven by the X axis drive motor 36 and shaft 38 to cause the carriage to move back and forth over the work surface 26. The displacements of the carriage 12 produced by the motor 36 are controlled by a numerical control computer 40 and are programmed on a memory tape 42. Displacement commands are read from the memory tape 42 and transmitted to the drive motor 36 from the computer 40 through a command cable 44.
The Y carriage 14 is translated in the Y direction relative to the X carriage 12 and the work surface 26 by means of a Y axis drive motor 50 and a lead screw 52 which is engaged by the carriage 14. The Y axis drive motor 50 receives commands from the memory tape and the computer 40 through the cable 44 in the same manner as the X drive motor 36 so that the two drive motors 36 and 50 together cause the Y carriage 14 to be moved in either the X or Y direction or to execute composite motions in both the X and Y directions. The binding mechanism 16 suspended from the Y carriage 14 can therefore be translated in both X and Y directions over the bed 24 and the layup 18.
In a preferred form of the invention, the Y carriage 14 extends across the X carriage 12 and is shared by both the binding mechanism 16 suspended from the one end and a cutter 60 suspended from the other end. Of course, separate X and Y carriages could be provided for the cutter 60 and the binding mechanism 16 or separate Y carriages could be mounted on the X carriage 12. In conventional form, the cutter 60 includes a reciprocating knife blade 62, a presser foot 64 and drive motors for reciprocating the blade along and rotating the blade about the 6 axis. The 0 axis extends perpendicularly to the work surface 26 of the table 10 and, therefore, is orthogonal to the X and Y axes. The translatory motions of the knife blade 62 provided by the carriages 12 and 14 and the rotational motion of the knife about the 0 axis are controlled by the computer 40 and cause the knife to be translated through the layup of fabric 10 tangent to a cutting path C at the periphery of pattern pieces a,b,c to cut a plurality of stacks of similarly shaped pattern pieces from the layup 18. The penetrable support bed 24 assists the knife blade 62 in the cutting operation by permitting the blade 62 to reciprocate through the layup 18 and partially into the penetrable bed without destroying or injuring the blade. For a more complete description of the cutting operation, reference may be had to U. S. Pat. No. 3,548,697 entitled Apparatus For Cutting Sheet Material issued Dec. 22, 1970 to the assignee of the present invention.
In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the binding mechanism 16 is translated over the layup 18 on the table 10 and joins the sheet material together to form bundles which can be conveniently handled or stored. While various means can be provided for bundling the pattern pieces, one form of the mechanism 16 which is particularly suitable for co-operation with the cutter 60 is a stitching mechanism shown in FIGS. 2-5.
The stitching mechanism 70 is provided with a stitching needle 72 and a thread supply spool 74 from which a thread T is fed to the needle 72. The needle 72 is suspended from the Y carriage 14 and is reciprocated in the direction perpendicular to surface 26 of the bed 24 by means of a stitching motor 76 attached to the carriage 14 and drive chuck 78 actuated by the motor. The needle 72, motor 76 and chuck 78 are mounted to the carriage 14 by means of an adjustable platform (not shown) so that the entire stitching mechanism can be raised or lowered relative to the bed 24. The motor 76 is turned on and off by the computer 40 and causes the chuck 78 and the needle 72 to reciprocate between upper and lower positions shown in FIG. 2, the upper position of the chuck being indicated in phantom. At the lower position the needle 72 penetrates through the bottom ply of the layup 18 into the penetrable bed 24. A presser foot 79 mounted to the motor 76 prevents the sheet material from being lifted with the needle.
As seen in FIG. 4, the needle has a cylindrical mounting portion 80 which is received in a bore 82 of the chuck 78 and held in place in the bore by means of a set screw 84. At the lower position, the needle 72 penetrates through the bottom ply of the layup 18 into the penetrable bed 24. The needle 72 is hollow and defines a longitudinal passageway along substantially its entire length between the cylindrical portion 80 and its pointed, depending end 90. At the end 90, the longitudinal passageway 88 connects with a radial passageway 92. The thread T is fed from the spool 74 (FIGS. 2 and 3) through an eyelet 94 on the motor 76 and an eyelet 96 on the chuck 78 into the cylindrical portion 80 of the needle 72. The thread T extends downwardly through the longitudinal passageway 88 of the needle 72 and leaves the needle through the radial passageway 92 as best seen in FIG. 5. The wall defining the radial passageway 92 is preferably smooth and provided with a small curvature to eliminate sharp edges that might sever the thread T.
The stitching operation by which the pattern pieces are bundled is performed either before or after the cutting operation by translating the stitching motor 76 and the suspended needle 72 over the layup 18 on the carriages 12 and 14. Preferably, the stitching operation precedes the cutting operation, especially with small or intricate pieces, so that the sheet material in the layup has no opportunity to slip or shift after the cutting operation has begun. The stitching operation in its most common form differs from the cutting operation in that the cutting blade 62 moves continuously through the layup 18 while the translational motions of the needle 72 along the stitch path P (FIG. 1) within the periphery of the pattern piece are normally discontinuous or interrupted so that the needle 72 is actually indexed between spaced stitch points on the layup 18. The computer program which defines the cutting path C may also be used to define the stitch path P which is located at a fixed offset from the cutting path C, for example, no more than one-quarter or one-half inch so that the stitch holes do not show in the finished garment. It should be noted here that the utilization of common carriages, support table and controls for the cutter and the stitching mechanism permits the spacial relationship between the cutting path C and the stitch path P to be more precisely maintained. The generation of the stitching path within the cutting path C requires that the offset between the two paths be introduced as a compensating factor in the same manner that the radius of a rotary cutting tool is compensated for in a numerically controlled milling machine. A further compensation in the X axis controls must be madefor the mounting of the cutter 60 and stitching mechanism 70 on opposite sides of the X carriage 12. Both of the compensations may be performed within the computer 40 itself so that the same memory tape can be used for both the cutting and binding operations. Alternatively, to simplify the computer circuitry, the compensation can be accounted for in the programming of separate memory tapes for the two operations. Of course, other stitching paths such as straight line or zig-zag paths through each of the stacks can be utilized, especially with smaller pattern pieces. The stitching mechanism 70 may be moved continuously between different stacks without stopping the stitching operation and interconnecting strands can be cut as the bundles are removed from the table 10.
In a typical stitching operation, the stitching mechanism 70 is first translated over the layup 18 by means of the carriages 12 and 14. The carriage motions are stopped and at the same time the stitching motor 76 is energized, or a clutch within the housing of the motor 76 is energized by a computer commandto cause the chuck 78 and needle 72 to reciprocate down and up one time in a single stitching cycle. As the chuck 78 moves downwardly, the needle 72 passes through an aperture 98 (FIG. 4) in the presser foot 79, plunges through the layup l8 and partially penetrates the bed 24. At the same time, the thread T, which is assumed to have one end already anchored in the layup 18, is pulled from the spool 74 through the hollow needle 72 and out through the radial passageway 92 due to greater frictional forces between the thread and the layup material than between the thread and the needle 72. A resilient contact arm 99 mounted on the motor 76 and resting in frictional contact against the spool 74 prevents the spool 74 from continuing to rotate and unravelling an excessive quantity of thread T as the needle penetrates the layup 18.
The needle is shown at its lowest position in FIG. 4 with the passageway 92 slightly below the work surface 26 of the penetrable bed 24. As the needle reverses its direction of motion to begin the upward stroke of the cycle, friction between the penetrable bed 24 and the layup 18 causes the thread T to remain imbedded in the layup and the bed so that a thread loop remains inserted throughthe layup after the needle 72 is completely withdrawn from the layup.
It may be desirable with certain fabrics, or with solid needles having an eye at the pointed end for lacing the thread, to coat the outer surface of the needle with a silicon compound to reduce the coefficient of friction between the thread T and the needle and to insure that the thread loop remains inserted through the layup as the needle is withdrawn. When the needle completes its upward stroke, the stitching motor 76 is shut off, or a clutch is disengaged, and the carriages 12 and 14 are translated over the table 20 until the needle 72 has been indexed to the next stitching position. Although the elevation of the presser foot 79 may be adjusted relative to the motor 76 and the elevation of the motor 76 may be changed to vary the depth of penetration in the bed 24 and the length of the loop exposed at the one side of the stack, the stroke of the needle need not be varied for layups of different thickness since the thread tension, which remains substantially constant, automatically varies the demand for thread as a function of the layup thickness and the length of the displacement between stitch points. Compression of the stacks, therefore, does not vary greatly.
The stitching operation is basically the same as that performed by a conventional sewing machine except that the loops of thread inserted through the layup 18 are non-locking, that is, at the upper surface of the layup as seen in FIG. 4, the loops are interconnected by a short segment of thread; however, at the lower side of the layup 18 the loops simply project through the material without being locked together by either another thread or by interlacing consecutively formed loops. This form of stitching has the advantage that when a complete stack of pattern pieces has been cut from the layup 18 and bound together by the nonlocking stitches, the stitching provides only a temporary connection and the pattern pieces of any one bundle are held together by the friction between the thread and the pieces.
FIG. 6 discloses a bundle of stacked pattern pieces which have been removed from the layup 18 after the cutting and stitching operation and turned upsidedown so that the loops of thread T are exposed. In
this position, pattern pieces can be removed from the bundle 100 singly as indicated by the piece 102 which is peeled away from the rest of the bundle. As single pieces are removed from the bundle for assembling with other pattern pieces, the loops of the thread T remain engaged with the rest of the pattern pieces and retain the integrity of the bundle for handling and storage. If it is desired to separate all of the pieces at one time, the thread T itself can be pulled entirely out of the bundle to remove each of the loops. The stitching mechanism 70, therefore, provides a versatile binding means for holding the pattern pieces together during handling and storage and allows the pattern pieces to be separated from the bundle either individually or collectively as desired.
Another means for binding the stacks of pattern pieces is shown in FIG. 7. In this embodiment of the invention, a stapling mechanism 1 is mounted from the Y carriage 14 and indexed, before or after a cutting operation, between spaced stapling positions within the periphery of the pattern pieces in the same manner as the stitching mechanism 70 is indexed between stitching positions. The mechanism 110 as shown in FIG. 7 is a commercial-type, motor-driven stapler which forms and severs a staple from a spool of wire and inserts the staple in an object in a sequence of operations. The stapler includes a drive motor 112, a wire feed spool from which a strand of wire W is fed, a staple forming die cutter 116 and an injector 118. Stapling mechanisms of this type are well known in the packaging art. In operation, the motor 112 drives the die cutter 116 and the injector 118 so that a segment of wire is cut from the spool 114, formed in a U-shape and then inserted through the layup 18 of sheet material and partially into the penetrable bed 24 as a staple S by the injector 118. The ends of the staple S which project through the layup into the penetrable bed 24 are not bent over in conventional fashion and thusly a stack of pattern pieces cut from the layup l8 and stapled by the mechanism 110 can be removed from the bed 24 in a bundle 120 such as shown in FIG. 8. Again, individual plies of sheet material can be removed from the side of the bundle through which the staples project; however, since the staples can cause damage to finer fabrics, it is preferable that the stapling mechanism 110 be utilized only with materials which have a loose or open weave. The pieces in the bundle 120 can also be collectively disassembled by removing all of the staples.
Alternatively, the stapling mechanism 110 may insert metallic or plastic pins through the layup and into the penetrable bed in place of the staples. FIG. 9 shows a self-anchoring pin 130 suitable for this purpose. The head 132 of the pin is a ring and the shaft of the pin may be split so that the barbs 134 on the inserted end of the pin spread as they emerge from the bottom of a layup to firmly anchor the pin in the bundle. The heads of several such pins can be used to lift the bundles by hand or with other machinery and to locate the bundles accurately in fixtures for subsequent automatic operations such as labelling or sewing. The heads may take other shapes and be formed of a magnetically permeable material so that a magnetic platen can be used to pick up the bundles. The shafts of the pins may be notched or weakened adjacent the heads so that the heads can be manually broken or twisted off to allow single pattern pieces to be separated from the top of the bundle or to facilitate removal of all pins and dismemberment of the bundle.
While the present invention has been described in several embodiments, it should be understood that still further substitutions and modifications can be had without departing from the spirit of the invention. For example, although the binding process has been described in a preferred form as having intermittent motions between spaced stations on the layup 18, it is possible that the motions could be made continuous provided that the layup 18 has only a few plies of sheet material and that both the sheet material and the penetrable bed yield to the incremental motions of the stitching or stapling mechanism which occur while a binding material is being inserted. Accordingly. the present invention has been described by way of illustration rather than limitation.
1. Apparatus for cutting and bundling a plurality of pattern pieces from a layup of sheet material comprising: support means defining a support surface for bolding the layup of sheet material in a spread condition; cutting means for cutting stacks of pattern pieces from a layup of sheet material spread on the support surface; a binder for projecting binding material through said layup; carriage means connected to said cutting means, said binder and said support means for translating said cutting means and said binder relative to said support means and layups of sheet material spread on the support surface; motor means connected to said support means and said carriage means for controlling the translation of said cutting means and said binder relative to said support means; and means for automatically controlling said motor means to cause said cutting means during one period of time to cut stacks of pattern pieces from a layup of sheet material spread on the support surface and to cause said binder during a different period of time to project binding material at a plurality of spaced points through such layup within the bounds of each of said stacks to bind together the layers thereof.
2. Apparatus for joining sheet material as defined in claim 1 wherein said binder comprises stapling means for inserting staples through the sheet material of the layup and partially into said penetrable support means.
3. Apparatus for cutting and bundling as defined in claim 1 wherein: said support means comprises a table having a penetrable bed defining the support surface; said cutting means includes a blade having a cutting edge and means for placing the edge of the blade in motion through a layup of sheet material at the periphery of the pattern pieces and through the support surface defined by the penetrable bed; and said binder also includes means for projecting a binding material through the layup of sheet material into the penetrable bed within the periphery of the pattern pieces.
4. Apparatus for cutting and bundling as defined in claim 3 wherein said binder comprises stapling means for driving staples through the layup of sheet material within the periphery of the pattern pieces and into the penetrable bed.
5. Apparatus for cutting and bundling as defined in claim 3 wherein said binder comprises stitching means for inserting a loop of thread through the layup of sheet material within the periphery of the pattern pieces and into the penetrable bed.
6. Apparatus for cutting and bundling as defined in claim 1 wherein said carriage means includes a first carriage movable in a first coordinate direction over the support surface of said support means and a second carriage mounted on the first carriage and movable on the first carriage in a second coordinate direction parallel to the support surface and perpendicular to the first coordinate direction; and wherein said cutting means and said binder are mounted to the second carriage for movement with the first carriage in the first coordinate direction and movement with the second carriage relative to the first carriage in a second coordinate direction over the support surface of said support means.
7. Apparatus for joining sheet material as defined in claim 1 wherein the binder projects a pin through the layup of sheet material to the penetrable work surface. l